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  1. Hypothesis testing in experimental and naturalistic memory research.Daniel B. Wright - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):210-211.
    Koriat & Goldsmith's distinction between the correspondence and storehouse metaphors is valuable for both memory theory and methodology. It is questionable, however, whether this distinction underlies the heated debate about so called “everyday memory” research. The distinction between experimental and naturalistic methodologies better characterizes this debate. I compare these distinctions and discuss how the methodological distinction, between experimental and naturalistic designs, could give rise to different theoretical approaches.
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  • Behavioral effects of neural grafts: Action still in search of a mechanism.Michael L. Woodruff - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):75-76.
    This commentary reviews data supporting circuitry reconstruction, replacement neurotransmitters, and trophic action as mechanisms whereby transplants promote recovery of function. Issue is taken with the thesis of Sinden et al. that adequate data exist to indicate that reconstruction of hippocampal circuitry damaged by hypoxia with CA1 transplants is a confirmed mechanism whereby these transplants produce recovery. Sinden et al.'s and Stein & Glasier's proposal that there is definitive evidence showing that all transplants produce trophic effects is also questioned.
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  • Contexts and functions of retrieval.Eugene Winograd - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):209-210.
    Koriat & Goldsmith provide an excellent analysis of the flexibility of retrieval processes and how they are situationally dependent. I agree with their emphasis on functional considerations and argue that the traditional laboratory experiment motivates the subject to be accurate. However, I disagree with their strong claim that the quantity–accuracy distinction implies an essential discontinuity between traditional and naturalistic approaches to the study of memory.
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  • Direct remembering and the correspondence metaphor.K. Geoffrey White - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):208-209.
    The correspondence view is consistent with a theory of direct remembering that assumes continuity between perception and memory. Two implications of direct remembering for correspondence are suggested. It is assumed that forgetting is exponential, and that remembering at one time is independent of factors influencing remembering at another. Elaboration of the correspondence view in the same terms as perception offers a novel approach to the study of memory.
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  • Will brain tissue grafts become an important therapy to restore visual function in cerebrally blind patients?Reinhard Werth - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):74-74.
    Grafting embryonic brain tissue into the brain of patients with visual field loss due to cerebral lesions may become a method to restore visual function. This method is not without risk, however, and will only be considered in cases of complete blindness after bilateral occipital lesions, when other, risk-free neuropsychological methods fail.
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  • The limits of neuropsychological models of consciousness.Max Velmans - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):702-703.
    This commentary elaborates on Gray's conclusion that his neurophysiological model of consciousness might explain how consciousness arises from the brain, but does not address how consciousness evolved, affects behaviour or confers survival value. The commentary argues that such limitations apply to all neurophysiological or other third-person perspective models. To approach such questions the first-person nature of consciousness needs to be taken seriously in combination with third-person models of the brain.
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  • Marr versus Marr: On the notion of levels.Frank van der Velde, Gezinus Wolters & A. H. C. van der Heijden - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):681-682.
  • Consciousness does not seem to be linked to a single neural mechanism.Carlo Umiltà & Marco Zorzi - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):701-702.
    On the basis of neuropsychological evidence, it is clear that attention should be given a role in any model of consciousness. What is known about the many instances of dissociation between explicit and implicit knowledge after brain damage suggests that conscious experience might not be linked to a restricted area of the brain. Even if it were true that there is a single brain area devoted to consciousness, the subicular area would seem to be an unlikely possibility.
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  • The hippocampus seen in the context of declarative and procedural control.Frederick Toates - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):771-772.
  • On giving a more active and selective role to consciousness.Frederick Toates - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):700-701.
    An active role for conscious processes in the production of behaviour is proposed, involving top level controls in a hierarchy of behavioural control. It is suggested that by inhibiting or sensitizing lower levels in the hierarchy conscious processes can play a role in the organization of ongoing behaviour. Conscious control can be more or less evident, according to prevailing circumstances.
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  • Can we really dissociate the computational and algorithm-level theories of human memory?Guy Tiberghien - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):680-681.
  • Don't leave the “un” off “consciousness”.Neal R. Swerdlow - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):699-700.
    Gray extrapolates from circuit models of psychopathology to propose neural substrates for the contents of consciousness. I raise three concerns: knowledge of synaptic arrangements may be inadequate to fully support his model; latent inhibition deficits in schizophrenia, a focus of this and related models, are complex and deserve replication; and this conjecture omits discussion of the neuropsychological basis for the contents of the unconscious.
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  • Gene therapy and neural grafting: Keeping the message switched on.C. N. Svendsen & S. B. Dunnett - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):73-74.
    A major problem in developing an effective gene therapy for the nervous system lies in understanding the principles that maintain or turn off the expression of genes following their transfer into the CNS.
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  • Pathway rewiring with neural transplantation.Piergiorgio Strata & Ferdinando Rossi - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):73-73.
    A lesion to the brain is not necessary for a successful neural transplantation. Embryonic Purkinje cells placed on the surface of an uninjured adult cerebellum can develop and migrate into the host molecular layer. Both the Purkinje cells that migrated into the host cerebellum and those that remained in the graft were innervated by collateral sprouting of adult intact climbing fibers.
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  • Ultimate differences.G. Lynn Stephens & George Graham - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):698-699.
    Gray unwisely melds together two distinguishable contributions of consciousness: one to epistemology, the other to evolution. He also renders consciousness needlessly invisible behaviorally.
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  • Some practical and theoretical issues concerning fetal brain tissue grafts as therapy for brain dysfunctions.Donald G. Stein & Marylou M. Glasier - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):36-45.
    Grafts of embryonic neural tissue into the brains of adult patients are currently being used to treat Parkinson's disease and are under serious consideration as therapy for a variety of other degenerative and traumatic disorders. This target article evaluates the use of transplants to promote recovery from brain injury and highlights the kinds of questions and problems that must be addressed before this form of therapy is routinely applied. It has been argued that neural transplantation can promote functional recovery through (...)
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  • Neural grafting in human disease versus animal models: Cautionary notes.Kathy Steece-Collier - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):71-72.
    Over the past two decades, research on neural transplantation in animal models of neurodegeneration has provided provocative in sights into the therapeutic use of grafted tissue for various neurological diseases. Although great strides have been made and functional benefits gained in these animal models, much information is still needed with regard to transplantation in human patients. Several factors are unique to human disease, for example, age of the recipient, duration of disease, and drug interaction with grafted cells; these need to (...)
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  • Are fetal brain tissue grafts necessary for the treatment of brain damage?Donald G. Stein & Marylou M. Glasier - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):86-107.
    Despite some clinical promise, using fetal transplants for degenerative and traumatic brain injury remains controversial and a number of issues need further attention. This response reexamines a number of questions. Issues addressed include: temporal factors relating to neural grafting, the role of behavioral experience in graft outcome, and the relationship of rebuilding of neural circuitry to functional recovery. Also discussed are organization and type of transplanted tissue, the of transplant viability, and whether transplants are really needed to obtain functional recovery (...)
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  • Difficulties inherent in the restoration of dynamically reactive brain systems.Brent B. Stanfield - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):71-71.
    The responses displayed by an injured or diseased nervous system are complex. Some of the responses may effect a functional reorganization of the affected neural circuitry. Strategies aimed at the restoration of function, whether or not these involve transplantation, need to recognize the innate reactive capacity of the nervous system to damage. More successful strategies will probably incorporate, rather than ignore, the adaptive responses of the compromised neural systems.
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  • The homunculus at home.J. David Smith - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):697-698.
    In Gray's conjecture, mismatches in the subicular comparator and matches have equal prominence in consciousness. In rival cognitive views novelty and difficulty especially elicit more conscious modes of cognition and higher levels of self-regulation. The mismatch between Gray's conjecture and these views is discussed.
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  • Classical antecedents for modern metaphors for memory.Jocelyn Penny Small - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):208-208.
    Classical antiquity provides not just the storehouse metaphor, which postdates Plato, but also parts of the correspondence metaphor. In the fifth century B.C., Thucydides considered the role of gist and accuracy in writing history, and Aristotle offered an explanation. Finally, the Greek for truth means “that which is not forgotten.”.
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  • Progress within the bounds of memory.Steven A. Sloman - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):679-680.
  • Grafts and the art of mind's reconstruction.John D. Sinden, Helen Hodges & Jeffrey A. Gray - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):79-86.
    The use of neural transplantation to alleviate cognitive deficits is still in its infancy. We have an inadequate understanding of the deficits induced by different types of brain damage and their homologies in animal models against which to assess graft-induced recovery, and of the ways in which graft growth and function are influenced by factors within the host brain and the environment in which the host is operating. Further, use of fetal tissue may only be a transitory phase in the (...)
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  • Studying restoration of brain function with fetal tissue grafts: Optimal models.Rae Silver & Joseph LeSauter - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):70-70.
    We concur that basic research on the use of CNS grafts is needed. Two important model systems for functional studies of grafts are ignored by Stein & Glasier. In the first, reproductive function is restored in hypogonadal mice by transplantation of GnRH-synthesizing neurons. In the second, circadian rhythmicity is restored by transplantation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
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  • Consciousness beyond the comparator.Victor A. Shames & Timothy L. Hubbard - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):697-697.
    Gray's comparator model fails to provide an adequate explanation of consciousness for two reasons. First, it is based on a narrow definition of consciousness that excludes basic phenomenology and active functions of consciousness. Second, match/mismatch decisions can be made without producing an experience of consciousness. The model thus violates the sufficiency criterion.
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  • Gene replacement therapy in the CNS: A view from the retina.Gail M. Seigel - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):69-69.
    Gene replacement therapy holds great promise in the treatment of many genetic CNS disorders. This commentary discusses the feasibility of gene replacement therapy in the unique context of the retina, with regard to: (1) the genetics of retinal neoplasia and degeneration, (2) available gene transfer technology, and (3) potential gene delivery vehicles.
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  • Models of neurological defects and defects in neurological models.Timothy Schallert - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):68-69.
    The transition from research to patient following advances in transplantation research is likely to be disappointing unless it includes a better understanding of critically relevant characteristics of the neurological disorder and improvements in the animal models, particularly the behavioral features. The appropriateness of the model has less to do with the species than with how the species is used.
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  • Communication and consciousness: A neural network conjecture.N. A. Schmajuk & E. Axelrad - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):695-696.
    The communicative aspects of the contents of consciousness are analyzed in the framework of a neural network model of animal communication. We discuss some issues raised by Gray, such as the control of the contents of consciousness, the adaptive value of consciousness, conscious and unconscious behaviors, and the nature of a model's consciousness.
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  • Amnesia and metamemory demonstrate the importance of both metaphors.Bennett L. Schwartz - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):207-207.
    The correspondence metaphor is useful in developing functional models of memory. However, the storehouse metaphor is still useful in developing structural and process models of memory. Traditional research techniques explore the structure of memory; everyday techniques explore the function of memory. We illustrate this point with two examples: amnesia and metamemory. In each phenomenon, both metaphors are useful.
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  • ROC in animals: Uncovering the neural substrates of recollection and familiarity in episodic recognition memory☆.Magdalena M. Sauvage - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (3):816-828.
    It is a consensus that familiarity and recollection contribute to episodic recognition memory. However, it remains controversial whether familiarity and recollection are qualitatively distinct processes supported by different brain regions, or whether they reflect different strengths of the same process and share the same support. In this review, I discuss how adapting standard human recognition memory paradigms to rats, performing circumscribed brain lesions and using receiver operating characteristic methods contributed to solve this controversy. First, I describe the validation of the (...)
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  • Multiple obstacles to gene therapy in the brain.David Avram Sanders - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):67-68.
    Neuwelt et al. have proposed gene-transfer experiments utilizing an animal model that offers many important advantages for investigating the feasibility of gene therapy in the human brain. A variety of tissues concerning the viral vector and mode of delivery of the corrective genes need to be resolved, however, before such therapy is scientifically supportable.
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  • Fluency: A trigger of familiarity for relational representations?Talya Sadeh - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
    According to Bastin et al.’s integrative memory model, familiarity may be attributed to both entity representations and relational representations. However, the model does not specify what triggers familiarity for relational representations. I argue that fluency is a key player in the attribution of familiarity regardless of the type of representation. Two lines of evidence are reviewed in support of my claim.
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  • Human recognition memory: a cognitive neuroscience perspective.Michael D. Rugg & Andrew P. Yonelinas - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (7):313-319.
  • The cost of explicit memory.Stephen E. Robbins - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (1):33-66.
    Within Piaget there is an implicit theory of the development of explicit memory. It rests in the dynamical trajectory underlying the development of causality, object, space and time – a complex (COST) supporting a symbolic relationship integral to the explicit. Cassirer noted the same dependency in the phenomena of aphasias, insisting that a symbolic function is being undermined in these deficits. This is particularly critical given the reassessment of Piaget’s stages as the natural bifurcations of a self-organizing dynamic system. The (...)
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  • Thinking about repairing thinking.R. M. Ridley - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):67-67.
    The work of Sinden et al. suggests that it may be possible to produce improvement in the areas of brain function by transplanting brain tissue. What appears to be the limiting factor is not the complexity of the mental process under consideration but the discreteness of the lesion which causes the impairment and the appropriateness and accuracy of placement of the grafted tissue.
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  • Prospects for a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness.Antti Revonsuo - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):694-695.
    In this commentary, I point out some weaknesses in Gray's target article and, in the light of that discussion, I attempt to delineate the kinds of problem a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness faces on its way to a scientific understanding of subjective experience.
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  • Unitary consciousness requires distributed comparators and global mappings.George N. Reeke - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):693-694.
    Gray, like other recent authors, seeks a scientific approach to consciousness, but fails to provide a biologically convincing description, partly because he implicitly bases his model on a computationalist foundation that embeds the contents of thought in irreducible symbolic representations. When patterns of neural activity instantiating conscious thought are shorn of homuncular observers, it appears most likely that these patterns and the circuitry that compares them with memories and plans should be found distributed over large regions of neocortex.
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  • The elusive quale.Howard Rachlin - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):692-693.
    If sensations were behaviorally conceived, as they should be, as complex functional patterns of interaction between overt behavior and the environment, there would be no point in searching for them as instantaneous psychic elements within the brain or as internal products of the brain.
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  • The spinal cord as an alternative model for nerve tissue graft.A. Privat & M. Giménez Y. Ribotta - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):65-66.
    The spinal cord provides an alternative model for nerve tissue grafting experiments. Anatomo-functional correlations are easier to make here than in any other region of the CNS because of a direct implication of spinal cord neurons in sensorimotor activities. Lesions can be easily performed to isolate spinal cord neurons from descending inputs. The anatomy of descending monoaminergic systems is well defined and these systems offer a favourable paradigm for lesion-graft experiments.
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  • Operationaling “correspondence”.David C. Palmer - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):206-207.
    The research guided by the correspondence metaphor is lauded for its emphasis on functional analysis, but the term “correspondence” itself needs clarification. Of the two terms in the relationship, only one is well defined. It is suggested that behavior at acquisition needs to be analyzed and that molecular principles from the learning laboratory might be useful in doing so.
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  • Brain damage and cognitive dysfunction.Marlene Oscar-Berman - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):678-679.
  • Hippocampal and neocortical contributions to memory: Advances in the complementary learning systems framework.Randall C. O'Reilly & Kenneth A. Norman - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12):505-510.
  • Lesion Mapping the Four-Factor Structure of Emotional Intelligence.Joachim T. Operskalski, Erick J. Paul, Roberto Colom, Aron K. Barbey & Jordan Grafman - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  • Modeling hippocampal and neocortical contributions to recognition memory: A complementary-learning-systems approach.Kenneth A. Norman & Randall C. O'Reilly - 2003 - Psychological Review 110 (4):611-646.
  • CNS transplant utility may surive even their hasty clinical application.Manuel Nieto-Sampedro - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):65-65.
    Neural cell transplants have been introduced in clinical practice during the last decade with mixed results, encouraged by success with simple animal models. This commentary is a reminder that although the ideas and techniques of transplantation appear simple, the variables involved in host-transplant integration still require further study. The field may benefit from a concerted, multidisciplinary approach.
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  • Reticular-thalamic activation of the cortex generates conscious contents.James Newman - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):691-692.
    Gray hypothesizes that the contents of consciousness correspond to the outputs of a subicular (hippocampal/temporal lobe) comparator that compares the current state of the organism's perceptual world with a predicted state. I argue that Gray has identified a key contributing system to conscious awareness, but that his model is inadequate for explaining how conscious contents are generated in the brain. An alternative model is offered.
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  • Beyond the correspondence metaphor: When accuracy cannot be assessed.Ian R. Newby & Michael Ross - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):205-206.
    Koriat & Goldsmith propose that the correspondence metaphor captures the essence of everyday memory research. We suggest that correspondence is often not at issue because objective assessments of everyday events are frequently lacking. In these cases, other questions arise, such as how individuals evaluate the validity of memories and the significance they attach to those evaluations.
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  • The control of consciousness via a neuropsychological feedback loop.Todd D. Nelson - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):690-691.
    Gray's neuropsychological model of consciousness uses a hierarchical feedback loop framework that has been extensively discussed by many others in psychology. This commentary therefore urges Gray to integrate with, or at least acknowledge previous models. It also points out flaws in his feedback model and suggests directions for further theoretical work.
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  • Metacognition, metaphors, and the measurement of human memory.Thomas O. Nelson - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):204-205.
    Investigations of metacognition – and also the application of the storehouse and correspondence metaphors – seem as appropriate for laboratory research as for naturalistic research. In terms of measurement, the only quantitative difference between the “input-bound percent correct” and “output-bound percent correct” is the inclusion versus exclusion of omission errors in the denominator of the percentages.
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  • Remembering as doing.Ulric Neisser - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):203-204.
    Koriat & Goldsmith are right in their claim that the “ecological” and “traditional” approaches to memory rely on different metaphors. But the underlying ecological metaphor is notcorrespondence: it isaction. Remembering is a kind of doing; like most other forms of action it is purposive, personal, and particular.
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