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  1. Grounding Hypernorms: Toward a Contractarian Theory of Business Ethics: John R. Rowan.John R. Rowan - 1997 - Economics and Philosophy 13 (1):107-112.
  • Extant Social Contracts in Global Business Regulation: Outline of a Research Agenda.J. Oosterhout & Pursey Heugens - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):729-740.
    The notion of extant social contracts (ESC), which was the original contribution that Tom Dunfee provided to contractualist business ethics (CBE) and Integrated Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) more specifically, has commanded less research attention to date than one would expect based on its apparent empirical face validity and its disciplinary spanning potential. This article attempts to revive the ESC concept in both normative and positive research at the intersection of business, management, and ethics and law. After identifying three features that (...)
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  • Discourse and Descriptive Business Ethics.Gjalt de Graaf - 2006 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 15 (3):246-258.
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  • Economic Ethics, Business Ethics and the Idea of Mutual Advantages.Christoph Luetge - 2005 - Business Ethics: A European Review 14 (2):108-118.
    Many traditional conceptions of ethics use categories and arguments that have been developed under conditions of pre-modern societies and are not useful in the age of globalisation anymore. I argue that we need an economic ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. This conception is then elaborated further in the area of business ethics. It is illustrated in the case for banning child labour.
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  • Discourse and Descriptive Business Ethics.Gjalt de Graaf - 2006 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 15 (3):246–258.
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  • Pluralistic Business Ethics: The Significance and Justification of Moral Free Space in Integrative Social Contracts Theory.James Dempsey - 2011 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 20 (3):253-266.
    Integrative social contracts theory (ISCT) has been an influential theory in normative business ethics for well over a decade, drawing attention both as an object of criticism and as a source of inspiration. In this paper I argue that, despite this attention, the fact that it is a genuinely pluralistic theory, in the tradition of pluralistic theories of political philosophy, is often overlooked. It is in the notion of moral free space that this pluralism is most clearly expressed. This oversight (...)
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  • The Separation Thesis Weighs Heavily on Integrative Social Contracts Theory: A Comprehensive Critique.César González-Cantón - forthcoming - Philosophy of Management.
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  • The Importance of Value Diversity in Corporate Life.Michael Santoro - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (4):433-452.
    Donaldson and Dunfee (1999) suggest in a brief discussion that a manager may in some cases rely on his or her own values inmaking organizational decisions. Our paper examines the role of diversity in values in an organizational context. Our central contentionis that value diversity among managers, employees, and other stakeholders on dimensions such as prudence-boldness, clarity-flexibility, and rigor-mercy is highly useful for an organization. We introduce nontechnical models of individual and board decision-making in which value diversity cuts across group (...)
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  • The Limits of Corporate Human Rights Obligations and the Rights of For-Profit Corporations.John Douglas Bishop - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (1):119-144.
    The extension of human rights obligations to corporations raises questions about whose rights and which rights corporations are responsible for. This paper gives a partial answer by asking what legal rights corporations would need to have to fulfil various sorts of human rights obligations. We should compare thechances of human rights fulfilment (and violations) that are likely to result from assigning human rights obligations to corporations with the chances of humanrights fulfilment (and violations) that are likely to result from giving (...)
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  • Shareholder Theory and Kant’s ‘Duty of Beneficence’.Samuel Mansell - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (3):583-599.
    This article draws on the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant to explore whether a corporate ‘duty of beneficence’ to non-shareholders is consistent with the orthodox ‘shareholder theory’ of the firm. It examines the ethical framework of Milton Friedman’s argument and asks whether it necessarily rules out the well-being of non-shareholders as a corporate objective. The article examines Kant’s distinction between ‘duties of right’ and ‘duties of virtue’ (the latter including the duty of beneficence) and investigates their consistency with the shareholder (...)
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  • A New Framework for Understanding Inequalities Between Expatriates and Host Country Nationals.Victor Oltra, Jaime Bonache & Chris Brewster - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):291-310.
    An interdisciplinary theoretical framework is proposed for analysing justice in global working conditions. In addition to gender and race as popular criteria to identify disadvantaged groups in organizations, in multinational corporations (MNCs) local employees (i.e. host country nationals (HCNs) working in foreign subsidiaries) deserve special attention. Their working conditions are often substantially worse than those of expatriates (i.e. parent country nationals temporarily assigned to a foreign subsidiary). Although a number of reasons have been put forward to justify such inequalities—usually with (...)
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  • ISCT, Hypernorms, and Business: A Reinterpretation.George G. Brenkert - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):645 - 658.
    Numerous universal standards have been proposed to provide ethical guidance for the actions of business. The result has been a confusing mix of standards and their defenses. Thus, there is widespread recognition that business requires a common framework to provide ethical guidance. One of the most prominent conceptual frameworks recently offered, which addresses issues of international business ethics, is that of integrative social contracts theory (ISCT) developed by Thomas Donaldson and Thomas Dunfee. By integrating normative and empirical matters, and drawing (...)
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  • The Global Economic Ethic Manifesto: Implementing a Moral Values Foundation in the Multinational Enterprise. [REVIEW]Thomas A. Hemphill & Waheeda Lillevik - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (2):213 - 230.
    The Global Economic Ethic Manifesto (" Manifesto") is a moral framework/code of conduct which is both interactive and interdependent with the economic function of the main institutions of the economic system: markets, governments, civil society, and supranational organizations, which lays out a common fundamental vision of what is legitimate, just, and fair in economic activities. The Manifesto includes five universally accepted principles and values: the principle of humanity; the basic values of non-violence and respect for life; the basic values of (...)
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  • A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (I): Rational Bargaining and Justification. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Sacconi - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):259 - 281.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. It focuses on justification according to the contractarian point of view (leaving compliance and implementation problems to a related article, [Sacconi 2004b, forthcoming in the Journal of Business Ethics]). It begins by providing a definition of CSR as an extended model of corporate governance, based on the fiduciary duties owed to all the firm’s (...)
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  • Justice and Corporate Governance: New Insights From Rawlsian Social Contract and Sen’s Capabilities Approach.Magali Fia & Lorenzo Sacconi - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 160 (4):937-960.
    By considering what we identify as a problem inherent in the ‘nature of the firm’—the risk of abuse of authority—we propound the conception of a social contract theory of the firm which is truly Rawlsian in its inspiration. Hence, we link the social contract theory of the firm with the general theory of justice. Through this path, we enter the debate about whether firms can be part of Rawlsian theory of justice showing that corporate governance principles enter the “basic structure.” (...)
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  • Accounting as Applied Ethics: Teaching a Discipline.Wilfred Dolfsma - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 63 (3):209-215.
    In this article it is argued that there are notable parallels between all of the different strands within ethics on the one hand, and accountancy on the other that, in teaching, can be drawn upon to enhance students’ understanding of the latter. Accountancy, part of economics, draws on utilitarian ethics, but not solely so. Accounting, in addition, draws on deontological and communitarian strands in ethics. The article suggests that the teaching of accounting – especially to non-economists – would benefit substantially (...)
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  • Regulation of the Global Marketplace for the Sake of Health.Marion Danis & Amy Sepinwall - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (4):667-676.
    Mounting evidence suggests that socioeconomic status is a determinant of health. As nations around the globe increasingly rely on market-based economies, the corporate sector has come to have a powerful influence on the socioeconomic gradient in most nations and hence upon the health status of their populations. At the same time, it has become more difficult for any one nation to influence corporate activities, given the increasing ease with which corporations relocate their operations from country to country, As a result (...)
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  • An Appraisal of Shareholder Proportional Liability.Gordon G. Sollars - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 32 (4):329-345.
    Shareholders of corporations have their liability for actions of the corporation limited by law. Unlike the equity holder in a partnership or proprietorship, the assets that a shareholder has distinct from her holdings in the enterprise can not be taken to satisfy liabilities arising from actions of the enterprise itself. This paper argues that a reasonable principle of fairness argues for an alternative to limited liability, proportional liability. Proportional liability makes a shareholder liable for the same proportion of a corporation''s (...)
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  • A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (II): Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Sacconi - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):77 - 96.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. Whereas, justificatory issues have been discussed in a related paper (Sacconi, L.: 2006b, this journal), in this essay I focus on the implementation of and compliance with this normative model. The theory of reputation games, with reference to the basic game of trust, is introduced in order to make sense of self-regulation as a (...)
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  • Developing a Religiously Grounded Business Ethics: A Jewish Perspective.Moses L. Pava - 1998 - Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (1):65-83.
    The specific purpose of this introductory paper is to explicitly introduce readers to some of the important Biblical, Talmudic, andpost-Talmudic texts which deal with business ethics. As the discussion will show, Judaism’s traditional texts treat an amazing variety of issues emphasizing responsibilities in the business context. These texts are both legalistic and aspirational in character. The theme of this study is that an authentic Jewish business ethics needs to grow out of an understanding of the needs of modern, complex economies (...)
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  • How Binding the Ties? Business Ethics as Integrative Social Contracts - Ties That Bind: A Social Contracts Approach to Business EthicsThomas Donaldson and Thomas W. Dunfee Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.John R. Rowan - 2001 - Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (2):379-390.
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  • A Framework for Discussing Normative Theories of Business Ethics.Bishop John Douglas - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (3):563-591.
    This paper carries forward the conceptual clarification of normative theories of business ethics ably begun by Hasnas in the January 1998 issue of BEQ. This paper proposes a normatively neutral framework for discussing and assessing such normative theories. Every normative theory needs to address these seven issues: it needs to specify a moral principle that identifies (1) recommended values and (2) the grounds for accepting those values. It also must specify (3) a decision principle that business people who accept the (...)
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  • Toward an Ethics of Organizations.Joshua D. Margolis - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (4):619-638.
    The organization is importantly different from both the nation-state and the individual and hence needs its own ethical models and theories, distinct from political and moral theory. To develop a case for organizational ethics, this paper advances arguments in three directions. First, it highlights the growing role of organizations and their distinctive attributes. Second, it illuminates the incongruities between organizations and moral and political philosophy. Third, it takes these incongruities, as well as organizations’ distinctive attributes, as a starting point for (...)
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  • Organizational Moral Values.Elizabeth D. Scott - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (1):33-56.
    Abstract: This article argues that the important organizational values to study are organizational moral values. It identifies five moral values (honest communication, respect for property, respect for life, respect for religion, and justice), which allow parallel constructs at individual and organizational levels of analysis. It also identifies dimensions used in differentiating organizations’ moral values. These are the act, actor, person affected, intention, and expected result. Finally, the article addresses measurement issues associated with organizational moral values, proposing that content analysis is (...)
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  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Social Contracts and Business Ethics.Thomas W. Dunfee - 1995 - Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2):167-171.
    This article introduces several papers on social contracts and business ethics, published in the April 2005 issue of the journal "Business Ethics Quarterly.".
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  • What Stakeholder Theory is Not.Andrew C. Wicks - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (4):479-502.
    The term stakeholder is a powerful one. This is due, to a significant degree, to its conceptual breadth. The term means differentthings to different people and hence evokes praise or scorn from a wide variety of scholars and practitioners. Such breadth of interpretation, though one of stakeholder theory’s greatest strengths, is also one of its most prominent theoretical liabilities. The goal of the current paper is like that of a controlled burn that clears away some of the underbrush of misinterpretation (...)
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  • Achieving Top Performance While Building Collegiality in Sales: It All Starts with Ethics.Omar S. Itani, Fernando Jaramillo & Larry Chonko - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (2):417-438.
    While previous literature provides evidence of the positive relationship between ethical climate and job satisfaction, the possible mechanisms of this relationship are still underexplored. This study aims to enhance scholars’ and practitioners’ understanding of the ethical climate–job satisfaction relationship by identifying and testing two of the possible mechanisms. More specifically, this study fills an existing research gap by examining social and interpersonal mechanisms, referred to in this study as workplace isolation of colleagues and salesperson’s teamwork, of the ethical climate–job satisfaction (...)
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  • Integrating the Ethical Dimension Into the Analytical Framework for the Reform of State-Owned Enterprises in China's Socialist Market Economy: A Proposal. [REVIEW]Georges Enderle - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 30 (3):261 - 275.
    The discussions about the reform of state-owned enterprises are so far dominated by economic and legal considerations while the ethical dimension of this highly complex problem is being barely addressed explicitly, much less developed systematically and integrated into a broader analytical framework for companies in China. This paper is a proposal to introduce this kind of ethical considerations. First, the main features of the reform of state-owned enterprises are briefly summarized and a number of critical issues are identified. Second, the (...)
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  • Integrative Social Contracts Theory: Hype Over Hypernorms. [REVIEW]Mark Douglas - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 26 (2):101 - 110.
    Applying social contract theory to business ethics is a relatively new idea, and perhaps nobody has pursued this direction better than Thomas Donaldson and Thomas W. Dunfee. Their "Integrative Social Contracts Theory" manages to combine culturally sensitive decision making capacities with trans-cultural norms by setting up a layered system of social contracts. Lurking behind their work is a concern with the problems of relativism. They hope to alleviate these problems by introducing three concepts important to the ISCT: "authentic norms," which (...)
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  • Contractarian Business Ethics: Current Status and Next Steps.Thomas W. Dunfee & Thomas Donaldson - 1995 - Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (2):173-186.
    Social contract is rapidly becoming one of the significant alternatives for analyzing ethical issues in business. Contractarian approachesemphasizing consent as a means of justifying principles can provide needed context for rendering normative judgements conceming economic behaviors. Current research issues include developing tests of consent for both hypothetical and extant social contracts, and empirically testing the assumptions of the major contractarian approaches. Open questions include exploring the relationship between contractarian business ethics and other approaches, such as stakeholder management and virtue based (...)
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  • Moral Decision Making in Business: A Phase-Model.Aviva Geva - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (4):773-803.
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  • Order Ethics: Bridging the Gap Between Contractarianism and Business Ethics.Christoph Luetge, Thomas Armbrüster & Julian Müller - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (4):687-697.
    Contract-based approaches have been a focus of attention in business ethics. As one of the grand traditions in political philosophy, contractarianism is founded on the notion that we will never resolve deep moral disagreement. Classical philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, or recent ones like Rawls and Gaus, seek to solve ethical conflicts on the level of social rules and procedures. Recent authors in business ethics have sought to utilize contract-based approaches for their field and to apply it to concrete business (...)
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  • Returning to Rawls: Social Contracting, Social Justice, and Transcending the Limitations of Locke.Richard Marens - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):63-76.
    A generation ago, the field of business ethics largely abandoned analyzing the broader issue of social justice to focus upon more micro concerns. Donaldson applied the social contract tradition of Locke and Rawls to the ethics of management decision-making, and with Dunfee, has advanced this project ever since. Current events suggest that if the field is to remain relevant it needs to return to examining social and economic fairness, and Rawl's approach to social contracting suggests a way to start. First, (...)
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  • Understanding Privacy Online: Development of a Social Contract Approach to Privacy.Kirsten Martin - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (3):551-569.
    Recent scholarship in philosophy, law, and information systems suggests that respecting privacy entails understanding the implicit privacy norms about what, why, and to whom information is shared within specific relationships. These social contracts are important to understand if firms are to adequately manage the privacy expectations of stakeholders. This paper explores a social contract approach to developing, acknowledging, and protecting privacy norms within specific contexts. While privacy as a social contract—a mutually beneficial agreement within a community about sharing and using (...)
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  • Join In or Opt Out? A Normative–Ethical Analysis of Affective Ties and Networks in South Korea.Sven Horak - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (1):207-220.
    So far overlooked by the international business ethics literature, we introduce, characterize, and normatively analyze the use of affective ties and networks in South Korea from an ethical point of view. Whereas the ethics of using Guanxi in China has been comprehensively discussed, Korean informal networks remain difficult to manage for firms in South Korea due to the absence of existing academic debate and research in this field. In this study, we concentrate mainly on the question of whether foreign firms (...)
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  • Economic Rationality and a Moral Science of Business Ethics.Duane Windsor - 2016 - Philosophy of Management 15 (2):135-149.
    This article examines the relationship between economic rationality and the possibility of a moral science of business ethics. The purpose of this inquiry is to consider whether a universal and non-controversial moral science of business ethics can be defined satisfactorily, and linked to economic rationality of managers and other stakeholders of firms operating in market economies. Economic rationality connotes economic efficiency, meaning a strictly instrumental maximization of actor utility from limited resources. This rationality is a universal and value free axiom: (...)
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  • Dynamics for Integrative Social Contracts Theory: Norm Evolution and Individual Mobility.Duane Windsor - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (1):83-95.
    This article proposes a specific logic of dynamics for integrative social contracts theory that combines two empirically oriented process extensions strengthening concreteness of Donaldson and Dunfee’s conceptualization, namely international policy regime theory and Tiebout migration. While either would help “dynamize” and “concretize” ISCT, the two combined are even more insightful. Real-world policy regime processes can develop concrete action-guiding norms instantiating hypernorms to guide business decisions. Donaldson and Dunfee placed empirical reliance on expectation of converging parallel evolution of universal principles and (...)
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  • Tractable Morality.Gjalt de Graaf - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 60 (1):1-15.
    This article discusses five propositions about managerial moral tractability -- that is, a morality that is amenable to the complexity of managers’ continual pressure to decide and act -- in their customer relations. The propositions come from the comparison of three case studies of different types of managers. To analyze the morality of managers, discursive practices of managers are studied. At the end of the article also some consideration is given to “information strategies” of managers, in relation to their tractable (...)
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  • Fluidity of Regulation-CSR Nexus: The Multinational Corporate Corruption Example. [REVIEW]Onyeka Osuji - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):31-57.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a relatively undeveloped concept despite its increasing importance to corporations. One difficulty is the possible inexactness of CSR. Another is the apparent reluctance by regulatory authorities and policy makers to intervene in the area. This is largely a result of inhibitions created by traditional approaches to company law with emphasis on shareholder protection and financial disclosure. The consequence is the stultification of independent development of CSR by tying social issues to financial performance. This attitude might (...)
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  • Rawlsian Institutionalism and Business Ethics: Does It Matter Whether Corporations Are Part of the Basic Structure of Society?Brian Berkey - 2021 - Business Ethics Quarterly 31 (2):179-209.
    In this article, I aim to clarify some key issues in the ongoing debate about the relationship between Rawlsian political philosophy and business ethics. First, I discuss precisely what we ought to be asking when we consider whether corporations are part of the “basic structure of society.” I suggest that the relevant questions have been mischaracterized in much of the existing debate, and that some key distinctions have been overlooked. I then argue that although Rawlsian theory’s potential implications for business (...)
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  • Developing the Capacity of Ethics Consultants to Promote Just Resource Allocation.Marion Danis & Samia Hurst - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (4):37-39.
  • Discourse Ethics and Critical Realist Ethics: An Evaluation in the Context of Business.John Mingers - 2009 - Journal of Critical Realism 8 (2):172-202.
    Until recently, businesses and corporations could argue that their only real commitments were to maximise the return to their shareholders whilst staying within the law. However, the world has changed significantly during the last ten years and now most major corporations recognise that they have significant responsibility to local and global societies beyond simply making profit. This means that there is now an increasing concern with the question of how corporations, and their employees, ought to behave, and this leads us (...)
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  • Managers’ Moral Obligation of Fairness to (All) Shareholders: Does Information Asymmetry Benefit Privileged Investors at Other Shareholders’ Expense?Jocelyn D. Evans, Elise Perrault & Timothy A. Jones - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (1):81-96.
    Drawing on ethical principles of fairness and integrative social contracts theory, moral obligations of fair dealing exist between the firm and all shareholders. This study investigates empirically whether privileged investors of publicly traded firms engage in legal, but morally questionable, trading that at the expense of non-privileged institutional or atomistic investors. In this context, we define privilege as the access to material, nonpublic earnings surprise information. Our results show that the opportunity for procedural unfairness increases with the presence of privileged (...)
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  • The Communication Contract and Its Ten Ground Clauses.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (3):415-436.
    Global society issues are putting increasing pressure on both small and large organizations to communicate ethically at all levels. Achieving this requires social skills beyond the choice of language or vocabulary and relies above all on individual social responsibility. Arguments from social contract philosophy and speech act theory lead to consider a communication contract that identifies the necessary individual skills for ethical communication on the basis of a limited number of explicit clauses. These latter are pragmatically binding for all partners (...)
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  • Getting the Different Voices in the Same Room.Mary Rorty - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (4):39-41.
  • Social Contracting in a Pluralist Process of Moral Sense Making: A Dialogic Twist on the ISCT.Jerry M. Calton - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):329-346.
    This paper applies Wempe’s (2005, Business Ethics Quarterly 15(1), 113–135) boundary conditions that define the external and internal logics for contractarian business ethics theory, as a system of argumentation for evaluating current or prospective institutional arrangements for arriving at the “good life,” based on the principles and practices of social justice. It does so by showing that a more dynamic, process-oriented, and pluralist ‘dialogic twist’ to Donaldson and Dunfee’s (2003, ‘Social Contracts: sic et non’, in P. Heugens, H. van Oosterhout (...)
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  • Four Design Criteria for Any Future Contractarian Theory of Business Ethics.Ben Wempe - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):697-714.
    This article assesses the quality of Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) as a social contract argument. For this purpose, it embarks on a comparative analysis of the use of the social contract model as a theory of political authority and as a theory of social justice. Building on this comparison, it then develops four criteria for any future contractarian theory of business ethics (CBE). To apply the social contract model properly to the domain of business ethics, it should be: (1) (...)
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  • Multiple Communities and Controlling Corruption.Philip M. Nichols - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):805 - 813.
    Corruption presents an assurance problem to businesses: all businesses are best off if none act corruptly but in the event that corruption occurs are better off if they act corruptly than if they do not, and because there is no assurance that other actors are not cheating a business does not know how to act. The usual solution to an assurance problem – criminal sanctions imposed on cheaters – does not work in a corrupt system. Integrative Social Contract Theory suggests (...)
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  • Foundations and Applications for Contractualist Business Ethics.Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, J. & Muel Kaptein - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):211-228.
    Contractualism is one of the most promising ‘centers of gravity’ in business ethics. In this guest editorial we provide a concise roadmap to the field, sketching contractualism’s historic and disciplinary antecedents, the basic argumentative structure of the contract model, and its boundary conditions. We also sketch two main dimensions along which contributions to the contractualist tradition can be positioned. The first dimension entails positive versus normative theorizing – does a given contribution analyze the world as it is or how it (...)
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  • A Critical Perspective of Integrative Social Contracts Theory: Recurring Criticisms and Next Generation Research Topics.Thomas W. Dunfee - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):303-328.
    During the past ten years Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) has become part of the repertoire of specialized decision-oriented theories in the business ethics literature. The intention here is to (1)␣provide a brief overview of the structure and strengths of ISCT; (2) identify recurring themes in the extensive commentary on the theory including brief mention of how ISCT has been applied outside the business ethics literature; (3) describe where research appears to be headed; and (4) specify challenges faced by those (...)
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