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  1. Culture Follows Design: Code Design as an Antecedent of the Ethical Culture.Thomas Stöber, Peter Kotzian & Barbara E. Weißenberger - 2019 - Business Ethics: A European Review 28 (1):112-128.
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  • Does Humour Influence Perceptions of the Ethicality of Female-Disparaging Advertising?Vassiliki Grougiou, George Balabanis & Danae Manika - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 164 (1):1-16.
    This article responds to calls for further research on ethical issues in advertising. The study examines whether advertising strategies which use female-disparaging themes are perceived as ethical, and what effect this has on ad and brand attitudes. It also examines whether or not humour assuages ethical evaluations of female-disparaging ads. The findings from an experimental research design, which included 336 British respondents, show that non-disparaging and non-humorous ads are considered to be the most ethical, while disparaging ads are considered the (...)
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  • Emotional Intelligence and Consumer Ethics: The Mediating Role of Personal Moral Philosophies.Rafi Chowdhury - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (3):527-548.
    Research on the antecedents of consumers’ ethical beliefs has mainly examined cognitive variables and has neglected the relationships among affective variables and consumer ethics. However, research in moral psychology indicates that moral emotions have a significant role in ethical decision-making. Thus, the ability to experience, perceive and regulate emotions should influence consumers’ ethical decision-making. These abilities, which are components of emotional intelligence, are examined as antecedents to consumers’ ethical beliefs in this study. Five hundred Australian consumers participated in this study (...)
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  • The Moral Foundations of Consumer Ethics.Rafi M. M. I. Chowdhury - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (3):585-601.
    This paper applies moral foundations theory in the context of consumer ethics. The purpose of the study is to examine whether moral foundations theory can be utilised as a theoretical framework to explain consumers’ beliefs regarding both ethical and unethical consumption. The relationships among various moral foundations and different dimensions of consumer ethics are examined with a sample of 450 US consumers. The results demonstrate that, among the various moral foundations, only the sanctity/degradation foundation is negatively related to beliefs regarding (...)
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  • The Moral Foundations of Consumer Ethics.Rafi M. M. I. Chowdhury - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (3):585-601.
    This paper applies moral foundations theory in the context of consumer ethics. The purpose of the study is to examine whether moral foundations theory can be utilised as a theoretical framework to explain consumers’ beliefs regarding both ethical and unethical consumption. The relationships among various moral foundations and different dimensions of consumer ethics are examined with a sample of 450 US consumers. The results demonstrate that, among the various moral foundations, only the sanctity/degradation foundation is negatively related to beliefs regarding (...)
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  • Influence of Ethical Ideology on Job Stress.Abhishek Shukla & Rajeev Srivastava - 2017 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):233-254.
    The relationship between ethical ideology and job stress appears to be complex. This study is based on a model presented by Forsyth, showing two dimensions that play an important role in ethical evaluation and behavior. Based on a survey of 561 employees of hotel industry in India, ethical ideologies were found to be negatively associated with job stress. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and multiple regressions. The result showed that relativism is negatively correlated with job stress. Further, it (...)
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  • East Meets West: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Cultural Variations in Idealism and Relativism.Donelson R. Forsyth, Ernest H. O’Boyle & Michael A. McDaniel - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):813-833.
    Ethics position theory (EPT) maintains that individuals’ personal moral philosophies influence their judgments, actions, and emotions in ethically intense situations. The theory, when describing these moral viewpoints, stresses two dimensions: idealism (concern for benign outcomes) and relativism (skepticism with regards to inviolate moral principles). Variations in idealism and relativism across countries were examined via a meta-analysis of studies that assessed these two aspects of moral thought using the ethics position questionnaire (EPQ; Forsyth, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39, 175–184, (...)
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  • The Mediating Role of Anticipated Guilt in Consumers' Ethical Decision-Making.Sarah Steenhaut & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (3):269 - 288.
    In this paper, we theorize that the anticipation of guilt plays an important role in ethically questionable consumer situations. We propose an ethical decision-making framework incorporating anticipated guilt as partial mediator between consumers' ethical beliefs (anteceded by ethical ideology) and intentions. In the first study, we compared several models using structural equation modeling and found empirical support for our research model. A second experiment was set up to illustrate how these new insights may be applied to prevent consumers from taking (...)
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  • A Relativistic Approach to Moral Judgment in Individuals: Review and Reinterpretation.Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason - 2020 - Business Ethics: A European Review 29 (2):403-416.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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  • Individual Ethical Orientations and the Perceived Acceptability of Questionable Finance Ethics Decisions.Mac Clouse, Robert A. Giacalone, Tricia D. Olsen & Lorenzo Patelli - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (3):549-558.
    Finance is an area that, in practice, is plagued by accusations of unethical activity; the study of finance had adopted a largely nonbehavioral approach to business ethics research. We address this gap in by assessing whether individual ethical orientations predict the acceptability of questionable decisions about financial issues. Results show that individual ethical orientations are associated with different levels of acceptability of questionable decisions about financial issues, though the pattern of these differences varies across individual ethical orientations assessed. These results (...)
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  • Do You Need a Receipt? Exploring Consumer Participation in Consumption Tax Evasion as an Ethical Dilemma.Barbara Culiberg & Domen Bajde - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):1-12.
    The paper focuses on the consumer side of consumption tax evasion (CTE), a subcategory of the shadow economy. The ethical dimensions of tax evasion have been effectively captured by the existent literature on tax morale, yet it fails to address the role consumers can play in CTE. Further, there is a shortage of tax morale studies that explore ethical decision making as a process composed of multiple steps and determinants. To bridge these gaps, we turned to the consumer ethics literature (...)
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  • Value Orientations as Determinants of Preference for External and Anonymous Whistleblowing.Dilek Zamantili Nayir & Christian Herzig - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (2):197-213.
    Incidences of organizational wrongdoing have become wide spread throughout the whole business world. The management of organizational wrongdoings is of growing concern in organizations globally, since these types of acts can be detrimental to financial well being. Wrongdoing occurs within organizational settings and organizational members commonly have knowledge of and thus the opportunity to report the wrongdoing. An employee’s decision to report individual or organizational misconduct, i.e. blow the whistle, is a complex phenomenon that is based upon organizational, situational and (...)
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  • The Ethical Orientations of Chinese Auditors and the Effect on the Judgements They Make.Gordon Woodbine, Ying Han Fan & Glennda Scully - 2012 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1 (2):195-216.
    A study of 612 CPAs employed in four separate regions of the People’s Republic of China shows that they exhibit ethical orientations that are not significantly different from one another and that they do not, as a group identify with the Subjectivist description provided in the Forsyth et al. (Journal of Business Ethics 8(83):813–833, 2008) meta-analytic international study involving the Ethical Position Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis did however establish the validity of the instrument as a measure of idealistic and relativistic (...)
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  • The Relationship Amongst Ethical Position, Religiosity and Self-Identified Culture in Student Nurses.Jane H. White, Anne Griswold Peirce & William Jacobowitz - 2019 - Nursing Ethics 26 (7-8):2398-2412.
    Background/purpose: Research from other disciplines demonstrates that ethical position, idealism, or relativism predicts ethical decision-making. Individuals from diverse cultures ascribe to various religious beliefs and studies have found that religiosity and culture affect ethical decision-making. Moreover, little literature exists regarding undergraduate nursing students’ ethical position; no studies have been conducted in the United States on students’ ethical position, their self-identified culture, and intrinsic religiosity despite an increase in the diversity of nursing students across the United States. Participants and Research Context (...)
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  • Ethics education: the impact of ethics training engagement on unethical decision-making in the workplace.Stanley Singer & Dalia Diab - 2021 - International Journal of Ethics Education 6 (1):109-124.
    This study examined the impact of ethics training engagement on unethical decision-making in the workplace. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions. Next, a baseline measurement of ethical ideology was collected using the Ethics Position Questionnaire and participants then engaged in ethics training based on the condition to which they were randomly assigned. They then had the option to read along or listen to a hypothetical scenario about an employee faced with the opportunity to make an unethical (...)
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  • Measuring Consumers' Ethical Position in Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong, and USA.Charles C. Cui, Vince Mitchell, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & Bettina Cornwell - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (1):57 - 71.
    Previous studies have found Forsyth’s Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) to vary between countries, but none has made a systematic evaluation of its psychometric properties across consumers from many countries. Using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group LISREL analysis, this paper explores the factor structure of the EPQ and the measurement equivalence in five societies: Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA. The results suggest that the modified scale, measuring idealism and relativism, was applicable in all five societies. Equivalence was found across (...)
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  • Should Financial Gatekeepers Be Publicly Traded?Haozhi Huang, Mingsheng Li & Jing Shi - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 164 (1):175-200.
    We investigate how a broker firm’s initial public offering affects its analysts’ fiduciary duty of providing independent and objective recommendations. We find that the analysts of newly listed broker firms issue more positively biased recommendations in the first 2 to 3 years after their employers’ IPO than before the IPO. The increase in the recommendation bias is greater among analysts of affiliated brokers and brokers that raise additional capital after their IPO than among other analysts. Newly listed broker firms experience (...)
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  • Ethical Value Positioning of Management Students of India and Germany.Sonali Bhattacharya, Netra Neelam & Venkatesh Murthy - 2018 - Journal of Academic Ethics 16 (3):257-274.
    This study attempts to compare ‘the ethical value positioning’ of students of Business and Management studies from India and Germany. A complete enumerative survey was conducted for management students using the Ethical Positioning Questionnaire of Forsyth. There were 134 respondents from India and 57 from Germany. The objective was to confer the differences in ethical positioning of students of two economically and culturally diverse nations. By the end of the research, it was constituted that both German and Indian students demonstrate (...)
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  • Anomie and Ethics at Work.Eva E. Tsahuridu - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (2):163-174.
    The paper reports on research undertaken in three organisations seeking to explore anomie at work. This research explores whether a distinction in the levels of anomie between people's perception of the work and non-work contexts exists in three organisations, that is whether people are more likely to feel more hopeless and helpless in their work or non-work life. It also looks at whether people in different organisations have significantly different levels of anomie. A significant difference in the non-work anomie between (...)
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  • Developing a Multidimensional Scale for Ethical Decision Making.Gian Luca Casali - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 104 (4):485-497.
    This article reports on the development of the managerial ethical profile (MEP) scale. The MEP scale is a multilevel, self-reporting scale measuring the perceived influence that different dimensions of common ethical frameworks have on managerial decision making. The MEP scale measures on eight subscales: economic egoism, reputational egoism, act utilitarianism, rule utilitarianism, self-virtue of self, virtue of others, act deontology, and rule deontology. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to provide evidence of scale validity. Future research needs and the value (...)
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  • Some Ethical Implications of Individual Competitiveness.Peter E. Mudrack, James M. Bloodgood & William H. Turnley - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (3):347-359.
    This study examined some ethical implications of two different individual competitive orientations. Winning is crucially important in hypercompetitiveness , whereas a personal development (PD) perspective considers competition as a means to self-discovery and self-improvement. In a sample of 263 senior-level undergraduate business students, survey results suggested that hypercompetitiveness was generally associated with “poor ethics” and PD competitiveness was linked with “high ethics”. For example, hypercompetitive individuals generally saw nothing wrong with self-interested gain at the expense of others, but PD competitors (...)
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  • The Effect of Ethical Orientation and Professional Commitment on Earnings Management Behavior.A. C. Greenfield, Carolyn Strand Norman & Benson Wier - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):419-434.
    The purpose of this study is twofold. The first objective is to examine the impact of an individual's ethical ideology and level of professional commitment on the earnings management decision. The second objective is to observe whether the presence of a personal benefit affects an individual's ethical orientation or professional commitment within the context of an opportunity to manage earnings. Using a sample of 375 undergraduate business majors, our results suggest a significant relationship between an individual's ethical orientation and decision-making. (...)
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  • Managerial Morality and Philanthropic Decision-Making: A Test of an Agency Model.Cheng-Li Huang & Ju-Lan Tsai - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (4):795-811.
    While previous authors have broadly examined the motivations and outcomes of the philanthropic activities of organizations, the present study extends Miska et al.’s rationalistic approach to examine the degree to which managerial philanthropic decision-making behaviour is dominated by morality. This study also tackles the question of whether this relationship is moderated by the strength of the geographical proximity and amount of the donation within an agency framework. To probe the radical agency problem and the effect of intervention, an alternative heuristic (...)
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  • Can Ethical Ideologies Predict Prejudice?Adelheid A. M. Nicol & Kevin Rounding - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (8):662-679.
    Idealism and relativism were designed to assess different ethical ideological views. Their relation with attitudes toward a variety of outgroups has not been previously studied. Understanding how concerns over ethical principles and consequences are related to prejudiced attitudes could provide some insight into these constructs and into the nature of prejudice. In two studies totaling 311 participants, participants completed measures on ethical ideologies, right-wing authoritarianism, and attitudes toward various outgroups. The differential predictive validities of ethical ideologies, in comparison to right-wing (...)
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  • Neuromarketing Research Practices: Attitudes, Ethics, and Behavioral Intentions.Elitza Bakardjieva & Allan J. Kimmel - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (3):179-200.
    As a new addition to the marketing research toolbox, neuromarketing science has given rise to a variety of questions relevant to consumer perceptions of this nascent area of investigation. Neuromarketing researchers are dependent on consumer involvement as research participants, and finding means to educate the public about neuromarketing is a priority for professionals working in the field. This article describes the results of two online questionnaire studies focused on the role of personal constructs presumed to underlie perceptions of neuromarketing research. (...)
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  • Ethical Decision Making: Special or No Different? [REVIEW]Dawn R. Elm & Tara J. Radin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):313-329.
    Theories of ethical decision making assume it is a process that is special, or different in some regard, from typical individual decision making. Empirical results of the most widely known theories in the field of business ethics contain numerous inconsistencies and contradictions. In an attempt to assess why we continue to lack understanding of how individuals make ethical decisions at work, an inductive study of ethical decision making was conducted. The results of this preliminary study suggest that ethical decision making (...)
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  • The Development and Initial Validation of the Work Convictions Questionnaire to Measure Approaches to Ethical Decision Making in the Workplace: Part 2.Estelle Boshoff, Tina Kotzé & Petrus Nel - 2014 - African Journal of Business Ethics 8 (2).
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  • The Roles of Religiosity and Spirituality in Moral Reasoning.Rachel Baumsteiger, Tiffany Chenneville & Joseph F. McGuire - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (4):266-277.
    To better understand the influence of religiosity and spirituality on moral reasoning, 1,037 college students completed a survey including demographic questions, a religiosity measure, a spirituality measure, and Forsyth's Ethical Position Questionnaire. Religiosity and spirituality positively correlated with moral idealism, whereas spirituality negatively correlated with moral relativism. However, religiosity and spirituality accounted for a very little variability in moral reasoning, suggesting that they do not directly influence moral reasoning. In addition, female participants reported higher spirituality, but there were no gender (...)
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  • The Impacts of Ethical Ideology, Materialism, and Selected Demographics on Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Study in China.Chun-Chen Huang, Long-Chuan Lu, Ching-Sing You & Szu-Wei Yen - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (4):315 - 331.
    This study attempts to investigate the relationships among the ethical beliefs of Chinese consumers and orientations based on attitudinal attributes: materialism and moral philosophies (idealism and relativism). In addition, this study examines Chinese consumers' ethical beliefs in relation to five selected demographic characteristics (gender, age, religion, family income and education). Based on this exploratory study of 284 Chinese consumers, the following statistically significant findings were discovered. First, Chinese consumers regard that a passively benefiting activity is more ethical, but actively benefiting (...)
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  • The Relationships Between Ethical Climates, Ethical Ideologies and Organisational Commitment Within Indonesian Higher Education Institutions.Martinus Parnawa Putranta & Russel Philip John Kingshott - 2011 - Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (1):43-60.
    This research aimed to assess the potential of alternatives to extrinsic pecuniary rewards for cultivating employees’ commitment in denominational higher education institutions in Indonesia. Two ethics-related variables, namely ethical climates and ethical ideologies, were chosen as possible predictors. A model delineating the nexus between ethical climates types, ethical ideologies, and various forms of organisational commitment was developed and tested. A two-step structural equation modelling procedure was used as the primary means in testing the hypothesised relationships. The research involved staff of (...)
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  • The Relationships Among Consumers’ Ethical Ideology, Risk Aversion and Ethically-Based Distrust of Online Retailers and the Moderating Role of Consumers’ Need for Personal Interaction.Isabel P. Riquelme & Sergio Román - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (2):135-155.
    Consumer distrust is only recently beginning to be perceived as an important e-commerce issue and, unlike online trust, the nature and role of distrust is much less established. This study examines the influence of two important consumer characteristics on consumer’s ethically-based distrust of online retailers. Also, the moderating role of consumer’s need for personal contact with sales staff is tested. Results from 409 online consumers confirm that both relativist-based ethical ideology and risk aversion are strongly and positively related to consumers’ (...)
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  • Ethical Decision Making in a Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Situation: The Role of Moral Absolutes and Social Consensus. [REVIEW]Connie R. Bateman, Sean Valentine & Terri Rittenburg - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):229-240.
    Individuals are downloading copyrighted materials at escalating rates (Hill 2007; Siwek 2007). Since most materials shared within these networks are copyrighted works, providing, exchanging, or downloading files is considered to be piracy and a violation of intellectual property rights (Shang et al. 2008). Previous research indicates that personal moral philosophies rooted in moral absolutism together with social context may impact decision making in ethical dilemmas; however, it is yet unclear which motivations and norms contextually impact moral awareness in a peer-to-peer (...)
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  • Ethical Judgments: What Do We Know, Where Do We Go? [REVIEW]Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):575-597.
    Investigations into ethical judgments generally seem fuzzy as to the relevant research domain. We first attempted to clarify the construct and determine domain parameters. This attempt required addressing difficulties associated with pinpointing relevant literature, most notably the varied nomenclature used to refer to ethical judgments (individual evaluations of actions’ ethicality). Given this variation in construct nomenclature and the difficulties it presented in identifying pertinent focal studies, we elected to focus on research that cited papers featuring prominent and often-used measures of (...)
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  • Individual and Organizational Antecedents of Professional Ethics of Public Relations Practitioners in Korea.Ji Yeon Han, Hyun Soon Park & Hyeonju Jeong - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):553-566.
    This study examines the effects of individual ethical values and organizational factors on the professional ethics of PR practitioners in Korea by considering a person–situation interactionist model. Individual ethical values are used as individual factors, and organizational factors consist of an organization’s reward and punishment for ethical/unethical behavior, the behavior of peers, and the ethical integrity of the chief ethics officer. The professional ethics of PR practitioners (the dependent variable) are classified into the following three dimensions: professional ethics for the (...)
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  • Dilemmas, Conspiracies, and Sophie’s Choice: Vignette Themes and Ethical Judgments.Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (3):639-653.
    Knowledge about ethical judgments has not advanced appreciably after decades of research. Such research, however, has rarely addressed the possible importance of the content of such judgments; that is, the material appearing in the brief vignettes or scenarios on which survey respondents base their evaluations. Indeed, this content has seemed an afterthought in most investigations. This paper closely examined the vast array of vignettes that have appeared in relevant research in an effort to reduce this proliferation to a more concise (...)
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  • Associations Between Epistemological Beliefs and Moral Reasoning: Evidence From Accounting.Natalia M. Mintchik & Timothy A. Farmer - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (2):259-275.
    We investigated associations between moral reasoning and epistemological beliefs in an accounting context using the sample of 140 senior accounting students from a public university in Midwestern U. S. We found no significant correlations between accounting students' principled reasoning about Thome's ethical dilemmas and their beliefs about knowledge measured by administering Schommer epistemological questionnaire. We conducted post-hoc power analysis and present the evidence that the lack of associations should not be attributed to the lack of power. Overall, our results suggest (...)
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  • Attitudes About Corporate Social Responsibility: Business Student Predictors.Robert W. Kolodinsky, Timothy M. Madden, Daniel S. Zisk & Eric T. Henkel - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):167-181.
    Four predictors were posited to affect business student attitudes about the social responsibilities of business, also known as corporate social responsibility (CSR). Applying Forsyth's (1980, "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 39, 175–184, 1992, "Journal of Business Ethics" 11, 461–470) personal moral philosophy model, we found that ethical idealism had a positive relationship with CSR attitudes, and ethical relativism a negative relationship. We also found materialism to be negatively related to CSR attitudes. Spirituality among business students did not significantly predict (...)
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  • The Role of Ethical Ideology in Workplace Deviance.Christine A. Henle, Robert A. Giacalone & Carole L. Jurkiewicz - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (3):219-230.
    Ethical ideology is predicted to play a role in the occurrence of workplace deviance. Forsyths (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire measures two dimensions of ethical ideology: idealism and relativism. It is hypothesized that idealism will be negatively correlated with employee deviance while relativism will be positively related. Further, it is predicted that idealism and relativism will interact in such a way that there will only be a relationship between idealism and deviance when relativism is higher. Results supported the hypothesized correlations and (...)
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  • Psychometric Properties of the Reidenbach–Robin Multidimensional Ethics Scale.Joan Marie McMahon & Robert J. Harvey - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (1):27-39.
    The factor structure of the Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES; Reidenbach and Robin: 1988, Journal of Business Ethics 7, 871–879; 1990, Journal of Business Ethics 9, 639–653) was examined for the 8-item short form (N = 328) and the original 30-item pool (N = 260). The objectives of the study were: to verify the dimensionality of the MES; to increase the amount of true cross-scenario variance through the use of 18 scenarios varying in moral intensity (Jones: 1991, Academy of Management Review (...)
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  • The Impact of Ethical Ideologies, Moral Intensity, and Social Context on Sales-Based Ethical Reasoning.Sean R. Valentine & Connie R. Bateman - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):155-168.
    Previous research indicates that ethical ideologies, issue-contingencies, and social context can impact ethical reasoning in different business situations. However, the manner in which these constructs work together to shape different steps of the ethical decision-making process is not always clear. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by exploring the influence of idealism and relativism, perceived moral intensity in a decision-making situation, and social context on the recognition of an ethical issue and ethical intention. Utilizing a sales-based (...)
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  • Measuring Professional Ethics in Coaching: Development of the PISC-Q.Melissa Thompson & Kristen Dieffenbach - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (6):507-523.
    Sport is commonly lauded as the ideal place for participants to learn life skills. However, concerns related to the “win-centered” sport culture has spurred research into ethical behaviors in sport. The purpose of the present study was to create a measure of professional ethics in coaching. Students enrolled in a collegiate coaching education course responded to a series of vignettes related to common situations in the coaching profession. Results indicate the Professional Issues in Sport Coaching Questionnaire is an acceptable measure (...)
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  • Measuring Consumers' Ethical Position in Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA.C. C. Cui, V. Mitchell, B. Schlegelmilch & T. B. Cornwell - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (1):57-71.
    Previous studies have found Forsyth’s Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) to vary between countries, but none has made a systematic evaluation of its psychometric properties across consumers from many countries. Using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group LISREL analysis, this paper explores the factor structure of the EPQ and the measurement equivalence in five societies: Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA. The results suggest that the modified scale, measuring idealism and relativism, was applicable in all five societies. Equivalence was found across (...)
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