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  1. The Concept of Unit Coherence and Its Application to Psychology Theories.David Trafimow - 2012 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (2):131-154.
    Philosophers and scientists agree that an important characteristic of theories is their internal coherence. I propose that there is a particular type of internal coherence, termed “unit coherence,” that has received insufficient attention from psychologists. When psychologists theorize about the mechanisms that bring about human behavior, the units in which the variables are expressed need to be consistent throughout the theory; this is unit coherence. The theory of reasoned action is an example of a unit incoherent theory. I explain why (...)
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  • Modelling Individual Expertise in Group Judgements.Dominik Klein & Jan Sprenger - 2015 - Economics and Philosophy 31 (1):3-25.
    Group judgements are often – implicitly or explicitly – influenced by their members’ individual expertise. However, given that expertise is seldom recognized fully and that some distortions may occur (bias, correlation, etc.), it is not clear that differential weighting is an epistemically advantageous strategy with respect to straight averaging. Our paper characterizes a wide set of conditions under which differential weighting outperforms straight averaging and embeds the results into the multidisciplinary group decision-making literature.
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  • Non Causal Theories and Using Auxiliary Assumptions to Handle Situation‐Specificity.David Trafimow - 2017 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 47 (2):154-158.
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  • The Use of Recognition in Group Decision‐Making.Torsten Reimer & Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (6):1009-1029.
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  • An Interactionist Approach to Cognitive Debiasing.Steven Bland - 2022 - Episteme 19 (1):66-88.
    This paper examines three programmatic responses to the problem of cognitive bias: virtue epistemology, epistemic paternalism, and epistemic collectivism. Each of these programmes focuses on a single level of epistemic analysis: virtue theorists on individuals, paternalists on environments, and collectivists on groups. I argue that this is a mistake in light of the fact that cognitive biases arise from interactions between these three domains. Consequently, epistemologists should spend less time defending these programmes, and more time coordinating them. This paper offers (...)
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  • An Examination of Mind Perception and Moral Reasoning in Ethical Decision-Making: A Mixed-Methods Approach.Isaac H. Smith, Andrew T. Soderberg, Ekaterina Netchaeva & Gerardo A. Okhuysen - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    Taking an abductive, mixed-methods approach, we explore the content of people’s moral deliberations. In Study 1, we gather qualitative data from small groups of graduate business students discussing moral dilemmas. We analyze their conversations with a focus on how participants perceive others’ thoughts, opinions, and evaluations about the dilemmas and incorporate them into their reasoning. Ascribing such capacities to think and feel to others—i.e., mind perception—is central to morality. We use the conversations in Study 1 to identify whose minds participants (...)
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  • Disagreement Behind the Veil of Ignorance.Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra, Mark Colyvan, Carlo Martini, Giacomo Sillari & Jan Sprenger - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 170 (3):377-394.
    In this paper we argue that there is a kind of moral disagreement that survives the Rawlsian veil of ignorance. While a veil of ignorance eliminates sources of disagreement stemming from self-interest, it does not do anything to eliminate deeper sources of disagreement. These disagreements not only persist, but transform their structure once behind the veil of ignorance. We consider formal frameworks for exploring these differences in structure between interested and disinterested disagreement, and argue that consensus models offer us a (...)
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  • The Adaptive Use of Recognition in Group Decision Making.Juliane E. Kämmer, Wolfgang Gaissmaier, Torsten Reimer & Carsten C. Schermuly - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (5):911-942.
    Applying the framework of ecological rationality, the authors studied the adaptivity of group decision making. In detail, they investigated whether groups apply decision strategies conditional on their composition in terms of task-relevant features. The authors focused on the recognition heuristic, so the task-relevant features were the validity of the group members' recognition and knowledge, which influenced the potential performance of group strategies. Forty-three three-member groups performed an inference task in which they had to infer which of two German companies had (...)
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  • Bias in Judgment: Comparing Individuals and Groups.Norbert L. Kerr, Robert J. MacCoun & Geoffrey P. Kramer - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (4):687-719.
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  • The Robust Beauty of Majority Rules in Group Decisions.Reid Hastie & Tatsuya Kameda - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (2):494-508.
  • Power, Approach, and Inhibition.Dacher Keltner, Deborah H. Gruenfeld & Cameron Anderson - 2003 - Psychological Review 110 (2):265-284.
  • Decision Making: Social and Creative Dimensions.Carl Martin Allwood & Marcus Selart - 2010 - In Carl Martin Allwood & Marcus Selart (eds.), Decision making: Social and creative dimensions. Springer Media.
    This volume presents research that integrates decision making and creativity within the social contexts in which these processes occur. The volume is an essential addition to and expansion of recent approaches to decision making. Such approaches attempt to incorporate more of the psychological and socio-cultural context in which human decision making takes place. The authors come from different disciplines and also belong to a broad spectrum of research traditions. They present innovative chapters dealing with both theoretical and empirical aspects of (...)
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  • Distributed Mental Models: Mental Models in Distributed Cognitive Systems.Adrian P. Banks & Lynne J. Millward - 2009 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 30 (4):249-266.
    The function of groups as information processors is increasingly being recognised in a number of theories of group cognition. A theme of many of these is an emphasis on sharing cognition. This paper extends current conceptualisations of groups by critiquing the focus on shared cognition and emphasising the distribution of cognition in groups. In particular, it develops an account of the distribution of one cognitive construct, mental models. Mental models have been chosen as a focus because they are used in (...)
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  • Why Do Humans Reason? Arguments for an Argumentative Theory.Dan Sperber - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):57.
    Short abstract (98 words). Reasoning is generally seen as a means to improve knowledge and make better decisions. However, much evidence shows that reasoning often leads to epistemic distortions and poor decisions. This suggests that the function of reasoning should be rethought. Our hypothesis is that the function of reasoning is argumentative. It is to devise and evaluate arguments intended to persuade. Reasoning so conceived is adaptive given humans’ exceptional dependence on communication and vulnerability to misinformation. A wide range of (...)
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  • The Ecological Rationality of Simple Group Heuristics: Effects of Group Member Strategies on Decision Accuracy.Torsten Reimer & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2006 - Theory and Decision 60 (4):403-438.
    The notion of ecological rationality implies that the accuracy of a decision strategy depends on features of the information environment in which it is tested. We demonstrate that the performance of a group may be strongly affected by the decision strategies used by its individual members and specify how this effect is moderated by environmental features. Specifically, in a set of simulation studies, we systematically compared four decision strategies used by the individual group members: two linear, compensatory decision strategies and (...)
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  • Clinical Ethics and the Dynamics of Group Decision-Making: Applying the Psychological Data to Decisions Made by Ethics Committees. [REVIEW]Erica K. Rangel - 2009 - HEC Forum 21 (2):207-228.
    Clinical Ethics and the Dynamics of Group Decision-Making: Applying the Psychological Data to Decisions Made by Ethics Committees Content Type Journal Article Pages 207-228 DOI 10.1007/s10730-009-9096-7 Authors Erica K. Rangel, Saint Louis University Department of Health Care Ethics 6333 North Rosebury Ave #3W St. Louis MO 63105 USA Journal HEC Forum Online ISSN 1572-8498 Print ISSN 0956-2737 Journal Volume Volume 21 Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 2.
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  • Thirteen Theorems in Search of the Truth.Bernard Grofman, Guillermo Owen & Scott L. Feld - 1983 - Theory and Decision 15 (3):261-278.
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  • Correct Me If I'm Wrong: Groups Outperform Individuals in the Climate Stabilization Task.Belinda Xie, Mark J. Hurlstone & Iain Walker - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • The Social-Devaluation Effect: Interactive Evaluation Deteriorates Likeability of Objects Based on Daily Relationship.Atsunori Ariga - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Burden of Social Proof: Shared Thresholds and Social Influence.Robert J. MacCoun - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (2):345-372.
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  • The Social Origins of Folk Epistemology.Hugo Mercier - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (4):499-514.
    Because reasoning allows us to justify our beliefs and evaluate these justifications it is central to folk epistemology. Following Sperber, and contrary to classical views, it will be argued that reasoning evolved not to complement individual cognition but as an argumentative device. This hypothesis is more consistent with the prevalence of the confirmation and disconfirmation biases. It will be suggested that these biases render the individual use of reasoning hazardous, but that when reasoning is used in its natural, argumentative, context (...)
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  • Strategies for Advice Taking: The Role of Epistemic Social Information.Annika Wallin & Richard McElreath - 2015 - Economics and Philosophy 31 (1):67-91.
    How does an individual decision maker update his or her beliefs in the light of others’ beliefs? We present an empirical investigation that varies decision makers’ access to other peoples’ beliefs: whether they know what course of action others have taken and whether they know why this course of action was taken.We propose a number of process models of advice taking that do and do not accommodate the reasons given for belief, and evaluate which is used through model comparison techniques.
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  • Reasoning, Robots, and Navigation: Dual Roles for Deductive and Abductive Reasoning.Janet Wiles - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):92-92.
    Mercier & Sperber (M&S) argue for their argumentative theory in terms of communicative abilities. Insights can be gained by extending the discussion beyond human reasoning to rodent and robot navigation. The selection of arguments and conclusions that are mutually reinforcing can be cast as a form of abductive reasoning that I argue underlies the construction of cognitive maps in navigation tasks.
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