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Modal Logic: An Introduction

Cambridge University Press (1980)

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  1. A Method of Generating Modal Logics Defining Jaśkowski’s Discussive Logic D2.Marek Nasieniewski & Andrzej Pietruszczak - 2011 - Studia Logica 97 (1):161-182.
    Jaśkowski’s discussive logic D2 was formulated with the help of the modal logic S5 as follows : \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${A \in {D_{2}}}$$\end{document} iff \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\ulcorner\diamond{{A}^{\bullet}}\urcorner \in {\rm S}5}$$\end{document}, where • is a translation of discussive formulae from Ford into the modal language. We say that a modal logic L defines D2 iff \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${{\rm D}_{2} = \{A \in (...)
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  • A Paraconsistentist Approach to Chisholm's Paradox.Marcelo Esteban Coniglio & Newton Marques Peron - 2009 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 13 (3):299-326.
    The Logics of Deontic (In)Consistency (LDI's) can be considered as the deontic counterpart of the paraconsistent logics known as Logics of Formal (In)Consistency. This paper introduces and studies new LDI's and other paraconsistent deontic logics with different properties: systems tolerant to contradictory obligations; systems in which contradictory obligations trivialize; and a bimodal paraconsistent deontic logic combining the features of previous systems. These logics are used to analyze the well-known Chisholm's paradox, taking profit of the fact that, besides contradictory obligations do (...)
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  • Logic, Reasoning, and Rationality.Erik Weber, Joke Meheus & Dietlinde Wouters (eds.) - 2014 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the Logic, Reasoning and Rationality 2010 conference in Ghent. The conference aimed at stimulating the use of formal frameworks to explicate concrete cases of human reasoning, and conversely, to challenge scholars in formal studies by presenting them with interesting new cases of actual reasoning. According to the members of the Wiener Kreis, there was a strong connection between logic, reasoning, and rationality and that human reasoning is rational in so far (...)
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  • Uncertainty, Rationality, and Agency.Wiebe van der Hoek - 2006 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    This volume concerns Rational Agents - humans, players in a game, software or institutions - which must decide the proper next action in an atmosphere of partial information and uncertainty. The book collects formal accounts of Uncertainty, Rationality and Agency, and also of their interaction. It will benefit researchers in artificial systems which must gather information, reason about it and then make a rational decision on which action to take.
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  • Truth and Falsehood: An Inquiry Into Generalized Logical Values.Yaroslav Shramko & Heinrich Wansing - 2011 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    The book presents a thoroughly elaborated logical theory of generalized truth-values understood as subsets of some established set of truth values. After elucidating the importance of the very notion of a truth value in logic and philosophy, we examine some possible ways of generalizing this notion. The useful four-valued logic of first-degree entailment by Nuel Belnap and the notion of a bilattice constitute the basis for further generalizations. By doing so we elaborate the idea of a multilattice, and most notably, (...)
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  • Neighborhood Semantics for Modal Logic.Eric Pacuit - 2017 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    This book offers a state-of-the-art introduction to the basic techniques and results of neighborhood semantics for modal logic. In addition to presenting the relevant technical background, it highlights both the pitfalls and potential uses of neighborhood models – an interesting class of mathematical structures that were originally introduced to provide a semantics for weak systems of modal logic. In addition, the book discusses a broad range of topics, including standard modal logic results ; bisimulations for neighborhood models and other model-theoretic (...)
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  • Nuel Belnap on Indeterminism and Free Action.Thomas Müller (ed.) - 2014 - Wien, Austria: Springer.
    This volume seeks to further the use of formal methods in clarifying one of the central problems of philosophy: that of our free human agency and its place in our indeterministic world. It celebrates the important contributions made in this area by Nuel Belnap, American logician and philosopher. Philosophically, indeterminism and free action can seem far apart, but in Belnap’s work, they are intimately linked. This book explores their philosophical interconnectedness through a selection of original research papers that build forth (...)
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  • Natural Deduction, Hybrid Systems and Modal Logics.Andrzej Indrzejczak - 2010 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    This book provides a detailed exposition of one of the most practical and popular methods of proving theorems in logic, called Natural Deduction. It is presented both historically and systematically. Also some combinations with other known proof methods are explored. The initial part of the book deals with Classical Logic, whereas the rest is concerned with systems for several forms of Modal Logics, one of the most important branches of modern logic, which has wide applicability.
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  • Remarks on Logic and Critical Thinking.Mudasir Ahmad Tantray - 2021 - Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh 495001, India: Rudra Publications.
    This work is compiled for the students, research scholars, academicians, who are interested in logic, philosophy, mathematics and critical thinking. The main objective of this book is to provide basics or fundamental knowledge for those who have chosen logic as their subject in order to develop analytical and critical ideas. It has been primarily developed to serve as an introductory piece of work which includes explanatory notes on different courses like Inductive logic, Deductive logic, propositional logic, Symbolic logic, Quantification logic, (...)
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  • Philosophical Investigation Series: Selected Texts on Logic / Série Investigação Filosófica: Textos Selecionados de Lógica.Danilo Fraga Dantas & Rodrigo Cid - 2020 - Pelotas - Princesa, Pelotas - RS, Brasil: UFPEL's Publisher / Editora da UFPEL.
    Este livro marca o início da Série Investigação Filosófica. Uma série de livros de traduções de textos de plataformas internacionalmente reconhecidas, que possa servir tanto como material didático para os professores das diferentes subáreas e níveis da Filosofia quanto como material de estudo para o desenvolvimento pesquisas relevantes na área. Nós, professores, sabemos o quão difícil é encontrar bons materiais em português para indicarmos. E há uma certa deficiência na graduação brasileira de filosofia, principalmente em localizações menos favorecidas, com relação (...)
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  • Enciclopédia de Termos Lógico-Filosóficos.João Branquinho, Desidério Murcho & Nelson Gonçalves Gomes (eds.) - 2006 - São Paulo, SP, Brasil: Martins Fontes.
    Esta enciclopédia abrange, de uma forma introdutória mas desejavelmente rigorosa, uma diversidade de conceitos, temas, problemas, argumentos e teorias localizados numa área relativamente recente de estudos, os quais tem sido habitual qualificar como «estudos lógico-filosóficos». De uma forma apropriadamente genérica, e apesar de o território teórico abrangido ser extenso e de contornos por vezes difusos, podemos dizer que na área se investiga um conjunto de questões fundamentais acerca da natureza da linguagem, da mente, da cognição e do raciocínio humanos, bem (...)
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  • Deontic Logic and Normative Systems.Olivier Roy, Allard Tamminga & Malte Willer (eds.) - 2016 - London, UK: College Publications.
    The biennial DEON conferences are designed to promote interdisciplinary cooperation amongst scholars interested in linking the formal-logical study of normative concepts and normative systems with computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, organization theory and law. In addition to these general themes, DEON 2016 encouraged a special focus on the topic "Reasons, Argumentation and Justification.".
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  • Contrary-to-Duty Paradoxes and Counterfactual Deontic Logic.Daniel Rönnedal - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (4):1247-1282.
    In this paper, I will discuss some examples of the so-called contrary-to-duty paradox, a well-known puzzle in deontic logic. A contrary-to-duty obligation is an obligation telling us what ought to be the case if something forbidden is true, for example: ‘If she is guilty, she should confess’. Contrary-to-duty obligations are important in our moral and legal thinking. Therefore, we want to be able to find an adequate symbolisation of such obligations in some logical system, a task that has turned out (...)
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  • Moore’s Paradox, Introspection and Doxastic Logic.Adam Rieger - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):215-227.
    An analysis of Moore's paradox is given in doxastic logic. Logics arising from formalizations of various introspective principles are compared; one logic, K5c, emerges as privileged in the sense that it is the weakest to avoid Moorean belief. Moreover it has other attractive properties, one of which is that it can be justified solely in terms of avoiding false belief. Introspection is therefore revealed as less relevant to the Moorean problem than first appears.
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  • Error, Consistency and Triviality.Christine Tiefensee & Gregory Wheeler - 2021 - Noûs (3):602-618.
    In this paper, we present a new semantic challenge to the moral error theory. Its first component calls upon moral error theorists to deliver a deontic semantics that is consistent with the error-theoretic denial of moral truths by returning the truth-value false to all moral deontic sentences. We call this the ‘consistency challenge’ to the moral error theory. Its second component demands that error theorists explain in which way moral deontic assertions can be seen to differ in meaning despite necessarily (...)
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  • Monotonic modal logics with a conjunction.Paula Menchón & Sergio Celani - 2021 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 60 (7):857-877.
    Monotone modal logics have emerged in several application areas such as computer science and social choice theory. Since many of the most studied selfextensional logics have a conjunction, in this paper we study some distributive extensions obtained from a semilattice based deductive system with monotonic modal operators, and we give them neighborhood and algebraic semantics. For each logic defined our main objective is to prove completeness with respect to its characteristic class of monotonic frames.
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  • Doxastic Logic: A New Approach.Daniel Rönnedal - 2018 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 28 (4):313-347.
    In this paper, I develop a new set of doxastic logical systems and I show how they can be used to solve several well-known problems in doxastic logic, for example the so-called problem of logical omniscience. According to this puzzle, the notions of knowledge and belief that are used in ordinary epistemic and doxastic symbolic systems are too idealised. Hence, those systems cannot be used to model ordinary human or human-like agents' beliefs. At best, they can describe idealised individuals. The (...)
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  • The Zombie Attack on the Computational Conception of Mind.Selmer Bringsjord - 1999 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):41 - 69.
    Is it true that if zombies---creatures who are behaviorally indistinguishable from us, but no more conscious than a rock-are logically possible, the computational conception of mind is false? Are zombies logically possible? Are they physically possible? This paper is a careful, sustained argument for affirmative answers to these three questions.
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  • The Moral Law and The Good in Temporal Modal Logic with Propositional Quantifiers.Daniel Rönnedal - 2020 - Australasian Journal of Logic 17 (1):22.
    The Moral Law is fulfilled iff everything that ought to be the case is the case, and The Good is realised in a possible world w at a time t iff w is deontically accessible from w at t. In this paper, I will introduce a set of temporal modal deontic systems with propositional quantifiers that can be used to prove some interesting theorems about The Moral Law and The Good. First, I will describe a set of systems without any (...)
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  • Boulesic-Doxastic Logic.Daniel Rönnedal - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Logic 16 (3):83.
    In this paper, I will develop a set of boulesic-doxastic tableau systems and prove that they are sound and complete. Boulesic-doxastic logic consists of two main parts: a boulesic part and a doxastic part. By ‘boulesic logic’ I mean ‘the logic of the will’, and by ‘doxastic logic’ I mean ‘the logic of belief’. The first part deals with ‘boulesic’ concepts, expressions, sentences, arguments and theorems. I will concentrate on two types of boulesic expression: ‘individual x wants it to be (...)
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  • Semantics for Counterpossibles.Yale Weiss - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Logic 14 (4):383-407.
    The object of this paper is to examine two approaches to giving non-vacuous truth conditions for counterpossibles, counterfactuals with impossible antecedents. I first develop modifications of a Lewis-style sphere semantics with impossible worlds. I argue that this approach sanctions intuitively invalid inferences and is supported by philosophically problematic foundations. I then develop modifications of certain ceteris paribus conditional logics with impossible worlds. Tableaux are given for each of these in an appendix and soundness and completeness results are proved. While certain (...)
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  • Combinatorial Bitstring Semantics for Arbitrary Logical Fragments.Lorenz6 Demey & Hans5 Smessaert - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (2):325-363.
    Logical geometry systematically studies Aristotelian diagrams, such as the classical square of oppositions and its extensions. These investigations rely heavily on the use of bitstrings, which are compact combinatorial representations of formulas that allow us to quickly determine their Aristotelian relations. However, because of their general nature, bitstrings can be applied to a wide variety of topics in philosophical logic beyond those of logical geometry. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to present a systematic technique for assigning bitstrings (...)
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  • Model Theoretical Aspects of Weakly Aggregative Modal Logic.Jixin Liu, Yifeng Ding & Yanjing Wang - 2022 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 31 (2):261-286.
    Weakly Aggregative Modal Logic ) is a collection of disguised polyadic modal logics with n-ary modalities whose arguments are all the same. \ has interesting applications on epistemic logic, deontic logic, and the logic of belief. In this paper, we study some basic model theoretical aspects of \. Specifically, we first give a van Benthem–Rosen characterization theorem of \ based on an intuitive notion of bisimulation. Then, in contrast to many well known normal or non-normal modal logics, we show that (...)
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  • Research in Progress: Report on the ICAIL 2017 Doctoral Consortium.Maria Dymitruk, Réka Markovich, Rūta Liepiņa, Mirna El Ghosh, Robert van Doesburg, Guido Governatori & Bart Verheij - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (1):49-97.
    This paper arose out of the 2017 international conference on AI and law doctoral consortium. There were five students who presented their Ph.D. work, and each of them has contributed a section to this paper. The paper offers a view of what topics are currently engaging students, and shows the diversity of their interests and influences.
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  • Studies in the Logic of K -Onfirmation.Clayton Peterson - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (2):437-471.
    This research article revisits Hempel’s logic of confirmation in light of recent developments in categorical proof theory. While Hempel advocated several logical conditions in favor of a purely syntactical definition of a general non-quantitative concept of confirmation, we show how these criteria can be associated to specific logical properties of monoidal modal deductive systems. In addition, we show that many problems in confirmation logic, such as the tacked disjunction, the problem of weakening with background knowledge and the problem of irrelevant (...)
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  • Krister Segerberg on Logic of Actions.Robert Trypuz (ed.) - 2013 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer Verlag.
    Belief revision from the point of view of doxastic logic. Logic Journal of the IGPL, 3(4), 535–553. Segerberg, K. (1995). Conditional action. In G. Crocco, L. Fariñas, & A. Herzig (Eds.), Conditionals: From philosophy to computer science, Studies ...
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  • Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics.Alexandru Baltag & Sonja Smets (eds.) - 2014 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
    This book illustrates the program of Logical-Informational Dynamics. Rational agents exploit the information available in the world in delicate ways, adopt a wide range of epistemic attitudes, and in that process, constantly change the world itself. Logical-Informational Dynamics is about logical systems putting such activities at center stage, focusing on the events by which we acquire information and change attitudes. Its contributions show many current logics of information and change at work, often in multi-agent settings where social behavior is essential, (...)
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  • Logics of Formal Inconsistency Enriched with Replacement: An Algebraic and Modal Account.Walter Carnielli, Marcelo E. Coniglio & David Fuenmayor - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic.
    One of the most expected properties of a logical system is that it can be algebraizable, in the sense that an algebraic counterpart of the deductive machinery could be found. Since the inception of da Costa's paraconsistent calculi, an algebraic equivalent for such systems have been searched. It is known that these systems are non self-extensional (i.e., they do not satisfy the replacement property). More than this, they are not algebraizable in the sense of Blok-Pigozzi. The same negative results hold (...)
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  • Die kausale Struktur der Welt: Eine philosophische Untersuchung über Verursachung, Naturgesetze, freie Handlungen, Möglichkeit und Gottes kausale Rolle in der Welt.Daniel von Wachter - 2009 - Alber.
  • First-Order Modal Logic.Melvin Chris Fitting & Richard L. Mendelsohn - 1998 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This is a thorough treatment of first-order modal logic. The book covers such issues as quantification, equality (including a treatment of Frege's morning star/evening star puzzle), the notion of existence, non-rigid constants and function symbols, predicate abstraction, the distinction between nonexistence and nondesignation, and definite descriptions, borrowing from both Fregean and Russellian paradigms.
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  • Games: Unifying Logic, Language, and Philosophy.Ondrej Majer, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Tero Tulenheimo (eds.) - 2009 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer Verlag.
    This volume presents mathematical game theory as an interface between logic and philosophy.
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  • Post Completeness in Congruential Modal Logics.Peter Fritz - 2016 - In Lev Beklemishev, Stéphane Demri & András Máté (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 11. College Publications. pp. 288-301.
    Well-known results due to David Makinson show that there are exactly two Post complete normal modal logics, that in both of them, the modal operator is truth-functional, and that every consistent normal modal logic can be extended to at least one of them. Lloyd Humberstone has recently shown that a natural analog of this result in congruential modal logics fails, by showing that not every congruential modal logic can be extended to one in which the modal operator is truth-functional. As (...)
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  • Applied Logic Without Psychologism.Gregory Wheeler - 2008 - Studia Logica 88 (1):137-156.
    Logic is a celebrated representation language because of its formal generality. But there are two senses in which a logic may be considered general, one that concerns a technical ability to discriminate between different types of individuals, and another that concerns constitutive norms for reasoning as such. This essay embraces the former, permutation-invariance conception of logic and rejects the latter, Fregean conception of logic. The question of how to apply logic under this pure invariantist view is addressed, and a methodology (...)
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  • Equivalence of Defeasible Normative Systems.José Júlio Alferes, Ricardo Gonçalves & João Leite - 2013 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 23 (1-2):25-48.
    Normative systems have been advocated as an effective tool to regulate interaction in multi-agent systems. The use of deontic operators and the ability to represent defeasible information are known to be two fundamental ingredients to represent and reason about normative systems. In this paper, after introducing a framework that combines standard deontic logic and non-monotonic logic programming, deontic logic programs (DLP), we tackle the fundamental problem of equivalence between normative systems using a deontic extension of David Pearce?s Equilibrium Logic and (...)
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  • Prima Facie and Seeming Duties.Michael Morreau - 1996 - Studia Logica 57 (1):47 - 71.
    Sir David Ross introduced prima facie duties, or acts with a tendency to be duties proper. He also spoke of general prima facie principles, wwhich attribute to acts having some feature the tendency to be a duty proper. Like Utilitarians from Mill to Hare, he saw a role for such principles in the epistemology of duty: in the process by means of which, in any given situation, a moral code can help us to find out what we ought to do.After (...)
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  • Impossible Worlds and the Logic of Imagination.Francesco Berto - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (6):1277-1297.
    I want to model a finite, fallible cognitive agent who imagines that p in the sense of mentally representing a scenario—a configuration of objects and properties—correctly described by p. I propose to capture imagination, so understood, via variably strict world quantifiers, in a modal framework including both possible and so-called impossible worlds. The latter secure lack of classical logical closure for the relevant mental states, while the variability of strictness captures how the agent imports information from actuality in the imagined (...)
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  • Hennessy-Milner and Van Benthem for Instantial Neighbourhood Logic.Jim de Groot - 2022 - Studia Logica 110 (3):717-743.
    We investigate bisimulations for instantial neighbourhood logic and an \-indexed collection of its fragments. For each of these logics we give a Hennessy-Milner theorem and a Van Benthem-style characterisation theorem.
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  • Pooling Modalities and Pointwise Intersection: Semantics, Expressivity, and Dynamics.Frederik Van De Putte & Dominik Klein - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (3):485-523.
    We study classical modal logics with pooling modalities, i.e. unary modal operators that allow one to express properties of sets obtained by the pointwise intersection of neighbourhoods. We discuss salient properties of these modalities, situate the logics in the broader area of modal logics, establish key properties concerning their expressive power, discuss dynamic extensions of these logics and provide reduction axioms for the latter.
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  • Formal Learning Theory.Oliver Schulte - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Formal learning theory is the mathematical embodiment of a normative epistemology. It deals with the question of how an agent should use observations about her environment to arrive at correct and informative conclusions. Philosophers such as Putnam, Glymour and Kelly have developed learning theory as a normative framework for scientific reasoning and inductive inference.
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  • Abstract Objects.Gideon Rosen - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Deontic Logic.Paul McNamara - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Epistemic Logic.Vincent Hendricks - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Epistemic logic is the logic of knowledge and belief. It provides insight into the properties of individual knowers, has provided a means to model complicated scenarios involving groups of knowers and has improved our understanding of the dynamics of inquiry.
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  • Modal Logic.James W. Garson - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Modern Origins of Modal Logic.Roberta Ballarin - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
     
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  • Neighbourhood Semantics for Modal Relevant Logics.Nicholas Ferenz & Andrew Tedder - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-37.
    In this paper, we investigate neighbourhood semantics for modal extensions of relevant logics. In particular, we combine the neighbourhood interpretation of the relevant implication with a neighbourhood interpretation of modal operators. We prove completeness for a range of systems and investigate the relations between neighbourhood models and relational models, setting out a range of augmentation conditions for the various relations and operations.
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  • Relevant propositional dynamic logic.Andrew Tedder & Marta Bilková - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-42.
    Relevant propositional dynamic logics have been sporadically discussed in the broader context of modal relevant logics, but have not come up for sustained investigation until recently. In this paper, we develop a philosophical motivation for these systems, and present some new results suggested by the proposed motivation. Among these, we’ll show how to adapt some recent work to show that the extensions of relevant logics by the extensional truth constants \ are complete with respect to a natural class of ternary (...)
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  • Canonicity for Intensional Logics Without Iterative Axioms.Timothy J. Surendonk - 1997 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 26 (4):391-409.
    David Lewis proved in 1974 that all logics without iterative axioms are weakly complete. In this paper we extend Lewis's ideas and provide a proof that such logics are canonical and so strongly complete. This paper also discusses the differences between relational and neighborhood frame semantics and poses a number of open questions about the latter.
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  • Deontic Logic.Paul McNamara - 2006 - In Dov Gabbay & John Woods (eds.), The Handbook of the History of Logic, vol. 7: Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century. Elsevier Press. pp. 197-288.
    Overview of fundamental work in deontic logic.
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  • Once More About Moore’s Paradox in Epistemic Logic and Belief Change Theory.Marek Lechniak - 2018 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 66 (3):77-99.
    In this article, it was first presented Moore’s paradox per se and after the author focused on the logical perspective — at first he analyzed these considerations in the field of so-called standard epistemic logic and after on the formal theory of belief change.
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  • Operator Arguments Revisited.Juhani Yli-Vakkuri, John Hawthorne & Peter Fritz - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (11):2933-2959.
    Certain passages in Kaplan’s ‘Demonstratives’ are often taken to show that non-vacuous sentential operators associated with a certain parameter of sentential truth require a corresponding relativism concerning assertoric contents: namely, their truth values also must vary with that parameter. Thus, for example, the non-vacuity of a temporal sentential operator ‘always’ would require some of its operands to have contents that have different truth values at different times. While making no claims about Kaplan’s intentions, we provide several reconstructions of how such (...)
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