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  1. How Heaven and Humanity Are United as One: Tong as an Alternative to Tianren Heyi.Fan He - 2022 - Philosophical Forum 53 (1):47-61.
    The Philosophical Forum, Volume 53, Issue 1, Page 47-61, Spring 2022.
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  • Harmonising with Heaven and Earth: Reciprocal Harmony and Xunzi's Environmental Ethics.Yi Jonathan Chua - 2022 - Environmental Values 31 (5):555-574.
    Xunzi's philosophy provides a rich resource for understanding how ethical relationships between humans and nature can be articulated in terms of harmony. In this paper, I build on his ideas to develop the concept of reciprocal harmony, which requires us to reciprocate those who make our lives liveable. In the context of the environment, I argue that reciprocal harmony generates moral obligations towards nature, in return for the existential debt that humanity owes towards heaven and earth. This can be used (...)
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  • Li (Ritual) in Early Confucianism.Thomas Radice - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (10):e12463.
    Li 禮 (translated variously as “ritual”, “etiquette”, or “propriety”) plays a central role in early Confucianism, but its complexity is not always fully understood. At first glance, it may seem as if li behaviors are merely attempts to promote conservative practices from the idealized Chinese past. However, by examining the nature and function of li, as described the Analects (Lunyu 論語) and the Xunzi 荀子 (two key texts in the early Confucian tradition), it becomes overwhelmingly apparent that li is a (...)
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  • Early Confucianism and Contemporary Moral Psychology.Richard Kim - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (9):473-485.
    The aim of this essay is to introduce scholars to recent discussions of early Confucian ethics that intersect with contemporary moral psychology. Given the early Confucian tradition's intense focus on the cultivation of virtue, there are a number of ways in which early Confucian thinkers – as represented in the texts of the Analects, the Mencius, and the Xunzi – fruitfully engaged in a range of topics that are closely connected to live issues in moral psychology. Not only did they (...)
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  • Ren 仁 (Humaneness) and Li 禮 (Ritual) in a Painting Metaphor From the Perspective of Contextual Individuality.Yuzhou Yang - 2021 - Asian Philosophy 32 (1):88-103.
    The contextual dimension of ren or li is celebrated in English studies of Confucian ethics. However, it often gives way to the issue of individual practice in studies concerning the relationship be...
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  • From Wife to Moral Teacher: Kang Chŏngildang on Neo-Confucian Self-Cultivation.Sungmoon Kim - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (1):28-47.
    This paper aims to investigate the philosophical thought and moral practice of a Korean neo-Confucian female scholar named Kang Chŏngildang 姜靜一堂, who not only believed in moral equality between men and women and the possibility of female sagehood but actually empowered herself to become a moral paragon. Furthermore, Chŏngildang’s strong faith in moral equality between men and women enabled her to engage in social criticism of the existing educational system and social norms which discriminated against women, not by overcoming neo-Confucianism, (...)
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  • Ritual Education and Moral Development: A Comparison of Xunzi and Vygotsky.Colin Lewis - 2018 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 17 (1):81-98.
    Xunzi’s 荀子 advocacy for moral education is well-documented; precisely how his program bolsters moral development, and why a program touting study of ritual could be effective, remain subjects of debate. I argue that these matters can be clarified by appealing to the theory of learning and development offered by Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky posited that development depends primarily on social interactions mediated by sociocultural tools that modify learners’ cognitive architecture, enabling increasingly sophisticated thought. Vygotsky’s theory is remarkably similar to Xunzi’s account (...)
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  • A Theory of Interpretation for Comparative and Chinese Philosophy.Lin Ma & Jaap Van Brakel - 2016 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (4):575-589.
    Why should interpretation of conceptual schemes and practices across traditions work at all? In this paper we present the following necessary conditions of possibility for interpretation in comparative and Chinese philosophy: the interpreter must presuppose that there are mutually recognizable human practices; the interpreter must presuppose that “the other” is, on the whole, sincere, consistent, and right; the interpreter must be committed to certain epistemic virtues. Some of these necessary conditions are consistent with the fact that interpretation is not thwarted (...)
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  • Can Customer Loyalty Be Explained by Virtue Ethics? The Chinese Way.Kenneth K. Kwong, Felix Tang, Vane-ing Tian & Alex L. K. Fung - 2015 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 4 (1):101-115.
    Virtue ethics is regarded as the key in search of moral excellence among corporations. Yet, there are limited works to empirically investigate what virtuous character morally good corporations is expected to exhibit in the course of business from the perspective of customers. To fill this gap, we argue that customers are to evaluate firm’s virtuous character using Confucian cardinal virtues and perceived virtuousness determines customer loyalty. We test this argument using a sample of 276 Hong Kong Chinese. The result suggests (...)
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  • The Limitations of Ritual Propriety: Ritual and Language in Xúnzǐ and Zhuāngzǐ.Chris Fraser - 2012 - Sophia 51 (2):257-282.
    This essay examines the theory of ritual propriety presented in the Xúnzǐ and criticisms of Xunzi-like views found in the classical Daoist anthology Zhuāngzǐ. To highlight the respects in which the Zhuāngzǐ can be read as posing a critical response to a Xunzian view of ritual propriety, the essay juxtaposes the two texts' views of language, since Xunzi's theory of ritual propriety is intertwined with his theory of language. I argue that a Zhuangist critique of the presuppositions of Xunzi's stance (...)
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  • Aesthetic Leadership in Chinese Business: A Philosophical Perspective. [REVIEW]Haina Zhang, Malcolm H. Cone, André M. Everett & Graham Elkin - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (3):475-491.
    Confucian ethics play a pivotal role in guiding Chinese thinking and behaviour. Aesthetic leadership is emerging as a promising paradigm in leadership studies. This study investigates the practice of aesthetic leadership in Chinese organizations on the basis of Chinese philosophical foundations. We adopt a process perspective to access the aesthetic constellation of meanings present in the Chinese understanding of leadership, linking normative Confucian values to a pragmatic value rational world view, that rests on an ontology of vaguely defined norms that (...)
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  • The Phenomenology of Ritual Resistance: Colin Kaepernick as Confucian Sage.Philip J. Walsh - 2021 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 20 (1):1-24.
    In 2016, Colin Kaepernick, a quarterback for the San Francisco 49ers, remained seated during the national anthem in order to protest racial injustice and police brutality against African-Americans. After consulting with National Football League and military veteran Nate Boyer, Kaepernick switched to taking a knee during the anthem for the remainder of the season. Several NFL players and other professional athletes subsequently adopted this gesture. This article brings together complementary Confucian and phenomenological analyses to elucidate the significance of Kaepernick’s gesture, (...)
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  • Ritual and Rightness in the Analects.Hagop Sarkissian - 2013 - In Amy Olberding (ed.), Dao Companion to the Analects. pp. 95-116.
    Li (禮) and yi (義) are two central moral concepts in the Analects. Li has a broad semantic range, referring to formal ceremonial rituals on the one hand, and basic rules of personal decorum on the other. What is similar across the range of referents is that the li comprise strictures of correct behavior. The li are a distinguishing characteristic of Confucian approaches to ethics and socio-political thought, a set of rules and protocols that were thought to constitute the wise (...)
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  • Confucian Ritual as Body Language of Self, Society, and Spirit.Mary I. Bockover - 2012 - Sophia 51 (2):177-194.
    This article explains how li 禮 or ‘ritual propriety’ is the ‘body language’ of ren 仁 or the authentic expression of our humanity. Li and ren are interdependent aspects of a larger creative human way (rendao 仁道) that can be conceptually distinguished as follows: li refers to the ritualized social form of appropriate conduct and ren to the more general, authentically human spirit this expresses. Li is the social instrument for self-cultivation and the vehicle of harmonious human interaction. More, li (...)
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  • How Kierkegaard Can Help Us Understand Covering in Analects 13.18.Andrew James Komasinski - 2016 - Asian Philosophy 26 (2):133-148.
    ABSTRACTI suggest that Kierkegaard proves a helpful interlocutor in the debate about Analects 13.18 and the meaning of yin 隱. After surveying the contemporary debate, I argue that Kierkegaard and the Confucians agree on three important points. First, they both present relational selves. Second, both believe certain relationships are integral for moral knowledge. Third, both present a differentiated account of love where our obligations are highest to those with whom we are closest. Moreover, Kierkegaard’s ‘covering’ in the deliberation ‘Love covers (...)
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  • Taking Confucian Thought Seriously for Contemporary Society: Rejoinder to Lauren Pfister, Ronnie Littlejohn, and Li Chenyang.Ruiping Fan - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (3):413-420.
    This rejoinder focuses on a few points of disagreement that I have with Li Chenyang, Ronnie Littlejohn, and Lauren Pfister regarding their critical comments on my book Reconstructionist Confucianism. In response to Pfister’s concerns, I point out that my book attempts to base on classical, rather than other, Confucian sources in order to reconstruct the Confucian virtue-based, ritual-guided, and family-oriented view of life for contemporary society. In appreciating Littlejohn’s suggestion on Confucian environmentalism, I contend that a kind of Grand View (...)
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  • Characteristics of Confucian Rituals —A Critique of Fan Ruiping’s Interpretation.Chenyang Li - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (3):407-411.
    In this paper I argue that Fan Ruiping’s explication of the Confucian notion of li 禮 is problematic in several ways. First, his division of human activities into “social” and “natural” is less than illuminating, as human “natural” activities are already inescapably social. Second, I question the appropriateness for him to characterize li in terms of “closed activities,” as some rituals are evidently open-ended. Third, he seems to have overemphasized the constitutive function of li and understated its regulative function. Fourth, (...)
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  • From Desire to Civility: Is Xunzi a Hobbesian?Kim Sungmoon - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (3):291-309.
    This article argues that, contrary to conventional wisdom, Xunzi’s and Hobbes’s understandings of human nature are qualitatively different, which is responsible for the difference in their respective normative political theory of a civil polity. This article has two main theses: first, where Hobbes’s deepest concern was with human beings’ unsocial passions, Xunzi was most concerned with human beings’ appetitive desires ( yu 欲), material self-interest, and resulting social strife; second, as a result, where Hobbes strove to transform the pathological (anti-)politics (...)
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  • When My Grandfather Stole Persimmons... Reflections on Confucian Filial Love.Chenyang Li - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (2):135-139.
  • Self-Transformation and Civil Society: Lockean Vs. Confucian.Kim Sungmoon - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (4):383-401.
    Although contemporary Confucianists tend to view Western liberalism as pitting the individual against society, recent liberal scholarship has vigorously claimed that liberal polity is indeed grounded in the self-transformation that produces “liberal virtues.” To meet this challenge, this essay presents a sophisticated Confucian critique of liberalism by arguing that there is an appreciable contrast between liberal and Confucian self-transformation and between liberal and Confucian virtues. By contrasting Locke and Confucius, key representatives of each tradition, this essay shows that both liberalism (...)
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  • Beyond Rote-Memorisation: Confucius’ Concept of Thinking.Charlene Tan - 2015 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 47 (5):428-439.
    Confucian education is often associated with rote-memorisation that is characterised by sheer repetition of facts with no or little understanding of the content learnt. But does Confucian education necessarily promote rote-memorisation? What does Confucius himself have to say about education? This article aims to answer the above questions by examining Confucius’ concept of si based on a textual study of the Analects. It is argued that Confucius’ concept of si primarily involves an active inquiry into issues that concern one’s everyday (...)
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