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  1. The Influence of Subjective Norms on Whistle-Blowing: A Cross-Cultural Investigation. [REVIEW]Pailin Trongmateerut & John T. Sweeney - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):437-451.
    This research consists of two studies with interrelated objectives. The purpose of the first study is to develop and validate scales measuring whistle-blowing subjective norms, attitudes, and intentions. The objective of the second study is to test a model of whistle-blowing intentions, motivated by the theory of reasoned action, across two contrasting cultures: the collectivist Thai and the individualistic American. To achieve cross-cultural comparisons, we first perform measurement and structural invariance tests. Tests of latent mean differences lend support for our (...)
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  • Love of Money and Unethical Behavior Intention: Does an Authentic Supervisor’s Personal Integrity and Character Make a Difference? [REVIEW]Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Hsi Liu - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):295-312.
    We investigate the extent to which perceptions of the authenticity of supervisor’s personal integrity and character (ASPIRE) moderate the relationship between people’s love of money (LOM) and propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB) among 266 part-time employees who were also business students in a five-wave panel study. We found that a high level of ASPIRE perceptions was related to high love-of-money orientation, high self-esteem, but low unethical behavior intention (PUB). Unethical behavior intention (PUB) was significantly correlated with their high (...)
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  • Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior across College Major and Gender.Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):1-26.
    This research investigates the efficacy of business ethics intervention, tests a theoretical model that the love of money is directly or indirectly related to propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB), and treats college major (business vs. psychology) and gender (male vs. female) as moderators in multi-group analyses. Results suggested that business students who received business ethics intervention significantly changed their conceptions of unethical behavior and reduced their propensity to engage in theft; while psychology students without intervention had no such (...)
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  • Income and Quality of Life: Does the Love of Money Make a Difference?T. L. P. Tang - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (4):375-393.
    This paper examines a model of income and quality of life that controls the love of money, job satisfaction, gender, and marital status and treats employment status (full-time versus part-time), income level, and gender as moderators. For the whole sample, income was not significantly related to quality of life when this path was examined alone. When all variables were controlled, income was negatively related to quality of life. When (1) the love of money was negatively correlated to job satisfaction and (...)
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  • Finding the Lost Sheep: A Panel Study of Business Students' Intrinsic Religiosity, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior Intentions.Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2010 - Ethics and Behavior 20 (5):352-379.
    This research investigates 266 business students' panel data across 4 time periods and tests a theoretical model involving intrinsic religiosity, the love of money, Machiavellianism, and propensity to engage in unethical behaviors. There was a short ethics intervention between Times 3 and 4. We identified good apples and bad apples using the PUB measure collected at Time 4. From Time 3 to Time 4, good apples became more ethical, whereas bad apples became less ethical after the ethics intervention. Moreover, for (...)
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  • Falling or Not Falling into Temptation? Multiple Faces of Temptation, Monetary Intelligence, and Unethical Intentions Across Gender.Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Toto Sutarso - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):529-552.
    We develop a theoretical model, explore the relationship between temptation (both reflective and formative) and unethical intentions by treating monetary intelligence (MI) as a mediator, and examine the direct (temptation to unethical intentions) and indirect (temptation to MI to unethical intentions) paths simultaneously based on multiple-wave panel data collected from 340 part-time employees and university (business) students. The positive indirect path suggested that yielding to temptation (e.g., high cognitive impairment and lack of self-control) led to poor MI (low stewardship behavior, (...)
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  • Work-Related Behavioral Intentions in Macedonia: Coping Strategies, Work Environment, Love of Money, Job Satisfaction, and Demographic Variables. [REVIEW]Elisaveta Gjorgji Sardžoska & Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (3):373-391.
    Based on theory of planned behavior, we develop a theoretical model involving love of money (LOM), job satisfaction (attitude), coping strategies/responses (perceived behavioral control), work environment (subjective norm), and work-related behavioral intentions (behavioral intention). We tested this model using job satisfaction as a mediator and sector (public versus private), personal character (good apples versus bad apples), gender, and income as moderators in a sample of 515 employees and their managers in the Republic of Macedonia. For the whole sample, both coping (...)
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  • Testing a Model of Behavioral Intentions in the Republic of Macedonia: Differences Between the Private and the Public Sectors.Elisaveta Gjorgji Sardžoska & Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):495-517.
    In this study, we developed a model of unethical behavior intentions, collected data from managers of the private (n = 208) and the public (n = 307) sectors in the Republic of Macedonia, and tested our model across these two sectors. Results suggested that for both sectors, unethical behavior intentions were not related to the love of money and corporate ethical values, whereas irritation was negatively related to life satisfaction. Moreover, corporate ethical values were related to life satisfaction for the (...)
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  • Monetary Intelligence: Money Attitudes—Unethical Intentions, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction, and Coping Strategies Across Public and Private Sectors in Macedonia.Elisaveta Gjorgji Sardžoska & Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (1):93-115.
    Research suggests that attitudes guide individuals’ thinking and actions. In this study, we explore the monetary intelligence construct and investigate the relationships between a formative model of money attitudes involving affective, behavioral, and cognitive components and several sets of outcome variables—unethical intentions, intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, and coping strategies. Based on 515 managers in the Republic of Macedonia, we test our model for the whole sample and also cross sector and gender. Managers’ negative stewardship behavior and positive cognitive meaning (...)
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  • Religious Beliefs Inspire Sustainable HOPE (Help Ourselves Protect the Environment): Culture, Religion, Dogma, and Liturgy—The Matthew Effect in Religious Social Responsibility.Yalin Mo, Junyu Zhao & Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2023 - Journal of Business Ethics 184 (3):665-685.
    China has achieved economic prominence but damaged the natural environment. Can religions excite pro-environmental actions? Chinese religion encompasses Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, native Taoism, and indigenous folk beliefs (GuanDi and Mazu). We theorize that believers demonstrate more sustainable HOPE (Help Ourselves Protect the Environment) than non-believers. Religions with standardized and formal liturgy show more pro-environmental HOPE than those without it. We challenge the myth that the believers of Christianity and Islam display more sustainable HOPE than other faith. The 2013 Chinese General (...)
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  • In Search of Sustainable Behaviour: The Role of Core Values and Personality Traits.Joel Marcus & Jason Roy - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (1):63-79.
    Understanding the individual-level factors associated with sustainable behaviour in the workplace is important to advance corporate ethics and sustainability efforts. In two studies, we simultaneously assess the role of core values and personality traits in relation to a broad set of sustainability actions, both beneficial and harmful. Results from a student sample and then a national sample confirm that values and personality are distinct constructs that incrementally and differentially predict economic, social, and environmental outcomes. We successfully replicate previous findings pertaining (...)
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  • Investigating the Impacts of Organizational Factors on Employees’ Unethical Behavior Within Organization in the Context of Chinese Firms.Xiaolin Lin, Paul F. Clay, Nick Hajli & Majid Dadgar - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):779-791.
    Unethical behavior is under-examined in the workplace. To date, few studies have attempted to explore the antecedents of an employee’s ethical decisions, particularly with respect to unethical behavior and its effects. To capture an employee’s psychological perception of unethical behavior in the workplace, this paper integrates organizational factors into the Theory of Reasoned Action. By conducting an empirical study in a Chinese firm, we found that codes of conduct and performance pressure have a significant influence on an employee’s attitude toward (...)
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  • Misbehaving Lawyers: Cross-Country Comparisons.Leslie C. Levin - 2012 - Legal Ethics 15 (2):357-377.
    Lawyer misbehaviour occurs in every country and regulators often struggle to address it effectively. This article looks at six case studies of disciplined lawyers in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. It notes the similarities in the cases and to disciplined lawyers previously described in case studies in the United States. In particular, these case studies involved male lawyers predominantly working in solo or small firms who were insufficiently exposed to positive professional values early in practice. (...)
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  • Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes From the Perspective of Moral Culture: A Study of College Students.Wen Hu - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Although the issue of moral identity and morality is under investigation for the last many years, there is still a need to investigate its role in how it promotes behavior. This study tends to extend this string of literature and attempted to investigate the mediating role of moral reasoning among the elements of moral culture, prosocial behavior, and psychological wellbeing. For this purpose, college students were selected as participants in this study. For this purpose, a two-wave strategy was followed to (...)
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  • Ethically Questionable Behavior in Sales Representatives – An Example from the Taiwanese Pharmaceutical Industry.Ya-Hui Hsu, Wenchang Fang & Yuanchung Lee - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):155 - 166.
    Recent corporate disgraces and corruption have heightened concerns about ethically questionable behavior in business. The construct of ethically questionable behavior is an under-portrayed area of management field research, and deserves further studying, especially in sales positions. This study uses four variables from the human resource management field to explain the ethically questionable behavior of sales representatives in the pharmaceutical industry. These variables include frame pattern, commission structure, behavior control type, and marketing norm perceptions. This work uses a 2  2 (...)
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  • Ethically Questionable Behavior in Sales Representatives – An Example from the Taiwanese Pharmaceutical Industry.Ya-Hui Hsu, Wenchang Fang & Yuanchung Lee - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):155-166.
    Recent corporate disgraces and corruption have heightened concerns about ethically questionable behavior in business. The construct of ethically questionable behavior is an under-portrayed area of management field research, and deserves further studying, especially in sales positions. This study uses four variables from the human resource management field to explain the ethically questionable behavior of sales representatives in the pharmaceutical industry. These variables include frame pattern, commission structure, behavior control type, and marketing norm perceptions. This work uses a 2  2 (...)
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  • Stealing Time at Work: Attitudes, Social Pressure, and Perceived Control as Predictors of Time Theft.Christine A. Henle, Charlie L. Reeve & Virginia E. Pitts - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):53-67.
    Organizations have long struggled to find ways to reduce the occurrence of unethical behaviors by employees. Unfortunately, time theft, a common and costly form of ethical misconduct at work, has been understudied by ethics researchers. In order to remedy this gap in the literature, we used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate the antecedents of time theft, which includes behaviors such as arriving later to or leaving earlier from work than scheduled, taking additional or longer breaks than is (...)
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  • Does Moral Leadership Enhance Employee Creativity? Employee Identification with Leader and Leader–Member Exchange in the Chinese Context.Qinxuan Gu, Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Wan Jiang - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (3):513-529.
    In this article, drawing from a relational perspective, we explore the relationship between moral leadership and employee creativity, treat employee identification with leader and leader–member exchange as two mediators, and develop a new theoretical model of employee creativity. Our data collected from 160 supervisor–subordinate dyads in the People’s Republic of China demonstrate that moral leadership is positively related to both employee identification with leader and LMX. Further, employee identification with leader partially mediates the relationship between moral leadership and LMX. In (...)
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  • Shedding light on the relationships between Machiavellianism, career ambition, and unethical behavior intention.Mert Gürlek - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (1):38-59.
    Despite the long history of career research in the literature (Guerrier, 1987; Siu et al., 1997), researchers have largely neglected the dark sides of the antecedents and consequences of career amb...
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  • The Relationship Between Social Cynicism Belief, Social Dominance Orientation, and the Perception of Unethical Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Examination in Russia, Portugal, and the United States.Valerie Grissom, Miguel M. Torres, Olga Kovbasyuk, Theophilus B. A. Addo & Maria Cristina Ferreira - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):545-562.
    Most studies investigating the relationship between cultural constructs and ethical perception have focused on individual- and societal-level values without much attention to other type of cultural constructs such as social beliefs. In addition, we need to better understand how social beliefs are linked to ethical perception and the level of analysis at which social beliefs may best predict ethical perceptions. This research contributes to the cross-cultural ethical perception literature by examining the relationship of individual-level social cynicism belief, one of five (...)
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  • Organizational Ethics, Individual Ethics, and Ethical Intentions in International Decision-Making.B. Elango, Karen Paul, Sumit K. Kundu & Shishir K. Paudel - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (4):543 - 561.
    This study explores the impact of both individual ethics (IE) and organizational ethics (OE) on ethical intention (EI). Ethical intention, or the individual's intention to engage in ethical behavior, is useful as a dependent variable because it relates to behavior which can be an expression of values, but also is influenced by organizational and societal variables. The focus is on EI in international business decision-making, since the international context provides great latitude in making ethical decisions. Results demonstrate that both IE (...)
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  • The Effect of Cognitive Moral Development on Honesty in Managerial Reporting.Janne O. Y. Chung & Sylvia H. Hsu - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 145 (3):563-575.
    This study examines whether truth-telling in the form of honest reporting is associated with cognitive moral development. Conventional agency theory assumes that people are self-interested and willing to tell a lie to increase their personal payoffs, while recent empirical evidence shows that some people give up monetary rewards to tell the truth. The social psychology literature suggests that cognitive moral development influences individuals’ ethical decisions. We carried out an experiment whereby participants submitted managerial reports in which truth-telling decreased their monetary (...)
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  • Temptation, Monetary Intelligence (Love of Money), and Environmental Context on Unethical Intentions and Cheating.Jingqiu Chen, Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Ningyu Tang - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (2):197-219.
    In Study 1, we test a theoretical model involving temptation, monetary intelligence (MI), a mediator, and unethical intentions and investigate the direct and indirect paths simultaneously based on multiple-wave panel data collected in open classrooms from 492 American and 256 Chinese students. For the whole sample, temptation is related to low unethical intentions indirectly. Multi-group analyses reveal that temptation predicts unethical intentions both indirectly and directly for male American students only; but not for female American students. For Chinese students, both (...)
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  • The Bright and Dark Sides of Religiosity Among University Students: Do Gender, College Major, and Income Matter? [REVIEW]Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):531-553.
    We develop a theoretical model involving religiosity [intrinsic (I), extrinsic-social (E s), and extrinsic-personal (E p), Time 1], Machiavellianism (Time 2), and propensity to engage in unethical behavior (Time 2) to investigate direct and indirect paths. We collected two-wave panel data from 359 students who had some work experiences. For the whole sample, intrinsic religiosity (I) indirectly curbed unethical intentions through the absence of Machiavellianism, the bright side of religiosity. Both extrinsic-social (E s) and extrinsic-personal (E p) directly, while extrinsic-social (...)
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  • The Relationship Between Social Cynicism Belief, Social Dominance Orientation, and the Perception of Unethical Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Examination in Russia, Portugal, and the United States.Valerie Alexandra, Miguel M. Torres, Olga Kovbasyuk, Theophilus B. A. Addo & Maria Cristina Ferreira - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):545-562.
    Most studies investigating the relationship between cultural constructs and ethical perception have focused on individual- and societal-level values without much attention to other type of cultural constructs such as social beliefs. In addition, we need to better understand how social beliefs are linked to ethical perception and the level of analysis at which social beliefs may best predict ethical perceptions. This research contributes to the cross-cultural ethical perception literature by examining the relationship of individual-level social cynicism belief, one of five (...)
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