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  1. Mystical ineffability: a nonconceptual theory.Sebastian Gäb - 2024 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-16.
    This paper discusses the nonconceptual theory of mystical ineffability which claims that mystical experiences can’t be expressed linguistically because they can’t be conceptualized. I discuss and refute two objections against it: (a) that unconceptualized experiences are impossible, and (b) that the theory is ad hoc because it provides no reason for why mystical experiences should be unconceptualizable. I argue against (a) that distinguishing different meanings of ‘object of experience’ leaves open the possibility of non-empty but objectless nonconceptual experiences. I show (...)
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  • How Breath-Control Can Change Your Life: A Systematic Review on Psycho-Physiological Correlates of Slow Breathing.Andrea Zaccaro, Andrea Piarulli, Marco Laurino, Erika Garbella, Danilo Menicucci, Bruno Neri & Angelo Gemignani - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  • Contrasting Electroencephalography-Derived Entropy and Neural Oscillations With Highly Skilled Meditators.Jacob H. Young, Martha E. Arterberry & Joshua P. Martin - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Meditation is an umbrella term for a number of mental training practices designed to improve the monitoring and regulation of attention and emotion. Some forms of meditation are now being used for clinical intervention. To accompany the increased clinical interest in meditation, research investigating the neural basis of these practices is needed. A central hypothesis of contemplative neuroscience is that meditative states, which are unique on a phenomenological level, differ on a neurophysiological level. To identify the electrophysiological correlates of meditation (...)
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  • Insight and Dissociation in Lucid Dreaming and Psychosis.Ursula Voss, Armando D’Agostino, Luca Kolibius, Ansgar Klimke, Silvio Scarone & J. Allan Hobson - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  • With great power comes great vulnerability: an ethical analysis of psychedelics’ therapeutic mechanisms proposed by the REBUS hypothesis.Daniel Https://Orcidorg624X Villiger & Manuel Trachsel - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (12):826-832.
    Psychedelics are experiencing a renaissance in mental healthcare. In recent years, more and more early phase trials on psychedelic-assisted therapy have been conducted, with promising results overall. However, ethical analyses of this rediscovered form of treatment remain rare. The present paper contributes to the ethical inquiry of psychedelic-assisted therapy by analysing the ethical implications of its therapeutic mechanisms proposed by the relaxed beliefs under psychedelics (REBUS) hypothesis. In short, the REBUS hypothesis states that psychedelics make rigid beliefs revisable by increasing (...)
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  • Restructuring insight: An integrative review of insight in problem-solving, meditation, psychotherapy, delusions and psychedelics.Kadi Tulver, Karl Kristjan Kaup, Ruben Laukkonen & Jaan Aru - 2023 - Consciousness and Cognition 110 (C):103494.
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  • Spirit.Eric Steinhart - 2017 - Sophia 56 (4):557-571.
    Many religions and religious philosophies say that ultimate reality is a kind of primal energy. This energy is often described as a vital power animating living things, as a spiritual force directing the organization of matter, or as a divine creative power which generates all things. By refuting older conceptions of primal energy, modern science opens the door to new and more precise conceptions. Primal energy is referred to here as ‘spirit’. But spirit is a natural power. A naturalistic theory (...)
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  • Two Kinds of Information Processing in Cognition.Mark Sprevak - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (3):591-611.
    What is the relationship between information and representation? Dating back at least to Dretske (1981), an influential answer has been that information is a rung on a ladder that gets one to representation. Representation is information, or representation is information plus some other ingredient. In this paper, I argue that this approach oversimplifies the relationship between information and representation. If one takes current probabilistic models of cognition seriously, information is connected to representation in a new way. It enters as a (...)
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  • Ethics and ego dissolution: the case of psilocybin.William R. Smith & Dominic Sisti - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):807-814.
    Despite the fact that psychedelics were proscribed from medical research half a century ago, recent, early-phase trials on psychedelics have suggested that they bring novel benefits to patients in the treatment of several mental and substance use disorders. When beneficial, the psychedelic experience is characterized by features unlike those of other psychiatric and medical treatments. These include senses of losing self-importance, ineffable knowledge, feelings of unity and connection with others and encountering ‘deep’ reality or God. In addition to symptom relief, (...)
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  • Primary states of consciousness: A review of historical and contemporary developments. [REVIEW]Felix Schoeller - 2023 - Consciousness and Cognition 113 (C):103536.
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  • The entropic tongue: Disorganization of natural language under LSD.Camila Sanz, Carla Pallavicini, Facundo Carrillo, Federico Zamberlan, Mariano Sigman, Natalia Mota, Mauro Copelli, Sidarta Ribeiro, David Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris & Enzo Tagliazucchi - 2021 - Consciousness and Cognition 87:103070.
  • The Enactive Approach to Habits: New Concepts for the Cognitive Science of Bad Habits and Addiction.Susana Ramírez-Vizcaya & Tom Froese - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10 (301):1--12.
    Habits are the topic of a venerable history of research that extends back to antiquity, yet they were originally disregarded by the cognitive sciences. They started to become the focus of interdisciplinary research in the 1990s, but since then there has been a stalemate between those who approach habits as a kind of bodily automatism or as a kind of mindful action. This implicit mind-body dualism is ready to be overcome with the rise of interest in embodied, embedded, extended, and (...)
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  • Psychoanalytic psychotherapies and the free energy principle.Thomas Rabeyron - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16:929940.
    In this paper I propose a model of the fundamental components of psychoanalytic psychotherapies that I try to explicate with contemporary theories of the Bayesian brain and the Free Energy Principle (FEP). I first show that psychoanalytic therapies require a setting (made up of several envelopes), a particular psychic state and specific processes (transference, free association, dreaming, play, reflexivity and narrativity) in order to induce psychic transformations. I then analyze how these processes of transformations operate and how they can be (...)
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  • Entropy, Free Energy, and Symbolization: Free Association at the Intersection of Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience.Thomas Rabeyron & Claudie Massicotte - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Both a method of therapy and an exploration of psychic reality, free association is a fundamental element of psychoanalytical practices that refers to the way a patient is asked to describe what comes spontaneously to mind in the therapeutic setting. This paper examines the role of free association from the point of view of psychoanalysis and neuroscience in order to improve our understanding of therapeutic effects induced by psychoanalytic therapies and psychoanalysis. In this regard, we first propose a global overview (...)
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  • Consciousness: A Molecular Perspective.Robert Prentner - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (4):26.
    This perspective examines the role of chemistry and molecular biology for a science of consciousness. Opposed to the consensus view, we argue that the molecular organization of biological systems is key to arrive at a thorough understanding of the dynamics correlated to the phenomenology of consciousness in complex organisms. This is indicated by the fact that the molecular sciences either provide one or more mechanisms directly related to phenomenology or otherwise describe the dynamics of the underlying substrate. In addition, we (...)
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  • Journeying to Ixtlan: Ethics of Psychedelic Medicine and Research for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias.Andrew Peterson, Emily A. Largent, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Jason Karlawish & Dominic Sisti - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (2):107-123.
    In this paper, we examine the case of psychedelic medicine for Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (AD/ADRD). These “mind-altering” drugs are not currently offered as treatments to persons with AD/ADRD, though there is growing interest in their use to treat underlying causes and associated psychiatric symptoms. We present a research agenda for examining the ethics of psychedelic medicine and research involving persons living with AD/ADRD, and offer preliminary analyses of six ethical issues: the impact of psychedelics on autonomy and consent; (...)
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  • Towards a New Materialism in Psychedelic Studies.Daan F. Oostveen - 2023 - Deleuze and Guattari Studies 17 (4):467-481.
    We are currently living through a period of ‘psychedelic renaissance’, with an increased interest, both in clinical research and in society at large, in the use of psychedelic substances such as LSD, psylocybin, DMT and mescaline. This interest, however, has recently led to an increased influx of venture capital and a fast emerging psychedelic start-up ecosystem. In this article, I will discuss the metaphysical presuppositions of this psychedelic renaissance, and examine how these constitute the ‘pitfalls’ of a psychedelics ideology. I (...)
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  • Ego-Dissolution and Psychedelics: Validation of the Ego-Dissolution Inventory.Matthew M. Nour, Lisa Evans, David Nutt & Robin L. Carhart-Harris - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  • The altered state of consciousness induced by Δ9-THC.Conor H. Murray & Bhargav Srinivasa-Desikan - 2022 - Consciousness and Cognition 102 (C):103357.
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  • Psychedelics, Meditation, and Self-Consciousness.Raphaël Millière, Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein & Aviva Berkovich-Ohana - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:375105.
    In recent years, the scientific study of meditation and psychedelic drugs has seen remarkable developments. The increased focus on meditation in cognitive neuroscience has led to a cross-cultural classification of standard meditation styles validated by functional and structural neuroanatomical data. Meanwhile, the renaissance of psychedelic research has shed light on the neurophysiology of altered states of consciousness induced by classical psychedelics, such as psilocybin and LSD, whose effects are mainly mediated by agonism of serotonin receptors. Few attempts have been made (...)
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  • Looking for the Self: Phenomenology, Neurophysiology and Philosophical Significance of Drug-induced Ego Dissolution.Raphaël Millière - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11:1-22.
    There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as “drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)”, for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid (...)
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  • The integrated information theory of consciousness: A case of mistaken identity.Bjorn Merker, Kenneth Williford & David Rudrauf - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e41.
    Giulio Tononi's integrated information theory (IIT) proposes explaining consciousness by directly identifying it with integrated information. We examine the construct validity of IIT's measure of consciousness,phi(Φ), by analyzing its formal properties, its relation to key aspects of consciousness, and its co-variation with relevant empirical circumstances. Our analysis shows that IIT's identification of consciousness with the causal efficacy with which differentiated networks accomplish global information transfer (which is what Φ in fact measures) is mistaken. This misidentification has the consequence of requiring (...)
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  • Learned uncertainty: The free energy principle in anxiety.H. T. McGovern, Alexander De Foe, Hannah Biddell, Pantelis Leptourgos, Philip Corlett, Kavindu Bandara & Brendan T. Hutchinson - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Generalized anxiety disorder is among the world’s most prevalent psychiatric disorders and often manifests as persistent and difficult to control apprehension. Despite its prevalence, there is no integrative, formal model of how anxiety and anxiety disorders arise. Here, we offer a perspective derived from the free energy principle; one that shares similarities with established constructs such as learned helplessness. Our account is simple: anxiety can be formalized as learned uncertainty. A biological system, having had persistent uncertainty in its past, will (...)
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  • How everyday sounds can trigger strong emotions: ASMR, misophonia and the feeling of wellbeing.Paul D. McGeoch & Romke Rouw - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (12):2000099.
    We propose that synesthetic cross‐activation between the primary auditory cortex and the anatomically adjacent insula may help explain two puzzling conditions—autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) and misophonia—in which quotidian sounds involuntarily trigger strong emotional responses. In ASMR the sounds engender relaxation, while in misophonia they trigger an aversive response. The insula both plays an important role in autonomic nervous system control and integrates multiple interoceptive maps representing the physiological state of the body to substantiate a dynamic representation of emotional wellbeing. (...)
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  • More Realistic Forecasting of Future Life Events After Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression.Taylor Lyons & Robin Lester Carhart-Harris - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Editorial: Do Both Psychopathology and Creativity Result from a Labile Wake-Sleep-Dream Cycle?Llewellyn Sue & Desseilles Martin - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Self and Knowledge in Psychedelic Therapy.Chris Letheby - 2022 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 3.
    Much of my book Philosophy of Psychedelics is devoted to elaborating and defending two basic claims: that psychedelic therapy works mainly by changing mental representations of the self, and that it has many epistemic benefits consistent with a naturalistic worldview. The commentaries in this symposium generally focus on one or the other of these claims. On the mechanistic front, the commentaries by Hoffman and by Martin and Sterzer seek to supplement my account by drawing attention to factors it does not (...)
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  • The epistemic innocence of psychedelic states.Chris Letheby - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 39:28-37.
    One recent development in epistemology, the philosophical study of knowledge, is the notion of ‘epistemic innocence’ introduced by Bortolotti and colleagues. This concept expresses the idea that certain suboptimal cognitive processes may nonetheless have epistemic (knowledge-related) benefits. The idea that delusion or confabulation may have psychological benefits is familiar enough. What is novel and interesting is the idea that such conditions may also yield significant and otherwise unavailable epistemic benefits. I apply the notion of epistemic innocence to research on the (...)
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  • Naturalizing psychedelic spirituality.Chris Letheby - 2017 - Zygon 52 (3):623-642.
    A pressing philosophical problem is how to respond to the existential, anxiety and disenchantment resulting from a naturalistic worldview that eschews transcendent foundations for meaning and value. This problem is becoming more urgent as the popularization of neuroscientific findings renders a disenchanted conception of human beings ever more vivid, compelling, and widespread. I argue that the study of transformative experiences occasioned by classic psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin may reveal the nature of a viable practical solution (...)
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  • The Role of the Brain in Conscious Processes: A New Way of Looking at the Neural Correlates of Consciousness.Joachim Keppler - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9 (Article 1346):1-8.
    This article presents a new interpretation of the consciousness-related neuroscientific findings using the framework of stochastic electrodynamics (SED), a branch of physics that sheds light on the basic principles underlying quantum systems. It is propounded that SED supplemented by two well-founded hypotheses leads to a satisfying explanation of the neural correlates of consciousness. The theoretical framework thus defined is based on the notion that all conceivable shades of phenomenal awareness are woven into the frequency spectrum of a universal background field, (...)
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  • The Common Basis of Memory and Consciousness: Understanding the Brain as a Write–Read Head Interacting With an Omnipresent Background Field.Joachim Keppler - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 10 (Article 2968):1-13.
    The main goal of this article consists in addressing two fundamental issues of consciousness research and cognitive science, namely, the question of why declarative memory functions are inextricably linked with phenomenal awareness and the question of the physical basis of memory traces. The presented approach proposes that high-level cognitive processes involving consciousness employ a universal mechanism by means of which they access and modulate an omnipresent background field that is identified with the zero-point field (ZPF) specified by stochastic electrodynamics, a (...)
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  • Limitations on the Scientific Study of Drug‐Enabled Mystical Experiences.Richard H. Jones - 2019 - Zygon 54 (3):756-792.
    Scientific interest in drug-induced mystical experiences reemerged in the 1990s. This warrants reexamining the philosophical issues surrounding such studies: Do psychedelic drugs cause mystical experiences? Are drug-induced experiences the same in nature as other mystical experiences? Does the fact that mystical experiences can be induced by drugs invalidate or validate mystical cognitive claims? Those questions will be examined here. An overview of the scientific examination of drug-induced mystical experiences is included, as is a brief overview of the history of the (...)
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  • Neural Correlates of the Shamanic State of Consciousness.Emma R. Huels, Hyoungkyu Kim, UnCheol Lee, Tarik Bel-Bahar, Angelo V. Colmenero, Amanda Nelson, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, George A. Mashour & Richard E. Harris - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15:610466.
    Psychedelics have been recognized as model interventions for studying altered states of consciousness. However, few empirical studies of the shamanic state of consciousness, which is anecdotally similar to the psychedelic state, exist. We investigated the neural correlates of shamanic trance using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in 24 shamanic practitioners and 24 healthy controls during rest, shamanic drumming, and classical music listening, followed by an assessment of altered states of consciousness. EEG data were used to assess changes in absolute power, connectivity, signal (...)
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  • Predictive processing as a systematic basis for identifying the neural correlates of consciousness.Jakob Hohwy & Anil Seth - 2020 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 1 (II).
    The search for the neural correlates of consciousness is in need of a systematic, principled foundation that can endow putative neural correlates with greater predictive and explanatory value. Here, we propose the predictive processing framework for brain function as a promising candidate for providing this systematic foundation. The proposal is motivated by that framework’s ability to address three general challenges to identifying the neural correlates of consciousness, and to satisfy two constraints common to many theories of consciousness. Implementing the search (...)
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  • Conscious Self-Evidencing.Jakob Hohwy - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (4):809-828.
    Self-evidencing describes the purported predictive processing of all self-organising systems, whether conscious or not. Self-evidencing in itself is therefore not sufficient for consciousness. Different systems may however be capable of self-evidencing in different, specific and distinct ways. Some of these ways of self-evidencing can be matched up with, and explain, several properties of consciousness. This carves out a distinction in nature between those systems that are conscious, as described by these properties, and those that are not. This approach throws new (...)
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  • Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.Niels Chr Hansen & Marcus T. Pearce - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Problem of Meaning in AI and Robotics: Still with Us after All These Years.Tom Froese & Shigeru Taguchi - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (2):14-0.
    In this essay we critically evaluate the progress that has been made in solving the problem of meaning in artificial intelligence and robotics. We remain skeptical about solutions based on deep neural networks and cognitive robotics, which in our opinion do not fundamentally address the problem. We agree with the enactive approach to cognitive science that things appear as intrinsically meaningful for living beings because of their precarious existence as adaptive autopoietic individuals. But this approach inherits the problem of failing (...)
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  • The Ethical Spectrum of Consciousness.Michele Farisco - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (2):55-57.
    This special issue of AJOB Neuroscience explores a number of ethical questions emerging from some of the most recent results of research on consciousness, including its moral interpretation, its te...
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  • The Improvisational State of Mind: A Multidisciplinary Study of an Improvisatory Approach to Classical Music Repertoire Performance.David Dolan, Henrik J. Jensen, Pedro A. M. Mediano, Miguel Molina-Solana, Hardik Rajpal, Fernando Rosas & John A. Sloboda - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Greater Repertoire and Temporal Variability of Cross-Frequency Coupling (CFC) Modes in Resting-State Neuromagnetic Recordings among Children with Reading Difficulties.Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Nikolaos A. Laskaris, Panagiotis G. Simos, Jack M. Fletcher & Andrew C. Papanicolaou - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  • Smoking Cessation With 20 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Applied to Two Brain Regions: A Pilot Study.Jian da ChangZhang, Wei Peng, Zhuowen Shen, Xin Gao, Youhong Du, Qiu Ge, Donghui Song, Yuanqi Shang & Ze Wang - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  • Entheogens, mysticism, and neuroscience.Ron Cole-Turner - 2014 - Zygon 49 (3):642-651.
    Entheogens or psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin are associated with mystical states of experience. Drug laws currently limit research, but important new work is under way at major biomedical research facilities showing that entheogens reliably occasion mystical experiences and thereby allow research into brain states during these experiences. Are drug-occasioned mystical experiences neurologically the same as more traditional mystical states? Are there phenomenological and theological differences? As this research goes forward and the public becomes more (...)
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  • Brain Entropy During Aging Through a Free Energy Principle Approach.Filippo Cieri, Xiaowei Zhuang, Jessica Z. K. Caldwell & Dietmar Cordes - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Neural complexity and brain entropy have gained greater interest in recent years. The dynamics of neural signals and their relations with information processing continue to be investigated through different measures in a variety of noteworthy studies. The BEN of spontaneous neural activity decreases during states of reduced consciousness. This evidence has been showed in primary consciousness states, such as psychedelic states, under the name of “the entropic brain hypothesis.” In this manuscript we propose an extension of this hypothesis to physiological (...)
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  • Was it a vision or a waking dream?Robin Carhart-Harris & David Nutt - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Embodied Dyadic Interaction Increases Complexity of Neural Dynamics: A Minimal Agent-Based Simulation Model.Madhavun Candadai, Matt Setzler, Eduardo J. Izquierdo & Tom Froese - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  • Commentary: Psychedelics and psychotherapy: Cognitive-behavioral approaches as default.John Burton, Austin Ratner, Timothy Cooper & Jeffrey Guss - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
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  • Understanding the Higher-Order Approach to Consciousness.Richard Brown, Hakwan Lau & Joseph E. LeDoux - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (9):754-768.
    Critics have often misunderstood the higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness. Here we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views such as the global The higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness has often been misunderstood by critics. Here we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views such as the global workspace theory (GWT) and early sensory models (e.g. first-order local recurrency theories). For example, HOT has been criticized for over-intellectualizing consciousness. We show (...)
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  • Informativeness of Auditory Stimuli Does Not Affect EEG Signal Diversity.Michał Bola, Paweł Orłowski, Karolina Baranowska, Michael Schartner & Artur Marchewka - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Qualitative and Quantitative Features of Music Reported to Support Peak Mystical Experiences during Psychedelic Therapy Sessions.Frederick S. Barrett, Hollis Robbins, David Smooke, Jenine L. Brown & Roland R. Griffiths - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Imaginative Culture and the Enriched Nature of Positive Experience.Nathaniel F. Barrett - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:831118.
    To understand the evolution of imaginative culture, we need to understand its unique affective power. The purpose of this article is to explain our enjoyment of imaginative culture from the standpoint of a distinctive theoretical approach to understanding affect in terms of the dynamic and energetic features of consciousness. This approach builds upon John Dewey’s view of enjoyment as the enrichment of experience, adding perspectives from studies of the dynamics of consciousness and from ecological psychology. Its main thesis is that (...)
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