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The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil

Oxford University Press (2002)

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  1. Overcoming Oppressive Self-Blame: Gray Agency in Underground Railroads.David W. Concepción - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):81 - 99.
    After describing some key features of life in an underground railroad and the nature of gray agency, Concepción illustrates how survivors of relationship slavery can stop levying misplaced blame on themselves without giving up the valuable practice of blaming. Concepción concludes that by choosing a relatively non-oppressive account of self-blame, some amount of internalized oppression can be overcome and the double bind of agency-denial and self-loathing associated with being an oppressively grafted agent can be reduced.
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  • Forgiveness and Moral Repair.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2022 - In Manuel Vargas & John M. Doris (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Forgiveness has enjoyed intense scholarly interest since the 1980s. I provide a historical overview, then identify themes in the literature, with an emphasis on those relevant to the moral psychology of forgiveness in the twenty-first century. I conclude with some attention to dual-process theories of moral reasoning in order to suggest that key debates in forgiveness are not at odds so much as they may be aligned with the different moral aims of moral and mental processes that differ in kind. (...)
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  • Is Forgetting Reprehensible? Holocaust Remembrance and the Task of Oblivion.Björn Krondorfer - 2008 - Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (2):233-267.
    "Forgetting" plays an important role in the lives of individuals and communities. Although a few Holocaust scholars have begun to take forgetting more seriously in relation to the task of remembering—in popular parlance as well as in academic discourse on the Holocaust—forgetting is usually perceived as a negative force. In the decades following 1945, the terms remembering and forgetting have often been used antithetically, with the communities of victims insisting on the duty to remember and a society of perpetrators desiring (...)
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  • On the Harmony of Feminist Ethics and Business Ethics.Janet L. Borgerson - 2007 - Business and Society Review 112 (4):477-509.
    If business requires ethical solutions that are viable in the liminal landscape between concepts and corporate office, then business ethics and corporate social responsibility should offer tools that can survive the trek, that flourish in this well-traveled, but often unarticulated, environment. Indeed, feminist ethics produces, accesses, and engages such tools. However, work in BE and CSR consistently conflates feminist ethics and feminine ethics and care ethics. I offer clarification and invoke the analytic power of three feminist ethicists 'in action' whose (...)
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  • Feminist Ethics and Everyday Inequalities.Samantha Brennan - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):159.
    How should feminist philosophers regard the inequalities that structure the lives of women? Some of these inequalities are trivial and others are not; together they form a framework of unequal treatment that shapes women’s lives. This paper asks what priority we should give inequalities that affect women; it critically analyzes Claudia Card’s view that feminists ought to give evils priority. Sometimes ending gender-based inequalities is the best route to eliminating gender-based evil.
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  • Politics and Prioritization of Evil.Bat-Ami Bar On - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):192-196.
    In this essay I question an assumption of Card's, which seems to place the (Kantianstyle) ethical in a directive relationship with respect to the political. I call attention to the rupture between the two as a marker of modernity and suggest that the political is not only a sphere of power but also a value-sedimented field, with the values in question developing historically as in the case of liberal democracy.
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  • Health Care in the United States: Evil Intentions and Collective Responsibility.Victoria Davion - 2006 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 30 (1):325–337.
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  • Introduction: Special Issue on "Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil".Robin May Schott - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):1-9.
  • The Sisyphean Torture of Housework: Simone de Beauvoir and Inequitable Divisions of Domestic Work in Marriage.Andrea Veltman - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (3):121-143.
    : This paper examines Simone de Beauvoir's account of marriage in The Second Sex and argues that Beauvoir's dichotomy between transcendence and immanence can provide an illuminating critique of continuing gender inequities in marriage and divisions of domestic work. Beauvoir's existentialist ethics not only establishes a moral wrong in marriages in which wives perform the second shift of household labor but also supports the need to transform existing normative expectations surrounding wives and domestic work.
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  • Questions Regarding a War on Terrorism.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):164 - 169.
    : The concept of a war on terrorism creates havoc with attempts to apply rules of war. For "terrorism" is not an agent. Nor is it clear what relationship to terrorism agents must have in order to be legitimate targets. Nor is it clear what kinds of terrorism count. Would a war on terrorism in the home be a justifiable response to domestic battering? If not, do similar objections apply to a war on public terrorism?
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  • Inequity/Iniquity: Card on Balancing Injustice and Evil.Adam Morton - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):199-203.
    Card argues that we should not give injustice priority over evil. I agree. But I think Card sets us up for some difficult balancings, for example of small evils against middle sized injustices. I suggest some ways of staying off the tightrope.
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  • Gay Divorce: Thoughts on the Legal Regulation of Marriage.Claudia Card - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (1):24-38.
    : Although the exclusion of LGBTs from the rites and rights of marriage is arbitrary and unjust, the legal institution of marriage is itself so riddled with injustice that it would be better to create alternative forms of durable intimate partnership that do not invoke the power of the state. Card's essay develops a case for this position, taking up an injustice sufficiently serious to constitute an evil: the sheltering of domestic violence.
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  • Genocide and Social Death.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    : Social death, central to the evil of genocide (whether the genocide is homicidal or primarily cultural), distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  • Perpetual Struggle.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2018 - Hypatia 34 (1):6-19.
    Open Access: What if it doesn’t get better? Against more hopeful and optimistic views that it is not just ideal but possible to put an end to what John Rawls calls “the great evils of human history,” I aver that when it comes to evils caused by human beings, the situation is hopeless. We are better off with the heavy knowledge that evils recur than we are with idealizations of progress, perfection, and completeness; an appropriate ethic for living with such (...)
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  • Introduction.Kathryn J. Norlock & Andrea Veltman - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):3-8.
    Summary: An introduction to this special issue of Hypatia, in which feminist philosophers analyze, critically engage, and extend several predominant ideas in the work of Claudia Card. Authors in this collection include Lisa Tessman, Marilyn Friedman, Hilde Lindemann, Sheryl Tuttle Ross, Joan Callahan, David Concepción, Kathryn Norlock and Jean Rumsey (co-authors), Linda Bell, Samantha Brennan, and Victoria Davion.
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  • Feminist Perspectives on Global Warming, Genocide, and Card's Theory of Evil.Victoria Davion - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):160 - 177.
    This essay explores several moral issues raised by global warming through the lens of Claudia Card's theory of evil. I focus on Alaskan villages in the sub-Arctic whose residents must relocate owing to extreme erosion, melting sea ice, and rising water levels. I use Card's discussion of genocide as social death to argue that failure to help these groups maintain their unique cultural identities can be thought of as genocidal.
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  • Challenging the Genteel Supports of Atrocities: A Response to The Atrocity Paradigm.Linda A. Bell - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):123 - 140.
    Inspired by Card's focus on atrocities, I reflect on attitudes and behaviors that buttress and support evil. Surely, the frequent anti-Semitic sermons in German churches helped to form and later to support the views of both Nazis and those who accepted and cooperated with them. Similarly, lynching, rape, and abuse occur within societies whose structures and laws reflect dominant, generally "genteel" racism and sexism and, in turn, help create perpetrators and at least somewhat sympathetic onlookers.
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  • The Limits of Forgiveness.Kathryn J. Norlock & Jean Rumsey - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):100 - 122.
    In this paper, we contextualize Claudia Card's work on forgiveness within wider literatures on forgiveness. With Card, we emphasize the costs of forgiveness and the sufferings of victims, and suggest alternatives to forgiving evils. Women who live in particularly unsafe contexts require recognition more than reconciliation. We conclude that those who forgive evil also require recognition that respects the choices of forgiving agents, seeing their decisions as relevant to conceptual analysis about forgiveness.
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  • Raising Responsibility: Motherhood and Moral Luck.Sheryl Tuttle Ross - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):56-69.
    This paper extends Claudia Card's account of agency in the face of moral luck in order to theoretically ground the activities of feminist mothers who endeavor to raise responsible human beings. The paper addresses those who mother in gray areas—areas where mothers are victims of the evils of the institution of motherhood while having authority and influence over their children. -/- .
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  • Rape and Enforced Pregnancy as Femicide: Comments on Claudia Card's “The Paradox of Genocidal Rape Aimed at Enforced Pregnancy”.Ann E. Cudd - 2008 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):190-199.
  • Dirty Hands and Moral Conflict – Lessons from the Philosophy of Evil.Christina Nick - 2021 - Philosophia 50 (1):183-200.
    According to one understanding of the problem of dirty hands, every case of dirty hands is an instance of moral conflict, but not every instance of moral conflict is a case of dirty hands. So, what sets the two apart? The dirty hands literature has offered widely different answers to this question but there has been relatively little discussion about their relative merits as well as challenges. In this paper I evaluate these different accounts by making clear which understanding of (...)
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  • Political Deliberation and the Challenge of Bounded Rationality.Andrew F. Smith - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (3):269-291.
    Many proponents of deliberative democracy expect reasonable citizens to engage in rational argumentation. However, this expectation runs up against findings by behavioral economists and social psychologists revealing the extent to which normal cognitive functions are influenced by bounded rationality. Individuals regularly utilize an array of biases in the process of making decisions, which inhibits our argumentative capacities by adversely affecting our ability and willingness to be self-critical and to give due consideration to others’ interests. Although these biases cannot be overcome, (...)
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  • Evil Collectives.Geoffrey Scarre - 2012 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):74-92.
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  • Evil and Incomprehensibility.Luke Russell - 2012 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):62-73.
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  • Relating After Wrongdoing: A Review of Forgiveness From a Feminist Perspective. By Kathryn Norlock and Making Amends: Atonement in Morality, Law and Politics. By Linda Radzik. [REVIEW]Alice MacLachlan - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (4):851-857.
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  • The Counterfactual Conception of Compensation.Rodney C. Roberts - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):414–428.
    : My aim in this essay is to remove some of the rubbish that lies in the way of an appropriate understanding of rectificatory compensation, by arguing for the rejection of the counterfactual conception of compensation. Although there is a significant extent to which contemporary theorists have relied upon this idea, the counterfactual conception of compensation is merely a popular assumption, having no positive argument in support of it. Moreover, it can make rendering compensation impossible, and absurd notions of compensation (...)
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  • The Atrocity Paradigm and the Concept of Forgiveness.Robin May Schott - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (4):204 - 211.
    In this article I discuss Claudia Card's treatment of war rape in relation to her discussion of the victim's moral power of forgiveness. I argue that her analysis of the victim's power to withhold forgiveness overlooks the paradoxical structure of witnessing, which implies that there is an ungraspable dimension of atrocity. In relation to this ungraspable element, the proposal that victims of atrocity have the power to either offer or withhold forgiveness may have little relevance.
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  • The Good, the Bad, and the Badass: On the Descriptive Adequacy of Kant's Conception of Moral Evil.Mark Timmons - 2017 - In Significance and System: Essays on Kant's Ethics. New York, USA: pp. 293-330.
    This chapter argues for an interpretation of Kant's psychology of moral evil that accommodates the so-called excluded middle cases and allows for variations in the magnitude of evil. The strategy involves distinguishing Kant's transcendental psychology from his empirical psychology and arguing that Kant's character rigorism is restricted to the transcendental level. The chapter also explains how Kant's theory of moral evil accommodates 'the badass'; someone who does evil for evil's sake.
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  • The Challenges of Extreme Moral Stress: Claudia Card's Contributions to the Formation of Nonideal Ethical Theory.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (4-5):488-503.
    Open Access: This essay argues that Claudia Card numbers among important contributors to nonideal ethical theory, and it advocates for the worth of NET. Following philosophers including Lisa Tessman and Charles Mills, the essay contends that it is important for ethical theory, and for feminist purposes, to carry forward the interrelationship that Mills identifies between nonideal theory and feminist ethics. Card's ethical theorizing assists in understanding that interrelationship. Card's philosophical work includes basic elements of NET indicated by Tessman, Mills, and (...)
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  • Misanthropy and Misanthropes.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Research 46:45–58.
    With David Cooper and others, I argue that it is conceptually and ethically good to broaden the conception of misanthropy beyond that of hatred of humans. However, I hold that not everyone with misanthropic thoughts is a misanthrope. I propose thinking of a misanthrope as one who appraises the moral perception of misanthropy to be appropriate, weighty, and governing of other aspects of one’s moral outlook or character. I conclude that pessimism without misanthropy may be more ethically appropriate for some (...)
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  • Collective Forgiveness.Katie Stockdale - forthcoming - In Robert Enright & Glen Pettigrove (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Forgiveness. Routledge.
    This chapter considers the possibility and ethics of collective forgiveness. I begin by distinguishing between different forms of forgiveness to illustrate what it might look like for a collective to forgive that is distinct from the individual and group-based forgiveness of its members. I then consider how emotional models of forgiveness might capture the phenomenon of collective forgiveness. I argue that shortcomings with emotional models suggest that performative and social practice models of forgiveness more plausibly extend to collective forgiveness. I (...)
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  • A Relational Approach to Evil Action: Vulnerability and its Exploitation.Zachary J. Goldberg - 2019 - Journal of Value Inquiry 53 (1):33-53.
    In this article I seek a more complete understanding of evil action. To this end, in the first half of the article I assess the conceptual strengths and weaknesses of the most compelling theories of evil action found in the contemporary philosophical literature. I conclude that the theories that fall under the category I call ‘‘Nuanced Harm Accounts’’ successfully identify the necessary and sufficient conditions of the concept. However, necessary and sufficient conditions are not coextensive with significant features, and Nuanced (...)
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  • Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide, by Claudia Card. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, Xix + 329 Pp. ISBN 9780521899611 Hb £60; ISBN 9780521728362 Pb £19.99. [REVIEW]Jeffrey Reiman - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):512-517.
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  • Amnesty and Mercy.Patrick Lenta - 2019 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 13 (4):621-641.
    I assess the justification for the granting of amnesty in the circumstances of ‘transitional justice’ advanced by certain of its supporters according to which this device is morally legitimate because it amounts to an act of mercy. I consider several prominent definitions of ‘mercy’ with a view to determining whether amnesty counts as mercy under each and what follows for its moral status. I argue that amnesty cannot count as mercy under any definition in accordance with which an act or (...)
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  • Countering the Vices: On the Neglected Side of Character Education.Tal Gilead - 2011 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (3):271-284.
    Following the rise of virtue and character education, educational philosophers have recently given much attention to questions relating to virtue and the good. This, however, has not been paralleled by a similar interest in vice and evil, which, in this context, are examined only rarely. In this article, I use the work of the American philosopher John Kekes as a backdrop for discussing the role coping with vice and evil should play in virtue and character education. I show how Kekes’ (...)
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  • Is Evil Just Very Wrong?Todd Calder - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (1):177-196.
    Is evil a distinct moral concept? Or are evil actions just very wrong actions? Some philosophers have argued that evil is a distinct moral concept. These philosophers argue that evil is qualitatively distinct from ordinary wrongdoing. Other philosophers have suggested that evil is only quantitatively distinct from ordinary wrongdoing. On this view, evil is just very wrong. In this paper I argue that evil is qualitatively distinct from ordinary wrongdoing. The first part of the paper is critical. I argue that (...)
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  • Dispositional Accounts of Evil Personhood.Luke Russell - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 149 (2):231 - 250.
    It is intuitively plausible that not every evildoer is an evil person. In order to make sense of this intuition we need to construct an account of evil personhood in addition to an account of evil action. Some philosophers have offered aggregative accounts of evil personhood, but these do not fit well with common intuitions about the explanatory power of evil personhood, the possibility of moral reform, and the relationship between evil and luck. In contrast, a dispositional account of evil (...)
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  • Torture: Banality of Evil or Radical Evil?Delamar José Volpato Dutra - 2020 - Filosofia Unisinos 21 (3):240-250.
    The text aims to explore legal and moral aspects of torture. Under the legal aspect the text compares three definitions of torture: UN definition, Brazilian definition, and Spanish definition. In this regard, neither the UN formulation nor the Brazilian formulation are ideal, because the Brazilian legal definition restricts the element of action by the part of the perpetrator of torture, and the UN convention restricts the effect on the victim, given that pain or suffering should be severe. The hypothesis is (...)
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  • Violence and Publicity: Constructions of Political Responsibility After 9/11.Clive Barnett - 2009 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 12 (3):353-375.
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  • La humillación como una forma socialmente tolerada del mal moral.Liliana Molina - 2018 - Co-herencia 15 (29):37-64.
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  • The Problems with Evil.Paul Formosa - 2008 - Contemporary Political Theory 7 (4):395-415.
    The concept of evil has been an unpopular one in many recent Western political and ethical discourses. One way to justify this neglect is by pointing to the many problemswiththe concept of evil. The standard grievances brought against the very concept of evil include: that it has no proper place in secular political and ethical discourses; that it is a demonizing term of hatred that leads to violence; that it is necessarily linked with outdated notions of body and sexuality; and (...)
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  • Margaret Cavendish, Feminist Ethics, and the Problem of Evil.Jill Hernandez - 2018 - Religions 9 (4):1-13.
    This paper argues that, although Margaret Cavendish’s main philosophical contributions are not in philosophy of religion, she makes a case for a defense of God, in spite of the worst sorts of harms being present in the world. Her arguments about those harms actually presage those of contemporary feminist ethicists, which positions Cavendish’s scholarship in a unique position: it makes a positive theodical contribution, by relying on evils that contemporary atheists think are the best evidence against the existence of God. (...)
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  • The Government of Evil Machines: an Application of Romano Guardini’s Thought on Technology.Enrico Beltramini - 2021 - Scientia et Fides 9 (1):257-281.
    In this article I propose a theological reflection on the philosophical assumptions behind the idea that intelligent machine can be governed through ethical protocols, which may apply either to the people who develop the machines or to the machines themselves, or both. This idea is particularly relevant in the case of machines’ extreme wrongdoing, a wrongdoing that becomes an existential risk for humankind. I call this extreme wrong-doing, ‘evil.’ Thus, this article is a theological account on the philosophical assumptions behind (...)
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  • The Sisyphean Torture of Housework: Simone de Beauvoir and Inequitable Divisions of Domestic Work in Marriage.Andrea Veltman - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (3):121-143.
    This paper examines Simone de Beauvoir's account of marriage in The Second Sex and argues that Beauvoir's dichotomy between transcendence and immanence can provide an illuminating critique of continuing gender inequities in marriage and divisions of domestic work. Beauvoir's existentialist ethics not only establishes a moral wrong in marriages in which wives perform the second shift of household labor but also supports the need to transform existing normative expectations surrounding wives and domestic work.
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  • Gay Divorce: Thoughts on the Legal Regulation of Marriage.Claudia Card - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (1):24-38.
    Although the exclusion of LGBTs from the rites and rights of marriage is arbitrary and unjust, the legal institution of marriage is itself so riddled with injustice that it would be better to create alternative forms of durable intimate partnership that do not invoke the power of the state. Card's essay develops a case for this position, taking up an injustice sufficiently serious to constitute an evil: the sheltering of domestic violence.
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  • Introduction: Special Issue on “Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil”.Robin May Schott - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):1-9.
  • Genocide and Social Death.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    Social death, central to the evil of genocide, distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  • On the Concept of Evil: An Analysis of Genocide and State Sovereignty.Jason J. Campbell - unknown
    The history of ideas and contemporary genocide studies conjointly suggests a meaningful secular conception of evil. I will show how the history of ideas supplies us with a cumulative pattern, or an eventual gestalt, of the sought-for conception of universal secular evil. This gestalt is a result of my examination of the history of ideas. The historical analysis of evil firmly grounds my research in the tradition of philosophical inquiry, where I shift the focus from the problem of evil, which (...)
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  • Atrocity, Banality, Self-Deception.Adam Morton - 2005 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 12 (3):257-259.
  • Was ist eine böse Handlung?Zachary J. Goldberg - 2019 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 66 (6):764-787.
    What is the nature of evil action? My thesis is that perpetrators and victims of evil inhabit an asymmetrical relation of power; the strength of the more powerful party lies in its ability to exploit the other’s fundamental vulnerability, and the weaker party is vulnerable precisely insofar as it is directly dependent on the more powerful party for the satisfaction of its fundamental needs. The fundamental vulnerabilities that are exploited correspond to features essential to our humanity, moral personhood, and individuality. (...)
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