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  1. Genetic Influences on Sex Differences in Outstanding Mathematical Reasoning Ability.Ada H. Zohar - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):266-267.
    Sexual selection provides an adequate partial explanation for the difference in means between the distributions, but fails to explain the difference in variance, that is, the overrepresentation of both boys with outstanding mathematical reasoning ability and boys with mental retardation. Other genetic factors are probably at work. While spatial ability is correlated with OMRA, so are other cognitive abilities. OMRA is not reducible to spatial ability; hence selection for navigational skill is unlikely to be the only mechanism by which males (...)
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  • Evolved but Not Fixed: A Life History Account of Gender Roles and Gender Inequality.Nan Zhu & Lei Chang - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Sex Differences and Evolutionary by-Products.Thomas Wynn, Forrest Tierson & Craig Palmer - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):265-266.
    From the perspective of evolutionary theory, we believe it makes more sense to view the sex differences in spatial cognition as being an evolutionary by-product of selection for optimal rates of fetal development. Geary does not convince us that his proposed selective factors operated with “sufficient precision, economy, and efficiency.” Moreover, the archaeological evidence does not support his proposed evolutionary scenario.
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  • The Harms of Ignoring the Social Nature of Science.Sara Weaver - 2019 - Synthese 196 (1):355-375.
    In this paper I argue that philosophers of science have an obligation to recognize and engage with the social nature of the sciences they assess if those sciences are morally relevant. Morally-relevant science is science that has the potential to risk harm to humans, non-humans, or the environment. My argument and the approach I develop are informed by an analysis of the philosophy of biology literature on the criticism of evolutionary psychology, the study of the evolution of human psychology and (...)
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  • Mate Choice Copying in Humans.D. Waynforth - 2007 - Human Nature 18 (3):264-271.
    There is substantial evidence that in human mate choice, females directly select males based on male display of both physical and behavioral traits. In non-humans, there is additionally a growing literature on indirect mate choice, such as choice through observing and subsequently copying the mating preferences of conspecifics (mate choice copying). Given that humans are a social species with a high degree of sharing information, long-term pair bonds, and high parental care, it is likely that human females could avoid substantial (...)
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  • Mate Choice Trade-Offs and Women’s Preference for Physically Attractive Men.David Waynforth - 2001 - Human Nature 12 (3):207-219.
    Researchers studying human sexuality have repeatedly concluded that men place more emphasis on the physical attractiveness of potential mates than women do, particularly in long-term sexual relationships. Evolutionary theorists have suggested that this is the case because male mate value (the total value of the characteristics that an individual possesses in terms of the potential contribution to his or her mate’s reproductive success) is better predicted by social status and economic resources, whereas women’s mate value hinges on signals conveyed by (...)
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  • The Evolutionary Psychology of Mate Selection in Morocco.Alex Walter - 1997 - Human Nature 8 (2):113-137.
  • Individual Differences in Age Preferences in Mates.Niels G. Waller - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):578-581.
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  • Emotional Accessibility Is More Important Than Sexual Accessibility in Evaluating Romantic Relationships – Especially for Women: A Conjoint Analysis.T. J. Wade & Justin Mogilski - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • The Social Origin of the Concept of Truth – How Statements Are Built on Disagreements.Till Nikolaus von Heiseler - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • The Evolution of Empathy and Women’s Precarious Leadership Appointments.John G. Vongas & Raghid Al Hajj - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Trade-Offs in Low-Income Women’s Mate Preferences.Jacob M. Vigil, David C. Geary & Jennifer Byrd-Craven - 2006 - Human Nature 17 (3):319-336.
    A sample of 460 low-income women completed a mate preference questionnaire and surveys that assessed family background, life history, conscientiousness, sexual motives, self-ratings (e.g., looks), and current circumstances (e.g., income). A cluster analysis revealed two groups of women: women who reported a strong preference for looks and money in a short-term mate and commitment in a long-term mate, and women who reported smaller differences across mating context. Group differences were found in reported educational levels, family background, sexual development, number of (...)
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  • Sexual Selection and Religion: Can the Evolution of Religion Be Explained in Terms of Mating Strategies?James A. Van Slyke & Konrad Szocik - 2020 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 42 (1):123-141.
    This article considers the application of sexual selection theory to the study of religion by discussing the basic concepts and theories in sexual selection and then outlines possibilities of its application to the study of the evolution of religion. The first section outlines basic principles in the sexual selection account, including the evolution of human mating strategies based on dimorphism, gender differences in human mating strategies, and the role of different cultural activities in mating dynamics. Such an overview may be (...)
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  • Love Styles in the Context of Life History Theory.Andrzej Łukasik & Magdalena Marzec - 2017 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 48 (2):237-249.
    The evolutionary function of love is to create a strong bond between the partners with reproduction in view. In order to achieve this goal, humans use various sexual/reproductive strategies, which have evolved due to specific reproductive benefits. The use of particular strategies depends on many factors but one of the most important is early childhood experiences, on which life history theory focuses. John Lee identified 6 basic love styles: eros, ludus, storge, pragma, agape, and mania. Our goal was to check (...)
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  • Neural Processing of Facial Attractiveness and Romantic Love: An Overview and Suggestions for Future Empirical Studies.Ryuhei Ueda - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Romantic love is universally observed in human communities, and the manner in which a person chooses a long-term romantic partner has been a central question in studies on close relationships. Numerous empirical psychological studies have demonstrated that facial attractiveness greatly impacts initial romantic attraction. This close link was further investigated by neuroimaging studies showing that both viewing attractive faces and having romantic thoughts recruit the reward system. However, it remains unclear how our brains integrate perceived facial attractiveness into initial romantic (...)
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  • Between-Sex Differences Are Often Averaging Artifacts.Hoben Thomas - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):265-265.
    The central problem in Geary's theory is how differences are conceptualized. Recent research has shown that between-sex differences on certain tasks are a consequence of averaging within sex differences. A mixture distribution models between-sex differences on several tasks well and does not appear congenial to a sexual-selection perspective.
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  • An Investigation of the Implicit Endorsement of the Sexual Double Standard Among U.S. Young Adults.Ashley E. Thompson, Carissa A. Harvey, Katherine R. Haus & Aaron Karst - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Environmental Tracking by Females.Del Thiessen - 1994 - Human Nature 5 (2):167-202.
    Human females are generally reserved in their sexuality, in keeping with their heavy investment in reproduction. Males tend to be less reserved. Relative to males, however, females demonstrate more variability in sexuality and are more likely to inhibit or express high levels of sexuality. The heightened variability may in part originate with genetic mechanisms that predispose females toward greater variability. Menarche, menstrual cycles, menopause, food reactions, responses to living conditions, reactions to cultural factors, and responses to sexual stimuli and potential (...)
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  • We Are Far From Understanding Sex-Related Differences in Spatial-Mathematical Abilities Despite the Theory of Sexual Selection.Üner Tan - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):264-264.
    I have provided evidence that Geary's model does not explain male dominance in spatial abilities by sexual selection. The current literature concerning the relations of nonverbal IQ to testosterone, hand preference, and right- and left-hand skill, as well as the organizing effects of testosterone on cerebral lateralization during the perinatal period, does not support Geary's arguments.
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  • There’s More to Humanity Than Meets the Eye: Differences in Gaze Behavior Toward Women and Gynoid Robots.Jessica M. Szczuka & Nicole C. Krämer - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Social Inferences From Faces: Ambient Images Generate a Three-Dimensional Model.Clare Am Sutherland, Julian A. Oldmeadow, Isabel M. Santos, John Towler, D. Michael Burt & Andrew W. Young - 2013 - Cognition 127 (1):105-118.
  • Willingness to Engage in Casual Sex.Michele K. Surbey & Colette D. Conohan - 2000 - Human Nature 11 (4):367-386.
    Sexually dimorphic mate selection strategies were examined in 200 university students reporting their willingness to engage in casual sexual encounters with hypothetical individuals of the opposite sex. Using a questionnaire format, the possibility of forming a long-term relationship was manipulated, while risk of disease, pregnancy, and detection was eliminated across all conditions. In addition, potential partners varied in level of attractiveness, and in personality and behavioral characteristics. As expected, men reported a greater anticipated willingness to engage in sexual intercourse across (...)
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  • On the Origins of Narrative.Michelle Scalise Sugiyama - 1996 - Human Nature 7 (4):403-425.
    Stories consist largely of representations of the human social environment. These representations can be used to influence the behavior of others (consider, e.g., rumor, propaganda, public relations, advertising). Storytelling can thus be seen as a transaction in which the benefit to the listener is information about his or her environment, and the benefit to the storyteller is the elicitation of behavior from the listener that serves the former’s interests. However, because no two individuals have exactly the same fitness interests, we (...)
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  • Who Cares About Marrying a Rich Man? Intelligence and Variation in Women’s Mate Preferences.Christine E. Stanik & Phoebe C. Ellsworth - 2010 - Human Nature 21 (2):203-217.
    Although robust sex differences are abundant in men and women’s mating psychology, there is a considerable degree of overlap between the two as well. In an effort to understand where and when this overlap exists, the current study provides an exploration of within-sex variation in women’s mate preferences. We hypothesized that women’s intelligence, given an environment where women can use that intelligence to attain educational and career opportunities, would be: (1) positively related to their willingness to engage in short-term sexual (...)
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  • Able Youths and Achievement Tests.Julian C. Stanley & Heinrich Stumpf - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):263-264.
    Achievement test differences between boys and girls and between young men and young women, mostly favoring males, extend far beyond mathematics. Such pervasive differences, illustrated here, may require an explanatory theory broader than Geary's.
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  • An Economic Approach to the Evolution of Male-Female Exchange.William O. Shropshire - 2003 - Human Nature 14 (3):235-266.
    Males and females of a number of animal species divide labor and provide jointly for offspring. Males may provide food, for example, while females protect defenseless young. This exchange is unlikely, however, unless a prior partnership has been established in which a female practices fidelity in exchange for a male’s provisioning activity. The formation of the trading partnership is itself an exchange, and economic theory can help explain when and why there are mutual gains from trading fidelity for resources. Environmental (...)
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  • Spatial Visualization and Sex-Related Differences in Mathematical Problem Solving.Julia A. Sherman - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):262-263.
    Spatial visualization as a key variable in sex-related differences in mathematical problem solving and spatial aspects of geometry is traced to the 1960s. More recent relevant data are presented. The variability debate is traced to the latter part of the nineteenth century and an explanation for it is suggested. An idea is presented for further research to clarify sex-related brain laterality differences in solving spatial problems.
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  • Testing Adaptive Toolbox Models: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach.Benjamin Scheibehenne, Jörg Rieskamp & Eric-Jan Wagenmakers - 2013 - Psychological Review 120 (1):39-64.
  • Sex and Age Differences in Mate-Selection Preferences.Sascha Schwarz & Manfred Hassebrauck - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (4):447-466.
    For nearly 70 years, studies have shown large sex differences in human mate selection preferences. However, most of the studies were restricted to a limited set of mate selection criteria and to college students, and neglecting relationship status. In this study, 21,245 heterosexual participants between 18 and 65 years of age (mean age 41) who at the time were not involved in a close relationship rated the importance of 82 mate selection criteria adapted from previous studies, reported age ranges for (...)
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  • Niche Construction, Adaptive Preferences, and the Differences Between Fitness and Utility.Armin W. Schulz - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):315-335.
    A number of scholars have recently defended the claim that there is a close connection between the evolutionary biological notion of fitness and the economic notion of utility: both are said to refer to an organism’s success in dealing with its environment, and both are said to play the same theoretical roles in their respective sciences. However, an analysis of two seemingly disparate but in fact structurally related phenomena—‘niche construction’ (the case where organisms change their environment to make it fit (...)
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  • It Takes Two: Sexual Strategies and Game Theory.Armin W. Schulz - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (1):41-49.
    David Buss’s Sexual Strategies Theory is one of the major evolutionary psychological research programmes, but, as I try to show in this paper, its theoretical and empirical foundations cannot yet be seen to be fully compelling. This lack of cogency comes about due to Buss’s failure to attend to the interactive nature of his subject matter, which leads him to overlook two classic and well known issues of game theoretic and evolutionary biological analysis. Firstly, Buss pays insufficient attention to the (...)
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  • How Willing Are You to Accept Sexual Requests From Slightly Unattractive to Exceptionally Attractive Imagined Requestors?Achim Schützwohl, Amrei Fuchs, William F. McKibbin & Todd K. Shackelford - 2009 - Human Nature 20 (3):282-293.
    In their classic study of differences in mating strategies, Clark and Hatfield (1989, Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 2, 39–54) found that men and women demonstrated a striking difference in interest in casual sex. The current study examined the role of an imagined requestor’s physical attractiveness (slightly unattractive, moderately attractive, and exceptionally attractive) on men’s and women’s willingness to accept three different requests (go out, come to apartment, go to bed) as reflected in answers to a questionnaire. We tested (...)
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  • The Twain Shall Meet: Uniting the Analysis of Sex Differences and Within-Sex Variation.David C. Rowe - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):262-262.
    Spatial and mathematical abilities may be “sex-limited” traits. A sex-limited trait has the same determinants of variation within the sexes, but the genetic or environmental effects would be differentially expressed in males and females. New advances in structural equation modeling allow means and variation to be estimated simultaneously. When these statistical methods are combined with a genetically informative research design, it should be possible to demonstrate that the genes influencing spatial and mathematical abilities are sex-limited in their expression. This approach (...)
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  • Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategy Are Related to Views About Recreational Drug Use in Belgium, The Netherlands, and Japan.Katinka J. P. Quintelier, Keiko Ishii, Jason Weeden, Robert Kurzban & Johan Braeckman - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (2):196-217.
    Individual differences in moral views are often explained as the downstream effect of ideological commitments, such as political orientation and religiosity. Recent studies in the U.S. suggest that moral views about recreational drug use are also influenced by attitudes toward sex and that this relationship cannot be explained by ideological commitments. In this study, we investigate student samples from Belgium, The Netherlands, and Japan. We find that, in all samples, sexual attitudes are strongly related to views about recreational drug use, (...)
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  • Gender Biases in the Accuracy of Facial Judgments: Facial Attractiveness and Perceived Socioeconomic Status.Yue Qi & Jia Ying - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Many studies demonstrate that people form their first impression of a stranger based on facial appearance, and these impressions influence their subsequent decisions and behaviors. However, much less research has examined the factors that moderate the accuracy of first impressions based on a photo of face. The present study included three experiments to explore gender differences in the accuracy of impressions based on faces. The results showed that people judge facial attractiveness more accurately for female faces than for male faces (...)
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  • The Logic of the Sociobiological Model Geary-Style.Diane Proudfoot - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):261-261.
    Geary's is the traditional view of the sexes. Yet each part of his argument – the move from sex differences in spatial ability and social preferences to a sex difference in mathematical ability, the claim that the former are biologically primary, and the sociobiological explanation of these differences – requires considerable further work. The notion of a biologically secondary ability is itself problematic.
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  • Assortative Mate Preferences for Height Across Short-Term and Long-Term Relationship Contexts in a Cross-Cultural Sample.Katarzyna Pisanski, Maydel Fernandez-Alonso, Nadir Díaz-Simón, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Adrian Sardinas, Robert Pellegrino, Nancy Estevez, Emanuel C. Mora, Curtis R. Luckett & David R. Feinberg - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Height preferences reflecting positive assortative mating for height—wherein an individual’s own height positively predicts the preferred height of their mate—have been observed in several distinct human populations and are thought to increase reproductive fitness. However, the extent to which assortative preferences for height differ strategically for short-term versus long-term relationship partners, as they do for numerous other indices of mate quality, remains unclear. We explore this possibility in a large representative sample of over 500 men and women aged 15–77 from (...)
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  • Double Standards for Sexual Jealousy.Luci Paul, Mark A. Foss & Mary Ann Baenninger - 1996 - Human Nature 7 (3):291-321.
    This work tests two conflicting views about double standards: whether they reflect evolved sex differences in behavior or a manipulative morality serving male interests. Two questionnaires on jealous reactions to mild (flirting) and serious (cheating) sexual transgressions were randomly assigned to 172 young women and men. One questionnaire assessed standards for appropriate behavior and perceptions of how young women and men usually react. The second asked people to report how they had reacted or, if naive, how they would react. The (...)
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  • The Effect of Facial Attractiveness on Temporal Perception.Ruth S. Ogden - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (7):1292-1304.
  • The Origins and Effects of Filial Piety : How Culture Solves an Evolutionary Problem for Parents.Ryan Nichols - 2013 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 13 (3-4):201-230.
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  • Sexual-Selection Accounts of Human Characteristics: Just So Stories or Scientific Hypotheses?Nora Newcombe & Mary Ann Baenninger - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):259-260.
    We evaluate three of Geary's claims, finding that there is little evidence for sex differences in object- vs. person-orientation; sex differences in competition, even if biologically caused, lead to sex differences in mathematics only given a certain style of teaching; and sex differences in mental rotation, though real, are not well explained in a sociobiological framework or by the proximate biological variables assumed by Geary.
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  • Evolutionary Psychology of Eating Disorders: An Explorative Study in Patients With Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.Johanna Nettersheim, Gabriele Gerlach, Stephan Herpertz, Riadh Abed, Aurelio J. Figueredo & Martin Brüne - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  • Explaining Away Responsibility: Effects of Scientific Explanation on Perceived Culpability.John Monterosso, Edward B. Royzman & Barry Schwartz - 2005 - Ethics and Behavior 15 (2):139 – 158.
    College students and suburban residents completed questionnaires designed to examine the tendency of scientific explanations of undesirable behaviors to mitigate perceived culpability. In vignettes relating behaviors to an explanatory antecedent, we manipulated the uniformity of the behavior given the antecedent, the responsiveness of the behavior to deterrence, and the explanatory antecedent-type offered- physiological (e.g., a chemical imbalance) or experiential (e.g., abusive parents). Physiological explanations had a greater tendency to exonerate actors than did experiential explanations. The effects of uniformity and deterrence (...)
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  • The Relative Contribution of Jawbone and Cheekbone Prominence, Eyebrow Thickness, Eye Size, and Face Length to Evaluations of Facial Masculinity and Attractiveness: A Conjoint Data-Driven Approach.Justin K. Mogilski & Lisa L. M. Welling - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • The Relative Importance of Sexual Dimorphism, Fluctuating Asymmetry, and Color Cues to Health During Evaluation of Potential Partners’ Facial Photographs.Justin K. Mogilski & Lisa L. M. Welling - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (1):53-75.
  • Mate Choice Turns Cognitive.Geoffrey F. Miller & Peter M. Todd - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (5):190-198.
  • Hairstyle as an Adaptive Means of Displaying Phenotypic Quality.Norbert Mesko & Tamas Bereczkei - 2004 - Human Nature 15 (3):251-270.
    Although facial features that are considered beautiful have been investigated across cultures using the framework of sexual selection theory, the effects of head hair on esthetic evaluations have rarely been examined from an evolutionary perspective. In the present study the effects of six hair-styles (short, medium-length, long, disheveled, knot [hair bun], unkempt) on female facial attractiveness were examined in four dimensions (femininity, youth, health, sexiness) relative to faces without visible head hair (“basic face”). Three evolutionary hypotheses were tested (covering hypothesis, (...)
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  • Gender Differences in the Perceptions of Genuine and Simulated Laughter and Amused Facial Expressions.Gary McKeown, Ian Sneddon & William Curran - 2015 - Emotion Review 7 (1):30-38.
    This article addresses gender differences in laughter and smiling from an evolutionary perspective. Laughter and smiling can be responses to successful display behavior or signals of affiliation amongst conversational partners—differing social and evolutionary agendas mean there are different motivations when interpreting these signals. Two experiments assess perceptions of genuine and simulated male and female laughter and amusement social signals. Results show male simulation can always be distinguished. Female simulation is more complicated as males seem to distinguish cues of simulation yet (...)
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  • Using the VIA Classification to Advance a Psychological Science of Virtue.Robert E. McGrath & Mitch Brown - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The VIA Classification of Character Strengths and Virtue has received substantial attention since its inception as a model of 24 dimensions of positive human functioning, but less so as a potential contributor to a psychological science on the nature of virtue. The current paper presents an overview of how this classification could serve to advance the science of virtue. Specifically, we summarize previous research on the dimensional versus categorical characterization of virtue, and on the identification of cardinal virtues. We give (...)
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  • Global Variance in Female Population Height: The Influence of Education, Income, Human Development, Life Expectancy, Mortality and Gender Inequality in 96 Nations.Quentin J. Mark - 2014 - Journal of Biosocial Science 46 (1):107-121.
    SummaryHuman height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. (...)
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