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  1. When Discrimination is Worse, Autonomy is Key: How Women Entrepreneurs Leverage Job Autonomy Resources to Find Work–Life Balance.Dirk De Clercq & Steven A. Brieger - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 177 (3):665-682.
    This article examines the relationship between women entrepreneurs’ job autonomy and work–life balance, with a particular focus on how this relationship might be augmented by environments that discriminate against women, whether socio-economically, institutionally, or culturally. Multisource data pertaining to 5334 women entrepreneurs from 37 countries indicate that their sense of job autonomy increases the likelihood that they feel satisfied with their ability to balance the needs of their work with those of their personal life. This process is particularly prominent when (...)
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  • Global Insights on TMT Gender Diversity in Controversial Industries: A Legitimacy Perspective.Abubakr Saeed, Muhammad Saad Baloch & Hammad Riaz - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-21.
    Firms in controversial industries such as tobacco, alcohol, gambling, weapon, and nuclear power suffer organizational legitimacy problems. These firms, therefore, adopt various strategies to acquire legitimacy. Drawing on institutional theory, we conceptualize the top management team gender diversity as a legitimacy-seeking strategy and examines how a firm’s belonging to a controversial sector affects TMT gender diversity. Based on a cross-country sample of 1542 firms operating in controversial industries from 34 countries and control sample with another set of 1542 similar-sized firms (...)
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  • The Carrot or the Stick: Self-Regulation for Gender-Diverse Boards Via Codes of Good Governance.Heike Mensi-Klarbach, Stephan Leixnering & Michael Schiffinger - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 170 (3):577-593.
    Scholars have emphasized the potential of self-regulation, realized through ‘codes of good governance’, to improve gender diversity on boards. Yet, unconvinced of the effectiveness of this self-regulation, many regulators have implemented mandatory quota laws. Our study sheds light on this dilemma. Seeking to broaden our conceptual knowledge of how such ‘codes’ work in the specific case of gender diversity on boards, we ask: Under which conditions is self-regulation via voluntary principles of good governance effective? Expanding recent institutional-theory perspectives from the (...)
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  • Prosociality in Business: A Human Empowerment Framework.Steven A. Brieger, Siri A. Terjesen, Diana M. Hechavarría & Christian Welzel - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (2):361-380.
    This study introduces a human empowerment framework to better understand why some businesses are more socially oriented than others in their policies and activities. Building on Welzel’s theory of emancipation, we argue that human empowerment—comprised of four components: action resources, emancipative values, social movement activity, and civic entitlements—enables, motivates, and entitles individuals to pursue social goals for their businesses. Using a sample of over 15,000 entrepreneurs from 43 countries, we report strong empirical evidence for two ecological effects of the framework (...)
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  • The Corporate Board Glass Ceiling: The Role of Empowerment and Culture in Shaping Board Gender Diversity.Krista B. Lewellyn & Maureen I. Muller-Kahle - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 165 (2):329-346.
    In this study, we use a mixed methods research design to investigate how national cultural forces may impede or enhance the positive impact of females’ economic and political empowerment on increasing gender diversity of corporate boards. Using both a longitudinal correlation-based methodology and a configurational approach with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, we integrate theoretical mechanisms from gender schema and institutional theories to develop a mid-range theory about how female empowerment and national culture shape gender diversity on corporate boards around the (...)
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