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  1. Correlates of Health-Protective Behavior During the Initial Days of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Norway.Janis H. Zickfeld, Thomas W. Schubert, Anders Kuvaas Herting, Jon Grahe & Kate Faasse - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • The Generalizability Crisis.Tal Yarkoni - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:1-37.
    Most theories and hypotheses in psychology are verbal in nature, yet their evaluation overwhelmingly relies on inferential statistical procedures. The validity of the move from qualitative to quantitative analysis depends on the verbal and statistical expressions of a hypothesis being closely aligned – that is, that the two must refer to roughly the same set of hypothetical observations. Here, I argue that many applications of statistical inference in psychology fail to meet this basic condition. Focusing on the most widely used (...)
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  • Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis.Aidan G. C. Wright, Adriene M. Beltz, Kathleen M. Gates, Peter C. M. Molenaar & Leonard J. Simms - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Representation in Measurement.Elina Vessonen - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-23.
    The Representational Theory of Measurement is the best known account of the kind of representation measurement requires. However, RTM has been challenged from various angles, with critics claiming e.g. that RTM fails to account for actual measurement practice and that it is ambiguous about the nature of measurable attributes. In this paper I use the critical literature on RTM to formulate Representation Minimalism – a characterization of what measurement-relevant representation requires at the minimum. I argue that Representation Minimalism avoids the (...)
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  • Operationalism and Realism in Psychometrics.Elina Vessonen - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (10).
    Psychometrics is one of the main approaches to social scientific measurement. It is relied upon in drug testing, economic policymaking, recruitment, and other decision-making contexts. The first aim of this article is to introduce philosophers to key aspects of psychometrics, namely, classical test theory, item response theory, and construct validity. The second aim is to show how a debate on the nature of psychological attributes manifests in psychometrics. In this debate, realists claim that psychometric measures are indicators of independently existing (...)
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  • Conceptual Engineering and Operationalism in Psychology.Elina Vessonen - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10615-10637.
    This paper applies conceptual engineering to deal with four objections that have been levelled against operationalism in psychology. These objections are: operationalism leads to harmful proliferation of concepts, operationalism goes hand-in-hand with untenable antirealism, operationalism leads to arbitrariness in scientific concept formation, and operationalism is incompatible with the usual conception of scientific measurement. Relying on a formulation of three principles of conceptual engineering, I will argue that there is a useful form of operationalism that does not fall prey to these (...)
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  • The Instruction Set of Questionnaires Can Affect the Structure of the Data: Application to Self-Rated State Anxiety.Stéphane Vautier, Etienne Mullet & Sylvie Bourdet-Loubère - 2003 - Theory and Decision 54 (3):249-259.
    The present study tested the assumption that self-ratings, such as those used for measuring state anxiety, do not measure a one-dimensional transcendent entity but involve decisions based on a multi-dimensional judgment. Two groups of subjects were presented with a balanced nine-item state anxiety questionnaire. Each group received a different set of instructions (a standard set and an altered instruction set suggesting unidimensionality of the questions in the questionnaire). It was hypothesized that this change in instructions would impact the structure of (...)
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  • Psychiatric Comorbidity: Fact or Artifact?Hanna M. van Loo & Jan-Willem Romeijn - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):41-60.
    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus either on classification choices or on causal ties between disorders. Based on empirical and philosophical arguments, we propose a conventionalist interpretation of psychiatric comorbidity instead. We argue that a conventionalist approach fits well with research and clinical practice and resolves (...)
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  • Do the Numbers Speak for Themselves? A Critical Analysis of Procedural Objectivity in Psychotherapeutic Efficacy Research.Femke L. Truijens - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4721-4740.
    Psychotherapy research is known for its pursuit of evidence-based treatment. Psychotherapeutic efficacy is assessed by calculation of aggregated differences between pre treatment- and post treatment symptom levels. As this ‘gold standard methodology’ is regarded as ‘procedurally objective’, the efficacy number that results from the procedure is taken as a valid indicator of treatment efficacy. However, I argue that the assumption of procedural objectivity is not justified, as the methodology is build upon a problematic numerical basis. I use an empirical case (...)
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  • Ideal Point Modeling of Non-Cognitive Constructs: Review and Recommendations for Research.Louis Tay & Vincent Ng - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Illustration of Step-Wise Latent Class Modeling With Covariates and Taxometric Analysis in Research Probing Children's Mental Models in Learning Sciences.Dimitrios Stamovlasis, George Papageorgiou, Georgios Tsitsipis, Themistoklis Tsikalas & Julie Vaiopoulou - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • L’intelligenza tra generalità, integrazione e controllo cognitivo.Davide Serpico - 2022 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 13 (1):66-71.
    ITA: In che modo il nostro cervello è in grado di produrre quel tipo di comportamento flessibile e volto a specifici scopi che chiamiamo intelligenza? Le differenze cognitive tra individui sono dovute a una varietà di abilità mentali o a una sola? Questo articolo discute gli elementi centrali della teoria dell’intelligenza generale proposta da John Duncan nel volume How intelligence happens, tradotto recentemente in italiano e corredato da un capitolo conclusivo inedito. Prendendo le mosse dalla ricerca di Charles Spearman sull’intelligenza (...)
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  • Incorporating Measurement Error in N = 1 Psychological Autoregressive Modeling.Noémi K. Schuurman, Jan H. Houtveen & Ellen L. Hamaker - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • A Cautionary Note on Testing Latent Variable Models.Ivan Ropovik - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Intervention and Identifiability in Latent Variable Modelling.Jan-Willem Romeijn & Jon Williamson - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (2):243-264.
    We consider the use of interventions for resolving a problem of unidentified statistical models. The leading examples are from latent variable modelling, an influential statistical tool in the social sciences. We first explain the problem of statistical identifiability and contrast it with the identifiability of causal models. We then draw a parallel between the latent variable models and Bayesian networks with hidden nodes. This allows us to clarify the use of interventions for dealing with unidentified statistical models. We end by (...)
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  • Toward a Causal Interpretation of the Common Factor Model.Mijke Rhemtulla, Lisa D. Wijsen & Riet Van Bork - 2017 - Disputatio 9 (47):581-601.
    Psychological constructs such as personality dimensions or cognitive traits are typically unobserved and are therefore measured by observing so-called indicators of the latent construct. The Common Factor Model models the relations between the observed indicators and the latent variable. In this article we argue in favor of interpreting the CFM as a causal model rather than merely a statistical model, in which common factors are only descriptions of the indicators. When there is sufficient reason to hypothesize that the underlying causal (...)
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  • Disentangling Mechanisms From Causes: And the Effects on Science.John Protzko - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (1):37-50.
    Despite the miraculous progress of science—it’s practitioners continue to run into mistakes, either discrediting research unduly or making leaps of causal inference where none are warranted. In this we isolate two of the reasons for such behavior involving the misplaced understanding of the role of mechanisms and mechanistic knowledge in the establishment of cause-effect relationships. We differentiate causal knowledge into causes, effects, mechanisms, cause-effect relationships, and causal stories. Failing to understand the role of mechanisms in this picture, including their absence (...)
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  • Methodological Empiricism and the Choice of Measurement Models in Social Sciences.Clayton Peterson - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):831-854.
    Realism is generally assumed as the correct position with regards to psychological research and the measurement of psychological attributes in psychometrics. Borsboom et al., 203–219 2003), for instance, argued that the choice of a reflective measurement model necessarily implies a commitment to the existence of psychological constructs as well as a commitment to the belief that empirical testing of measurement models can justify their correspondence with real causal structures. Hood :739–761 2013) deemphasized Borsboom et al.’s position and argued that the (...)
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  • Exploratory Factor Analysis and Theory Generation in Psychology.Clayton Peterson - 2017 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8 (3):519-540.
    Exploratory factor analysis is a statistical method widely used in quantitative psychology for the construction of scales and measurement instruments. It aims to reduce the complexity of a data set and explain the common and unique variance using latent variables. In introductory textbooks, exploratory factor analysis is generally presented in contrast to confirmatory factor analysis as a theory- or a hypothesis-generating process that does not require prior background, theory or hypothesis to be performed. The aim of the present paper is (...)
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  • Accommodation, Prediction and Replication: Model Selection in Scale Construction.Clayton Peterson - 2019 - Synthese 196 (10):4329-4350.
    In psychology, measurement instruments are constructed from scales, which are obtained on the grounds of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Looking at the literature, one can find various recommendations regarding how these techniques should be used during the scale construction process. Some authors suggest to use exploratory factor analysis on the entire data set while others advice to perform an internal cross-validation by randomly splitting the data set in two and then either perform exploratory factor analysis on both parts or (...)
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  • Examining Age-Related Shared Variance Between Face Cognition, Vision, and Self-Reported Physical Health: A Test of the Common Cause Hypothesis for Social Cognition.Sally Olderbak, Andrea Hildebrandt & Oliver Wilhelm - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The Skilled, the Knowledgeable, and the Motivated: Investigating the Strategic Allocation of Time on Task in a Computer-Based Assessment.Johannes Naumann - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Within-Person Variations in Self-Focused Attention and Negative Affect in Depression and Anxiety: A Diary Study.Nilly Mor, Leah D. Doane, Emma K. Adam, Susan Mineka, Richard E. Zinbarg, James W. Griffith, Michelle G. Craske, Allison Waters & Maria Nazarian - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (1):48-62.
  • Exploring Higher Education Pathways for Coping With the Threat of COVID-19: Does Parental Academic Background Matter?Julius Möller, J. Lukas Thürmer, Maria Tulis, Stefan Reiss & Eva Jonas - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    First-generation students are more likely to feel misplaced and struggle at university than students with university-educated parents. We assumed that the shutdowns during the Coronavirus-pandemic would particularly threaten FGS due to obstructed coping mechanisms. Specifically, FGS may show lower identification with the academic setting and lower perceived fairness of the university system. We investigated whether FGS and CGS used different defenses to cope with the shutdown threat in a large sample of German-speaking students. Using Structural Equation Modeling, we found that (...)
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  • Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control.Ulrich Mayr, David Kuhns & Miranda Rieter - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (2):489.
  • All Happy Emotions Are Alike but Every Unhappy Emotion Is Unhappy in Its Own Way: A Network Perspective to Academic Emotions.Markus Mattsson, Telle Hailikari & Anna Parpala - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Motivating a Pragmatic Approach to Naturalized Social Ontology.Richard Lauer - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-17.
    Recent contributions to the philosophy of social sciences have motivated ontological commitments using appeals to the social sciences. These arguments rely on social scientific realism about the social sciences, the view that our social scientific theories are approximately true. I apply a distinction formulated in metaontology between ontologically loaded and unloaded meanings of existential quantification to argue that there is a pragmatic approach to naturalized social ontology that is minimally realist but that is ontologically austere. I argue that the extant (...)
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  • A New Approach for the Quantification of Synchrony of Multivariate Non-Stationary Psychophysiological Variables During Emotion Eliciting Stimuli.Augustin Kelava, Michael Muma, Marlene Deja, Jack Y. Dagdagan & Abdelhak M. Zoubir - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • A Temperament-Attachment-Mentalization-Based (TAM) Theory of Personality and Its Disorders.Sigmund W. Karterud & Mickey T. Kongerslev - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • The Network Perspective Will Help, but is Comorbidity the Question?Wendy Johnson & Lars Penke - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):162-163.
    Latent variable modeling has revealed important conundrums in the DSM classification system. We agree that the network perspective has potential to inspire new insights and resolve some of these conundrums. We note, however, that alone it cannot really help us understand etiology. Etiology, not comorbidity, is the fundamental question.
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  • Psychological Measurement and Methodological Realism.S. Brian Hood - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (4):739-761.
    Within the context of psychological measurement, realist commitments pervade methodology. Further, there are instances where particular scientific practices and decisions are explicable most plausibly against a background assumption of epistemic realism. That psychometrics is a realist enterprise provides a possible toehold for Stephen Jay Gould’s objections to psychometrics in The Mismeasure of Man and Joel Michell’s charges that psychometrics is a “pathological science.” These objections do not withstand scrutiny. There are no fewer than three activities in ongoing psychometric research which (...)
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  • Philosophy, Realism and Psychology’s Disciplinary Fragmentation.Fiona J. Hibberd & Agnes Petocz - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-29.
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  • Valence, Sensations and Appraisals Co-Occurring with Feeling Moved: Evidence on Kama Muta Theory From Intra-Individually Cross-Correlated Time Series.Anders K. Herting & Thomas W. Schubert - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion:1-17.
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  • Modeling Psychological Attributes in Psychology – An Epistemological Discussion: Network Analysis Vs. Latent Variables.Hervé Guyon, Bruno Falissard & Jean-Luc Kop - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Measuring the Unmeasurable.Stefan L. K. Gruijters & Bram P. I. Fleuren - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):33-44.
    Within evolutionary biology, life-history theory is used to explain cross-species differences in allocation strategies regarding reproduction, maturation, and survival. Behavioral scientists have recently begun to conceptualize such strategies as a within-species individual characteristic that is predictive of behavior. Although life history theory provides an important framework for behavioral scientists, the psychometric approach to life-history strategy measurement—as operationalized by K-factors—involves conceptual entanglements. We argue that current psychometric approaches attempting to identify K-factors are based on an unwarranted conflation of functional descriptions and (...)
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  • Citizenship Pressure as a Predictor of Daily Enactment of Autonomous and Controlled Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Differential Spillover Effects on the Home Domain.Lynn Germeys, Yannick Griep & Sara De Gieter - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Unpacking Constructs: A Network Approach for Studying War Exposure, Daily Stressors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.Maarten De Schryver, Sofie Vindevogel, Andrew E. Rasmussen & Angélique O. J. Cramer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The Positive Personality Model : Exploring a New Conceptual Framework for Personality Assessment.Guadalupe de la Iglesia & Alejandro Castro Solano - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions.Paul De Boeck, Mark Wilson & G. Scott Acton - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (1):129-158.
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  • Comorbidity: A Network Perspective.Angélique Oj Cramer, Lourens J. Waldorp, Han Lj van der Maas & Denny Borsboom - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):137-150.
    The pivotal problem of comorbidity research lies in the psychometric foundation it rests on, that is, latent variable theory, in which a mental disorder is viewed as a latent variable that causes a constellation of symptoms. From this perspective, comorbidity is a (bi)directional relationship between multiple latent variables. We argue that such a latent variable perspective encounters serious problems in the study of comorbidity, and offer a radically different conceptualization in terms of a network approach, where comorbidity is hypothesized to (...)
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  • Achievement is a Relation, Not a Trait: The Gravity of the Situation.Gail Corrado - 2012 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 31 (6):587-601.
    Ability and achievement are not traits: they are relations. Mistaking traits for relations has a history even in science (our understanding of gravity). This mistake is possibly responsible for the lackluster performance of the results of our educational research when we have tried to use it to inform policy. It is particularly troublesome for interventions that target “children at risk.” The paper provides a quasi-formal outline of achievement as a relation and it then uses the outline to explain some problematic (...)
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  • Emergent Ghosts of the Emotion Machine.James A. Coan - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (3):274-285.
    Competing perspectives on the nature of emotion are illustrated with latent and emergent variable models. Latent variable models draw from classical test theory, assuming that the measured indicators of emotion covary by virtue of some common executive, organizing neural circuit or network in the brain. By contrast, emergent variable models draw from a theory-driven, operational definition tradition, positing that emotions do not cause, but rather are caused by, the measured indicators of emotion, assuming no executive neural circuit or network, and (...)
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  • How Similar Are Fluid Cognition and General Intelligence? A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective on Fluid Cognition as an Aspect of Human Cognitive Ability.Blair Clancy - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):109-125.
    This target article considers the relation of fluid cognitive functioning to general intelligence. A neurobiological model differentiating working memory/executive function cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex from aspects of psychometrically defined general intelligence is presented. Work examining the rise in mean intelligence-test performance between normative cohorts, the neuropsychology and neuroscience of cognitive function in typically and atypically developing human populations, and stress, brain development, and corticolimbic connectivity in human and nonhuman animal models is reviewed and found to provide evidence of (...)
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  • The Architecture of Personality.Daniel Cervone - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (1):183-204.
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  • Aligning Psychological Assessment with Psychological Science.Daniel Cervone - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):152-153.
    Network analysis is a promising step forward in efforts to align psychological assessment with explanatory theory in psychological science. The implications of Cramer et al.'s analysis are quite general. Networks analysis may illuminate functional relations not only among observable behaviors that comprise psychological disorders, but among cognitive and affective processes that causally contribute to everyday experience and action.
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  • Why G is Not an Adaptation: A Comment on Kanazawa (2004).Denny Borsboom & Conor V. Dolan - 2006 - Psychological Review 113 (2):433-437.
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  • The Concept of Validity.Denny Borsboom, Gideon J. Mellenbergh & Jaap van Heerden - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (4):1061-1071.
  • Explanation in Personality Psychology: “Verbal Magic” and the Five-Factor Model.Simon Boag - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (2):223-243.
    Scientific psychology involves both identifying and classifying phenomena of interest (description) and revealing the causes and mechanisms that contribute towards these phenomena arising (explanation). Within personality psychology, some propose that aspects of behavior and cognition can be explained with reference to personality traits. However, certain conceptual and logical issues cast doubt upon the adequacy of traits as coherent explanatory constructs. This paper discusses ?explanation? in psychology and the problems of circularity and reification. An analysis of relations and intrinsic properties is (...)
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  • Sophisticated Statistics Cannot Compensate for Method Effects If Quantifiable Structure Is Compromised.Damian P. Birney, Jens F. Beckmann, Nadin Beckmann & Steven E. Stemler - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Researchers rely on psychometric principles when trying to gain understanding of unobservable psychological phenomena disconfounded from the methods used. Psychometric models provide us with tools to support this endeavour, but they are agnostic to the meaning researchers intend to attribute to the data. We define method effects as resulting from actions which weaken the psychometric structure of measurement, and argue that solution to this confounding will ultimately rest on testing whether data collected fit a psychometric model based on a substantive (...)
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  • Editorial: Dynamic Personality Science. Integrating Between-Person Stability and Within-Person Change.Nadin Beckmann & Robert E. Wood - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.