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  1. Cognitive ontology and the search for neural mechanisms: three foundational problems.Jolien C. Francken, Marc Slors & Carl F. Craver - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-22.
    The central task of cognitive neuroscience to map cognitive capacities to neural mechanisms faces three interlocking conceptual problems that together frame the problem of cognitive ontology. First, they must establish which tasks elicit which cognitive capacities, and specifically when different tasks elicit the same capacity. To address this operationalization problem, scientists often assess whether the tasks engage the same neural mechanisms. But to determine whether mechanisms are of the same or different kinds, we need to solve the abstraction problem by (...)
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  • Socially responsible consumption: an application in Colombia.Villa Castaño Lida Esperanza, Perdomo-Ortiz Jesús, Dueñas Ocampo Sebastián & Durán León William Fernando - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (4):460-481.
    This study constructs a measurement scale for Socially Responsible Consumption in the particular context of Colombia. It uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach, beginning with four focus groups and ending with a quantitative validation exercise employing Exploratory Factor Analysis. The result is a Socially Responsible Consumption measurement scale consisting of four dimensions that reflect paradigms found in the existing literature. These are, however, expressed differently in Colombia. In particular, Socially Responsible Consumption involves consumer behavior that favors corporate social (...)
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  • Validity Beyond Measurement: Why Psychometric Validity Is Insufficient for Valid Psychotherapy Research.Femke L. Truijens, Shana Cornelis, Mattias Desmet, Melissa M. De Smet & Reitske Meganck - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • On the Development of a Computer-Based Tool for Formative Student Assessment: Epistemological, Methodological, and Practical Issues.Martin J. Tomasik, Stéphanie Berger & Urs Moser - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Ideal Point Modeling of Non-cognitive Constructs: Review and Recommendations for Research.Louis Tay & Vincent Ng - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • What Technology Can and Cannot Do to Support Assessment of Non-cognitive Skills.Vanessa R. Simmering, Lu Ou & Maria Bolsinova - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • The nomological network of emotion knowledge and emotion understanding in adults: evidence from two new performance-based tests.Katja Schlegel & Klaus R. Scherer - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (8):1514-1530.
    ABSTRACTEmotion understanding, which can broadly be defined as expertise in the meaning of emotion, is a core component of emotional intelligence and facilitates better intra- and interpersonal outcomes. However, to date only very few standard tests to measure emotion understanding in healthy adults exist. Here, we present two new performance-based tests that were developed and are scored based on componential emotion theory and large-scale cross-cultural empirical findings. These instruments intend to measure facets of emotion understanding that are not included in (...)
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  • Commentary: Discrepancies Between Explicit Feelings of Power and Implicit Power Motives Are Related to Anxiety in Women With Anorexia Nervosa.Oliver C. Schultheiss - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
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  • The Impact of Complexity on Methods and Findings in Psychological Science.David M. Sanbonmatsu, Emily H. Cooley & Jonathan E. Butner - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The study of human behavior is severely hampered by logistical problems, ethical and legal constraints, and funding shortfalls. However, the biggest difficulty of conducting social and behavioral research is the extraordinary complexity of the study phenomena. In this article, we review the impact of complexity on research design, hypothesis testing, measurement, data analyses, reproducibility, and the communication of findings in psychological science. The systematic investigation of the world often requires different approaches because of the variability in complexity. Confirmatory testing, multi-factorial (...)
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  • A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy.Anthony C. Ruocco, Achala H. Rodrigo, Jaeger Lam, Stefano I. Di Domenico, Bryanna Graves & Hasan Ayaz - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • In Search of the Mommy Gene: Truth and Consequences in Behavioral Genetics.Philip M. Rosoff - 2010 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 35 (2):200-243.
    Behavioral genetics has as its goal the discovery of genes that play a significant causal role in complex phenotypes that are socially relevant such a parenting, aggression, psychiatric disorders, intelligence, and even race. In this article, I present the stories of the discoveries of three such important phenotypes: maternal nurturing behavior and the c-fosB gene; intelligence and phenylketonuria ; and pair-bonding and monogamy and show that the reality is considerably more complex than often portrayed. These accounts also lay bare some (...)
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  • Enhancing Congruence between Implicit Motives and Explicit Goal Commitments: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.M. Roch Ramona, G. Rösch Andreas & C. Schultheiss Oliver - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Toward a Causal Interpretation of the Common Factor Model.Mijke Rhemtulla, Lisa D. Wijsen & Riet Van Bork - 2017 - Disputatio 9 (47):581-601.
    Psychological constructs such as personality dimensions or cognitive traits are typically unobserved and are therefore measured by observing so-called indicators of the latent construct. The Common Factor Model models the relations between the observed indicators and the latent variable. In this article we argue in favor of interpreting the CFM as a causal model rather than merely a statistical model, in which common factors are only descriptions of the indicators. When there is sufficient reason to hypothesize that the underlying causal (...)
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  • BEEP—Bodily and Emotional Perception of Pain. A Questionnaire to Measure Reaction to Pain in Chronic Pain Disorders.Antonio Preti, Serena Stocchino, Francesca Pinna, Maria Cristina Deidda, Mario Musu, Federica Sancassiani, Ferdinando Romano, Sergio Machado, Gabriele Finco & Mauro Giovanni Carta - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  • Methodological empiricism and the choice of measurement models in social sciences.Clayton Peterson - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):831-854.
    Realism is generally assumed as the correct position with regards to psychological research and the measurement of psychological attributes in psychometrics. Borsboom et al., 203–219 2003), for instance, argued that the choice of a reflective measurement model necessarily implies a commitment to the existence of psychological constructs as well as a commitment to the belief that empirical testing of measurement models can justify their correspondence with real causal structures. Hood :739–761 2013) deemphasized Borsboom et al.’s position and argued that the (...)
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  • Confounding in Studies on Metacognition: A Preliminary Causal Analysis Framework.Borysław Paulewicz, Marta Siedlecka & Marcin Koculak - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    By definition, metacognitive processes may monitor or regulate various stages of first-order processing. By combining causal analysis with hypotheses expressed by other authors we derive the theoretical and methodological consequences of this special relation between metacognition and the underlying processes. In particular, we prove that because multiple processing stages may be monitored or regulated and because metacognition may form latent feedback loops, 1) without strong additional causal assumptions, typical measures of metacognitive monitoring or regulation are confounded; 2) without strong additional (...)
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  • A non-reductive science of personality, character, and well-being must take the person's worldview into account.Artur Nilsson - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Assessing the Validity of Emotional Intelligence Measures.Christopher T. H. Miners, Stéphane Côté & Filip Lievens - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (1):87-95.
    We describe an approach that enables a more complete evaluation of the validity of emotional intelligence measures. We argue that a source of evidence for validity is often overlooked by researchers and test developers, namely, evidence based on response processes. This evidence can be obtained through a definition of the ability, a description of the mental processes that operate when a person uses the ability, the development of a theory of response behaviour that links variation in the construct with variation (...)
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  • The Mismeasure of Consciousness: A problem of coordination for the Perceptual Awareness Scale.Matthias Michel - 2018 - Philosophy of Science (5):1239-1249.
    As for most measurement procedures in the course of their development, measures of consciousness face the problem of coordination, i.e., the problem of knowing whether a measurement procedure actually measures what it is intended to measure. I focus on the case of the Perceptual Awareness Scale to illustrate how ignoring this problem leads to ambiguous interpretations of subjective reports in consciousness science. In turn, I show that empirical results based on this measurement procedure might be systematically misinterpreted.
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  • Clinical outcome measurement: Models, theory, psychometrics and practice.Leah McClimans, John Browne & Stefan Cano - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 65:67-73.
  • Les données en première personne et l’expérimentation en psychologie (First-Person Data and Psychological Experiments).Pascal Ludwig & Matthias Michel - 2019 - Philosophia Scientae 23:111-130.
    En sciences sociales, les scientifiques utilisent les rapports des sujets sur leurs propres états mentaux dans leurs démarches expérimentales. Ainsi, l’introspection, ou la capacité des sujets à former des croyances sur leurs propres états mentaux, y joue un rôle important. Selon les tenants de l’introspectionnisme, l’introspection est une méthode, certes privée, mais qui permet de justifier directement des hypothèses scientifiques. Ainsi, contrairement aux méthodes utilisées dans les sciences de la nature qui se fondent uniquement sur des données publiques, les sciences (...)
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  • Valid for What? On the Very Idea of Unconditional Validity.Cristian Larroulet Philippi - 2021 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 51 (2):151–175.
    What is a valid measuring instrument? Recent philosophy has attended to logic of justification of measures, such as construct validation, but not to the question of what it means for an instrument to be a valid measure of a construct. A prominent approach grounds validity in the existence of a causal link between the attribute and its detectable manifestations. Some of its proponents claim that, therefore, validity does not depend on pragmatics and research context. In this paper, I cast doubt (...)
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  • Comparing measures of approach–avoidance behaviour: The manikin task vs. two versions of the joystick task.Regina Krieglmeyer & Roland Deutsch - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (5):810-828.
  • Do I Hear the Whistle…? A First Attempt to Measure Four Forms of Employee Silence and Their Correlates.Michael Knoll & Rolf Dick - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):349-362.
    Silence in organizations refers to a state in which employees refrain from calling attention to issues at work such as illegal or immoral practices or developments that violate personal, moral, or legal standards. While Morrison and Milliken (Acad Manag Rev 25:706–725, 2000) discussed how organizational silence as a top-down organizational level phenomenon can cause employees to remain silent, a bottom-up perspective—that is, how employee motives contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of silence in organizations—has not yet been given much research (...)
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  • Do I Hear the Whistle…? A First Attempt to Measure Four Forms of Employee Silence and Their Correlates.Michael Knoll & Rolf van Dick - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):349-362.
    Silence in organizations refers to a state in which employees refrain from calling attention to issues at work such as illegal or immoral practices or developments that violate personal, moral, or legal standards. While Morrison and Milliken (Acad Manag Rev 25:706–725, 2000) discussed how organizational silence as a top-down organizational level phenomenon can cause employees to remain silent, a bottom-up perspective—that is, how employee motives contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of silence in organizations—has not yet been given much research (...)
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  • A crisis of generalizability or a crisis of constructs?Kevin M. King & Aidan G. C. Wright - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45.
    Psychologists wish to identify and study the mechanisms and implications of nomothetic constructs that reveal truths about human nature and span across operationalizations. To achieve this goal, psychologists should spend more time carefully describing and measuring constructs across a wide range of methods and measures, and less time rushing to explain and predict.
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  • A Review of Key Likert Scale Development Advances: 1995–2019. [REVIEW]Andrew T. Jebb, Vincent Ng & Louis Tay - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Developing self-report Likert scales is an essential part of modern psychology. However, it is hard for psychologists to remain apprised of best practices as methodological developments accumulate. To address this, this current paper offers a selective review of advances in Likert scale development that have occurred over the past 25 years. We reviewed six major measurement journals between the years 1995–2019 and identified key advances, ultimately including 40 papers and offering written summaries of each. We supplemented this review with an (...)
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  • Is there a contradiction between the network and latent variable perspectives?Stephen M. Humphry & Joshua A. McGrane - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):160 - 161.
    First, we question whether Cramer et al.'s proposed network model can provide a viable scientific foundation for investigating comorbidity without invoking latent variables in some form. Second, the authors' claim that the network perspective is radically different from a latent variable perspective rests upon an undemonstrated premise. Without being demonstrated, we think the premise is potentially misleading.
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  • Philosophy, realism and psychology’s disciplinary fragmentation.Fiona J. Hibberd & Agnes Petocz - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-29.
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  • Measuring the Unmeasurable.Stefan L. K. Gruijters & Bram P. I. Fleuren - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (1):33-44.
    Within evolutionary biology, life-history theory is used to explain cross-species differences in allocation strategies regarding reproduction, maturation, and survival. Behavioral scientists have recently begun to conceptualize such strategies as a within-species individual characteristic that is predictive of behavior. Although life history theory provides an important framework for behavioral scientists, the psychometric approach to life-history strategy measurement—as operationalized by K-factors—involves conceptual entanglements. We argue that current psychometric approaches attempting to identify K-factors are based on an unwarranted conflation of functional descriptions and (...)
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  • Citizenship Pressure as a Predictor of Daily Enactment of Autonomous and Controlled Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Differential Spillover Effects on the Home Domain.Lynn Germeys, Yannick Griep & Sara De Gieter - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • From Reactive to Proactive: Developing a Valid Clinical Ethics Needs Assessment Survey to Support Ethics Program Strategic Planning (Part 1 of 2). [REVIEW]Andrea Frolic, Barb Jennings, Wendy Seidlitz, Sandy Andreychuk, Angela Djuric-Paulin, Barb Flaherty & Donna Peace - 2013 - HEC Forum 25 (1):47-60.
    As ethics committees and programs become integrated into the “usual business” of healthcare organizations, they are likely to face the predicament of responding to greater demands for service and higher expectations, without an influx of additional resources. This situation demands that ethics committees and programs allocate their scarce resources (including their time, skills and funds) strategically, rather than lurching from one ad hoc request to another; finding ways to maximize the effectiveness, efficiency, impact and quality of ethics services is essential (...)
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  • Psychometric properties of the Jonsson-Abbott Scale: Rasch and confirmatory factor analyses.David Forsström, Anders Kottorp, Alexander Rozental, Philip Lindner, Markus Jansson-Fröjmark & Per Carlbring - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Measuring and assessing the different aspects of gambling behavior and its consequences is crucial for planning prevention, treatment, and understanding the development of at-risk and problem gambling. Studies indicate that instruments measuring problem gambling produce different results based on the characteristics of the population assessed. To accurately measure at-risk and problem gambling behavior, especially in a low-risk population, measures must cover a wider set of dimensions than the negative consequences already manifest. The Jonsson-Abbott Scale includes items that cover overconsumption, actions (...)
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  • Construct validity in psychological tests – the case of implicit social cognition.Uljana Feest - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-24.
    This paper looks at the question of what it means for a psychological test to have construct validity. I approach this topic by way of an analysis of recent debates about the measurement of implicit social cognition. After showing that there is little theoretical agreement about implicit social cognition, and that the predictive validity of implicit tests appears to be low, I turn to a debate about their construct validity. I show that there are two questions at stake: First, what (...)
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  • Conceptualizing changes in behavior in intervention research: The range of possible changes model.Andres De Los Reyes & Alan E. Kazdin - 2006 - Psychological Review 113 (3):554-583.
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  • Examples as method? My attempts to understand assessment and fairness (in the spirit of the later wittgenstein).Andrew Davis - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (3):371-389.
    What is 'fairness' in the context of educational assessment? I apply this question to a number of contemporary educational assessment practices and policies. My approach to philosophy of education owes much to Wittgenstein. A commentary set apart from the main body of the paper focuses on my style of philosophising. Wittgenstein teaches us to examine in depth the fine-grained complexities of social phenomena and to refrain from imposing abstract theory on a recalcitrant reality. I write philosophy of education for policy (...)
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  • Examples as Method? My Attempts to Understand Assessment and Fairness.Andrew Davis - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (3):371-389.
    What is ‘fairness’ in the context of educational assessment? I apply this question to a number of contemporary educational assessment practices and policies. My approach to philosophy of education owes much to Wittgenstein. A commentary set apart from the main body of the paper focuses on my style of philosophising. Wittgenstein teaches us to examine in depth the fine-grained complexities of social phenomena and to refrain from imposing abstract theory on a recalcitrant reality. I write philosophy of education for policy (...)
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  • Applying methods to evaluate construct validity in the context of A level assessment.Victoria Crisp & Stuart Shaw - 2012 - Educational Studies 38 (2):209-222.
    Validity is a central principle of assessment relating to the appropriateness of the uses and interpretations of test results. Usually, one of the inferences that we wish to make is that the score reflects the extent of a student?s learning in a given domain. Thus, it is important to establish that the assessment tasks elicit performances that reflect the intended constructs. This research explored the use of three methods for evaluating whether there are threats to validity in relation to the (...)
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  • Comorbidity: A network perspective.Angélique Oj Cramer, Lourens J. Waldorp, Han Lj van der Maas & Denny Borsboom - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):137-150.
    The pivotal problem of comorbidity research lies in the psychometric foundation it rests on, that is, latent variable theory, in which a mental disorder is viewed as a latent variable that causes a constellation of symptoms. From this perspective, comorbidity is a (bi)directional relationship between multiple latent variables. We argue that such a latent variable perspective encounters serious problems in the study of comorbidity, and offer a radically different conceptualization in terms of a network approach, where comorbidity is hypothesized to (...)
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  • A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Test Validity for More Flexibility of Validation.Jinsong Chen - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Sophisticated Statistics Cannot Compensate for Method Effects If Quantifiable Structure Is Compromised.Damian P. Birney, Jens F. Beckmann, Nadin Beckmann & Steven E. Stemler - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Researchers rely on psychometric principles when trying to gain understanding of unobservable psychological phenomena disconfounded from the methods used. Psychometric models provide us with tools to support this endeavour, but they are agnostic to the meaning researchers intend to attribute to the data. We define method effects as resulting from actions which weaken the psychometric structure of measurement, and argue that solution to this confounding will ultimately rest on testing whether data collected fit a psychometric model based on a substantive (...)
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  • Finding Empathy: How Neuroscientific Measures, Evidence and Conceptualizations Interact.Riana J. Betzler - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (2):224-243.
    ABSTRACTQuestions about how empathy should be conceptualized have long been a preoccupation of the field of empathy research. There are numerous definitions of empathy that have been proposed and that often overlap with other concepts such as sympathy and compassion. This makes communication between research groups or across disciplines difficult. Many researchers seem to see the diversity of definitions as a problem rather than a form of benign pluralism. Within this debate about conceptualization, researchers sometimes suggest that more neuroscientific evidence (...)
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  • Confidence in Consciousness Research.Matthias Michel - forthcoming - WIREs Cognitive Science.
    To study (un)conscious perception and test hypotheses about consciousness, researchers need procedures for determining whether subjects consciously perceive stimuli or not. This article is an introduction to a family of procedures called ‘confidence-based procedures’, which consist in interpreting metacognitive indicators as indicators of consciousness. I assess the validity and accuracy of these procedures, and answer a series of common objections to their use in consciousness research. I conclude that confidence-based procedures are valid for assessing consciousness, and, in most cases, accurate (...)
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  • Definition: A practical guide to constructing and evaluating definitions of terms.David Hitchcock - 2021 - Windsor, ON: Windsor Studies in Argumentation.
    This book proposes guidelines for constructing and evaluating definitions of terms, i.e. words or phrases of general application. The guidelines extend to adoption of nomenclature. The book is meant to be a practical guide for people who find themselves in their daily lives or their employment producing or evaluating definitions of terms. It can be consulted rather than being read through. The book’s theoretical framework is a distinction, due to Robert H. Ennis, of three dimensions of definitions: the act of (...)
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  • Worker Well-Being: What It Is, and How It Should Be Measured.Indy Wijngaards, Owen C. King, Martijn J. Burger & Job van Exel - 2022 - Applied Research in Quality of Life 17:795-832.
    Worker well-being is a hot topic in organizations, consultancy and academia. However, too often, the buzz about worker well-being, enthusiasm for new programs to promote it and interest to research it, have not been accompanied by universal enthusiasm for scientific measurement. Aim to bridge this gap, we address three questions. To address the question ‘What is worker well-being?’, we explain that worker well-being is a multi-facetted concept and that it can be operationalized in a variety of constructs. We propose a (...)
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  • If I Could Talk to the Animals: Measuring Subjective Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2019 - Dissertation, Australian National University
    Animal welfare is a concept that plays a role within both our moral deliberations and the relevant areas of science. The study of animal welfare has impacts on decisions made by legislators, producers and consumers with regards to housing and treatment of animals. Our ethical deliberations in these domains need to consider our impact on animals, and the study of animal welfare provides the information that allows us to make informed decisions. This thesis focusses on taking a philosophical perspective to (...)
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  • Judging Mechanistic Neuroscience: A Preliminary Conceptual-Analytic Framework for Evaluating Scientific Evidence in the Courtroom.Jacqueline Anne Sullivan & Emily Baron - 2018 - Psychology, Crime and Law (00):00-00.
    The use of neuroscientific evidence in criminal trials has been steadily increasing. Despite progress made in recent decades in understanding the mechanisms of psychological and behavioral functioning, neuroscience is still in an early stage of development and its potential for influencing legal decision-making is highly contentious. Scholars disagree about whether or how neuroscientific evidence might impact prescriptions of criminal culpability, particularly in instances in which evidence of an accused’s history of mental illness or brain abnormality is offered to support a (...)
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  • The Psychology of Worldviews: Toward a Non-Reductive Science of Personality.Artur Nilsson - unknown
    Persons are not just mechanical systems of instinctual animalistic proclivities, but also language-producing, existentially aware creatures, whose experiences and actions are drenched in subjective meaning. To understand a human being as a person is to understand him or her as a rational system that wants, fears, hopes, believes, and in other ways imbues the world with meaning, rather than just a mechanical system that is subject to the same chains of cause and effect as other animals. But contemporary personality psychology (...)
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  • Assessing Measures of Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - manuscript
    When making decisions about action to improve animal lives, it is important that we have accurate estimates of how much animals are suffering under different conditions. The current frameworks for making comparative estimates of suffering all fall along the lines of multiplying numbers of animals used by length of life and amount of suffering experienced. However, the numbers used to quantify suffering are usually generated through unreliable and subjective processes which make them unlikely to be correct. In this paper, I (...)
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  • The Relationship between subtle psychological cues and voter preferences among students at University of Zimbabwe.Tatenda Ngara - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Zimbabwe
    The success of any election depends on whether it was free and fair both to the candidates and the voters. Due to media coverage of national elections locally, regionally and globally, subtle psychological cues have become popular and are being used in student Representative Council (SRC) elections to harness voter preferences. This study focused on investigating the relationship between subtle psychological cues and voter preferences among university of Zimbabwe students. More so, the study was focused on four operationally defined subtle (...)
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