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  1. The Byzantine Understanding of the Qur՚Anic Term Al-Ṣamad and the Greek Translation of the Qur՚An.Christos Simelidis - 2011 - Speculum 86 (4):887-913.
    In his 1988 University Lecture in Religion at Arizona State University, Josef van Ess argued for a widespread concept of a “compact” God in early Islam. The notion is expressed by ṣamad in Sura 112.2, an enigmatic word, which “in the first half of the second Islamic century … was understood as meaning ‘massive, compact.’” There is Islamic evidence for this, van Ess argued: “The best testimony, however, comes from outside Islam: Theodore Abū Qurra, bishop of Ḥarrān in Upper Mesopotamia (...)
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