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Modal Logic: Graph. Darst

Cambridge University Press (2002)

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  1. Aspectos metafísicos na física de Newton: Deus.Bruno Camilo de Oliveira - 2011 - In Luiz Henrique de Araújo Dutra & Alexandre Meyer Luz (eds.), Coleção rumos da epistemologia. Florianópolis, SC, Brasil: NEL/UFSC. pp. 186-201.
    CAMILO, Bruno. Aspectos metafísicos na física de Newton: Deus. In: DUTRA, Luiz Henrique de Araújo; LUZ, Alexandre Meyer (org.). Temas de filosofia do conhecimento. Florianópolis: NEL/UFSC, 2011. p. 186-201. (Coleção rumos da epistemologia; 11). Através da análise do pensamento de Isaac Newton (1642-1727) encontramos os postulados metafísicos que fundamentam a sua mecânica natural. Ao deduzir causa de efeito, ele acreditava chegar a uma causa primeira de todas as coisas. A essa primeira causa de tudo, onde toda a ordem e leis (...)
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  • Polynomial Ring Calculus for Modal Logics: A New Semantics and Proof Method for Modalities: Polynomial Ring Calculus for Modal Logics.Juan C. Agudelo - 2011 - Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (1):150-170.
    A new proof style adequate for modal logics is defined from the polynomial ring calculus. The new semantics not only expresses truth conditions of modal formulas by means of polynomials, but also permits to perform deductions through polynomial handling. This paper also investigates relationships among the PRC here defined, the algebraic semantics for modal logics, equational logics, the Dijkstra???Scholten equational-proof style, and rewriting systems. The method proposed is throughly exemplified for S 5, and can be easily extended to other modal (...)
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  • Uncertainty, Rationality, and Agency.Wiebe van der Hoek - 2006 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    This volume concerns Rational Agents - humans, players in a game, software or institutions - which must decide the proper next action in an atmosphere of partial information and uncertainty. The book collects formal accounts of Uncertainty, Rationality and Agency, and also of their interaction. It will benefit researchers in artificial systems which must gather information, reason about it and then make a rational decision on which action to take.
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  • Truth and Falsehood: An Inquiry Into Generalized Logical Values.Yaroslav Shramko & Heinrich Wansing - 2011 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    The book presents a thoroughly elaborated logical theory of generalized truth-values understood as subsets of some established set of truth values. After elucidating the importance of the very notion of a truth value in logic and philosophy, we examine some possible ways of generalizing this notion. The useful four-valued logic of first-degree entailment by Nuel Belnap and the notion of a bilattice constitute the basis for further generalizations. By doing so we elaborate the idea of a multilattice, and most notably, (...)
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  • Modality, Semantics and Interpretations: The Second Asian Workshop on Philosophical Logic.Shier Ju, Hu Liu & Hiroakira Ono (eds.) - 2015 - Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
    This contributed volume includes both theoretical research on philosophical logic and its applications in artificial intelligence, mostly employing the concepts and techniques of modal logic. It collects selected papers presented at the Second Asia Workshop on Philosophical Logic, held in Guangzhou, China in 2014, as well as a number of invited papers by specialists in related fields. The contributions represent pioneering philosophical logic research in Asia.
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  • Dynamic Formal Epistemology.Patrick Girard, Olivier Roy & Mathieu Marion (eds.) - 2010 - Berlin, Germany: Springer.
    This volume is a collation of original contributions from the key actors of a new trend in the contemporary theory of knowledge and belief, that we call “dynamic epistemology”. It brings the works of these researchers under a single umbrella by highlighting the coherence of their current themes, and by establishing connections between topics that, up until now, have been investigated independently. It also illustrates how the new analytical toolbox unveils questions about the theory of knowledge, belief, preference, action, and (...)
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  • Leo Esakia on Duality in Modal and Intuitionistic Logics.Guram Bezhanishvili (ed.) - 2014 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    This volume is dedicated to Leo Esakia's contributions to the theory of modal and intuitionistic systems. Consisting of 10 chapters, written by leading experts, this volume discusses Esakia’s original contributions and consequent developments that have helped to shape duality theory for modal and intuitionistic logics and to utilize it to obtain some major results in the area. Beginning with a chapter which explores Esakia duality for S4-algebras, the volume goes on to explore Esakia duality for Heyting algebras and its generalizations (...)
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  • Epistemologia Analítica, Vol .1: debates contemporâneos.Tiegue Vieira Rodrigues (ed.) - 2019 - Editora Fi.
    O presente volume se trata de uma coletânea de artigos que reúne alguns dos trabalhos propostos para o evento “III International Colloquium of Analytic Epistemology and VII Conference of Social Epistemology”, realizado entre os dias 27 e 30 de Novembro de 2018, na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. O “III International Colloquium of Analytic Epistemology and VII Conference of Social Epistemology” é um dos principais eventos de Epistemologia analítica da América Latina e reúne especialistas do Brasil e do exterior para (...)
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  • Impossible Worlds.Franz Berto & Mark Jago - 2013 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    We need to understand the impossible. Francesco Berto and Mark Jago start by considering what the concepts of meaning, information, knowledge, belief, fiction, conditionality, and counterfactual supposition have in common. They are all concepts which divide the world up more finely than logic does. Logically equivalent sentences may carry different meanings and information and may differ in how they're believed. Fictions can be inconsistent yet meaningful. We can suppose impossible things without collapsing into total incoherence. Yet for the leading philosophical (...)
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  • Doxastic Logic: A New Approach.Daniel Rönnedal - 2018 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 28 (4):313-347.
    In this paper, I develop a new set of doxastic logical systems and I show how they can be used to solve several well-known problems in doxastic logic, for example the so-called problem of logical omniscience. According to this puzzle, the notions of knowledge and belief that are used in ordinary epistemic and doxastic symbolic systems are too idealised. Hence, those systems cannot be used to model ordinary human or human-like agents' beliefs. At best, they can describe idealised individuals. The (...)
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  • The Moral Law and The Good in Temporal Modal Logic with Propositional Quantifiers.Daniel Rönnedal - 2020 - Australasian Journal of Logic 17 (1):22.
    The Moral Law is fulfilled iff everything that ought to be the case is the case, and The Good is realised in a possible world w at a time t iff w is deontically accessible from w at t. In this paper, I will introduce a set of temporal modal deontic systems with propositional quantifiers that can be used to prove some interesting theorems about The Moral Law and The Good. First, I will describe a set of systems without any (...)
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  • Boulesic-Doxastic Logic.Daniel Rönnedal - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Logic 16 (3):83.
    In this paper, I will develop a set of boulesic-doxastic tableau systems and prove that they are sound and complete. Boulesic-doxastic logic consists of two main parts: a boulesic part and a doxastic part. By ‘boulesic logic’ I mean ‘the logic of the will’, and by ‘doxastic logic’ I mean ‘the logic of belief’. The first part deals with ‘boulesic’ concepts, expressions, sentences, arguments and theorems. I will concentrate on two types of boulesic expression: ‘individual x wants it to be (...)
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  • Continuous Propositional Modal Logic.Stefano Baratella - 2018 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 28 (4):297-312.
    We introduce a propositional many-valued modal logic which is an extension of the Continuous Propositional Logic to a modal system. Otherwise said, we extend the minimal modal logic to a Continuous Logic system. After introducing semantics, axioms and deduction rules, we establish some preliminary results. Then we prove the equivalence between consistency and satisfiability. As straightforward consequences, we get compactness, an approximated completeness theorem, in the vein of Continuous Logic, and a Pavelka-style completeness theorem.
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  • Higher-Order Contingentism, Part 1: Closure and Generation.Peter Fritz & Jeremy Goodman - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (6):645-695.
    This paper is a study of higher-order contingentism – the view, roughly, that it is contingent what properties and propositions there are. We explore the motivations for this view and various ways in which it might be developed, synthesizing and expanding on work by Kit Fine, Robert Stalnaker, and Timothy Williamson. Special attention is paid to the question of whether the view makes sense by its own lights, or whether articulating the view requires drawing distinctions among possibilities that, according to (...)
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  • Model Theoretical Aspects of Weakly Aggregative Modal Logic.Jixin Liu, Yifeng Ding & Yanjing Wang - 2022 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 31 (2):261-286.
    Weakly Aggregative Modal Logic ) is a collection of disguised polyadic modal logics with n-ary modalities whose arguments are all the same. \ has interesting applications on epistemic logic, deontic logic, and the logic of belief. In this paper, we study some basic model theoretical aspects of \. Specifically, we first give a van Benthem–Rosen characterization theorem of \ based on an intuitive notion of bisimulation. Then, in contrast to many well known normal or non-normal modal logics, we show that (...)
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  • Reverse Public Announcement Operators on Expanded Models.Ryuichi Sebastian Haney - 2018 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 27 (3):205-224.
    Past public announcement operators have been defined in Hoshi and Yap :259–281, 2009) and Yap, to describe an agent’s knowledge before an announcement occurs. These operators rely on branching-time structures that do not mirror the traditional, relativization-based semantics of public announcement logic, and favor a historical reading of past announcements. In this paper, we introduce reverse public announcement operators that are interpreted on expanded models. Our model expansion adds accessibility links from an epistemic model \ to a filtrated submodel of (...)
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  • Krister Segerberg on Logic of Actions.Robert Trypuz (ed.) - 2013 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer Verlag.
    Belief revision from the point of view of doxastic logic. Logic Journal of the IGPL, 3(4), 535–553. Segerberg, K. (1995). Conditional action. In G. Crocco, L. Fariñas, & A. Herzig (Eds.), Conditionals: From philosophy to computer science, Studies ...
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  • Epistemic Logic Meets Epistemic Game Theory: A Comparison Between Multi-Agent Kripke Models and Type Spaces.Paolo Galeazzi & Emiliano Lorini - 2016 - Synthese 193 (7):2097-2127.
    In the literature there are at least two main formal structures to deal with situations of interactive epistemology: Kripke models and type spaces. As shown in many papers :149–225, 1999; Battigalli and Siniscalchi in J Econ Theory 106:356–391, 2002; Klein and Pacuit in Stud Log 102:297–319, 2014; Lorini in J Philos Log 42:863–904, 2013), both these frameworks can be used to express epistemic conditions for solution concepts in game theory. The main result of this paper is a formal comparison between (...)
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  • Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics.Alexandru Baltag & Sonja Smets (eds.) - 2014 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
    This book illustrates the program of Logical-Informational Dynamics. Rational agents exploit the information available in the world in delicate ways, adopt a wide range of epistemic attitudes, and in that process, constantly change the world itself. Logical-Informational Dynamics is about logical systems putting such activities at center stage, focusing on the events by which we acquire information and change attitudes. Its contributions show many current logics of information and change at work, often in multi-agent settings where social behavior is essential, (...)
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  • Games: Unifying Logic, Language, and Philosophy.Ondrej Majer, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Tero Tulenheimo (eds.) - 2009 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer Verlag.
    This volume presents mathematical game theory as an interface between logic and philosophy.
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  • Prioritised Ceteris Paribus Logic for Counterfactual Reasoning.Patrick Girard & Marcus A. Triplett - 2018 - Synthese 195 (4):1681-1703.
    The semantics for counterfactuals due to David Lewis has been challenged by appealing to miracles. Miracles may skew a given similarity order in favour of those possible worlds which exhibit them. Lewis responded with a system of priorities that mitigates the significance of miracles when constructing similarity relations. We propose a prioritised ceteris paribus analysis of counterfactuals inspired by Lewis’ system of priorities. By analysing the couterfactuals with a ceteris paribus clause one forces out, in a natural manner, those possible (...)
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  • Nonclassical Probability and Convex Hulls.Seamus Bradley - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):87-101.
    It is well known that the convex hull of the classical truth value functions contains all and only the probability functions. Work by Paris and Williams has shown that this also holds for various kinds of nonclassical logics too. This note summarises the formal details of this topic and extends the results slightly.
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  • On the Ternary Relation and Conditionality.Jc Beall, Ross T. Brady, J. Michael Dunn, A. P. Hazen, Edwin D. Mares, Robert K. Meyer, Graham Priest, Greg Restall, David Ripley, John Slaney & Richard Sylvan - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (3):595 - 612.
    One of the most dominant approaches to semantics for relevant (and many paraconsistent) logics is the Routley-Meyer semantics involving a ternary relation on points. To some (many?), this ternary relation has seemed like a technical trick devoid of an intuitively appealing philosophical story that connects it up with conditionality in general. In this paper, we respond to this worry by providing three different philosophical accounts of the ternary relation that correspond to three conceptions of conditionality. We close by briefly discussing (...)
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  • Modal Set Theory.Christopher Menzel - forthcoming - In Otávio Bueno & Scott Shalkowski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Modality. London and New York: Routledge.
    This article presents an overview of the basic philosophical motivations for, and some recent work in, modal set theory.
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  • Determining the Environment: A Modal Logic for Closed Interaction.Jan Broersen, Rosja Mastop, John-Jules Meyer & Paolo Turrini - 2009 - Synthese 169 (2):351-369.
    The aim of the work is to provide a language to reason about Closed Interactions, i.e. all those situations in which the outcomes of an interaction can be determined by the agents themselves and in which the environment cannot interfere with they are able to determine. We will see that two different interpretations can be given of this restriction, both stemming from Pauly Representation Theorem. We will identify such restrictions and axiomatize their logic. We will apply the formal tools to (...)
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  • Admissible Bases Via Stable Canonical Rules.Nick Bezhanishvili, David Gabelaia, Silvio Ghilardi & Mamuka Jibladze - 2016 - Studia Logica 104 (2):317-341.
    We establish the dichotomy property for stable canonical multi-conclusion rules for IPC, K4, and S4. This yields an alternative proof of existence of explicit bases of admissible rules for these logics.
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  • Connected Modal Logics.Guram Bezhanishvili & David Gabelaia - 2011 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (3-4):287-317.
    We introduce the concept of a connected logic (over S4) and show that each connected logic with the finite model property is the logic of a subalgebra of the closure algebra of all subsets of the real line R, thus generalizing the McKinsey-Tarski theorem. As a consequence, we obtain that each intermediate logic with the finite model property is the logic of a subalgebra of the Heyting algebra of all open subsets of R.
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  • A STIT Logic for Reasoning About Social Influence.Emiliano Lorini & Giovanni Sartor - 2016 - Studia Logica 104 (4):773-812.
    In this paper we propose a method for modeling social influence within the STIT approach to action. Our proposal consists in extending the STIT language with special operators that allow us to represent the consequences of an agent’s choices over the rational choices of another agent.
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  • Algebraic Semantics for Modal and Superintuitionistic Non-Monotonic Logics.David Pearce & Levan Uridia - 2013 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 23 (1-2):147-158.
    The paper provides a preliminary study of algebraic semantics for modal and superintuitionistic non-monotonic logics. The main question answered is: how can non-monotonic inference be understood algebraically?
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  • Completeness Results for Some Two-Dimensional Logics of Actuality.David R. Gilbert & Edwin D. Mares - 2012 - Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (2):239-258.
    We provide a Hilbert-style axiomatization of the logic of , as well as a two-dimensional semantics with respect to which our logics are sound and complete. Our completeness results are quite general, pertaining to all such actuality logics that extend a normal and canonical modal basis. We also show that our logics have the strong finite model property and permit straightforward first-order extensions.
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  • Are the Validities of Modal Logic Analytic? Or Analyticity Again, Through Information, Proof, Modal Logic and Hintikka.Francesca Poggiolesi - 2015 - Philosophia Scientae 19:221-243.
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  • The Logic of Pit.Hans P. Van Ditmarsch - 2006 - Synthese 149 (2):343-374.
    Pit is a multi-player card game that simulates the commodities trading market, and where actions consist of bidding and of swapping cards. We present a formal description of the knowledge and change of knowledge in that game. The description is in a standard language for dynamic epistemics expanded with assignment. Assignment is necessary to describe that cards change hands. The formal description is a prerequisite to model Pit in game theory. The main contribution of this paper should be seen as (...)
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  • Axiomatizing Relativistic Dynamics Using Formal Thought Experiments.Attila Molnár & Gergely Székely - 2015 - Synthese 192 (7):2183-2222.
    Thought experiments are widely used in the informal explanation of Relativity Theories; however, they are not present explicitly in formalized versions of Relativity Theory. In this paper, we present an axiom system of Special Relativity which is able to grasp thought experiments formally and explicitly. Moreover, using these thought experiments, we can provide an explicit definition of relativistic mass based only on kinematical concepts and we can geometrically prove the Mass Increase Formula in a natural way, without postulates of conservation (...)
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  • A Generalization of the Routley-Meyer Semantic Framework.Morgan Thomas - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (4):411-427.
    We develop an axiomatic theory of “generalized Routley-Meyer logics.” These are first-order logics which are can be characterized by model theories in a certain generalization of Routley-Meyer semantics. We show that all GRM logics are subclassical, have recursively enumerable consequence relations, satisfy the compactness theorem, and satisfy the standard structural rules and conjunction and disjunction introduction/elimination rules. We also show that the GRM logics include classical logic, intuitionistic logic, LP/K3/FDE, and the relevant logics.
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  • Non-Measurability, Imprecise Credences, and Imprecise Chances.Yoaav Isaacs, Alan Hájek & John Hawthorne - forthcoming - Mind:fzab031.
    We offer a new motivation for imprecise probabilities. We argue that there are propositions to which precise probability cannot be assigned, but to which imprecise probability can be assigned. In such cases the alternative to imprecise probability is not precise probability, but no probability at all. And an imprecise probability is substantially better than no probability at all. Our argument is based on the mathematical phenomenon of non-measurable sets. Non-measurable propositions cannot receive precise probabilities, but there is a natural way (...)
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  • Relational Semantics of the Lambek Calculus Extended with Classical Propositional Logic.Michael Kaminski & Nissim Francez - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (3):479-497.
    We show that the relational semantics of the Lambek calculus, both nonassociative and associative, is also sound and complete for its extension with classical propositional logic. Then, using filtrations, we obtain the finite model property for the nonassociative Lambek calculus extended with classical propositional logic.
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  • The Logic of Sequence Frames.Fabio Lampert - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (1):101-132.
    This paper investigates and develops generalizations of two-dimensional modal logics to any finite dimension. These logics are natural extensions of multidimensional systems known from the literature on logics for a priori knowledge. We prove a completeness theorem for propositional n-dimensional modal logics and show them to be decidable by means of a systematic tableau construction.
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  • You Better Play 7: Mutual Versus Common Knowledge of Advice in a Weak-Link Experiment.Giovanna Devetag, Hykel Hosni & Giacomo Sillari - 2013 - Synthese 190 (8):1351-1381.
    This paper presents the results of an experiment on mutual versus common knowledge of advice in a two-player weak-link game with random matching. Our experimental subjects play in pairs for thirteen rounds. After a brief learning phase common to all treatments, we vary the knowledge levels associated with external advice given in the form of a suggestion to pick the strategy supporting the payoff-dominant equilibrium. Our results are somewhat surprising and can be summarized as follows: in all our treatments both (...)
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  • Substantive Assumptions in Interaction: A Logical Perspective.Olivier Roy & Eric Pacuit - 2013 - Synthese 190 (5):891-908.
    In this paper we study substantive assumptions in social interaction. By substantive assumptions we mean contingent assumptions about what the players know and believe about each other’s choices and information. We first explain why substantive assumptions are fundamental for the analysis of games and, more generally, social interaction. Then we show that they can be compared formally, and that there exist contexts where no substantive assumptions are being made. Finally we show that the questions raised in this paper are related (...)
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  • Vagueness: Subvaluationism.Pablo Cobreros - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (5):472-485.
    Supervaluationism is a well known theory of vagueness. Subvaluationism is a less well known theory of vagueness. But these theories cannot be taken apart, for they are in a relation of duality that can be made precise. This paper provides an introduction to the subvaluationist theory of vagueness in connection to its dual, supervaluationism. A survey on the supervaluationist theory can be found in the Compass paper of Keefe (2008); our presentation of the theory in this paper will be short (...)
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  • Ontological Symmetry in Language: A Brief Manifesto.Philippe Schlenker - 2006 - Mind Language 21 (4):504-539.
  • Defining Knowledge in Terms of Belief: The Modal Logic Perspective.Joseph Y. Halpern, Dov Samet & Ella Segev - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):469-487.
    The question of whether knowledge is definable in terms of belief, which has played an important role in epistemology for the last 50 years, is studied here in the framework of epistemic and doxastic logics. Three notions of definability are considered: explicit definability, implicit definability, and reducibility, where explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. It is shown that if knowledge satisfies any set of axioms contained in S5, then it cannot be explicitly defined in (...)
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  • Ontological Symmetry in Language: A Brief Manifesto.Philippe Schlenker - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (4):504–539.
    In the tradition of quantified modal logic, it was assumed that significantly different linguistic systems underlie reference to individuals, to times and to 'possible worlds'. Various results from recent research in formal semantics suggest that this is not so, and that there is in fact a pervasive symmetry between the linguistic means with which we refer to these three domains. Reference to individuals, times and worlds is uniformly effected through generalized quantifiers, definite descriptions, and pronouns, and in each domain grammatical (...)
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  • Dynamic Epistemic Logic I: Modeling Knowledge and Belief.Eric Pacuit - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (9):798-814.
    Dynamic epistemic logic, broadly conceived, is the study of logics of information change. This is the first paper in a two-part series introducing this research area. In this paper, I introduce the basic logical systems for reasoning about the knowledge and beliefs of a group of agents.
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  • A Topological Completeness Theorem for a Weak Version of Stalnaker's Logic of Knowledge and Belief.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
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  • In the Beginning Was Game Semantics?Giorgi Japaridze - 2009 - In Ondrej Majer, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Tero Tulenheimo (eds.), Games: Unifying Logic, Language, and Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 249--350.
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  • Non-Deterministic Logic of Informal Provability has No Finite Characterization.Pawel Pawlowski - 2021 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 30 (4):805-817.
    Recently, in an ongoing debate about informal provability, non-deterministic logics of informal provability BAT and CABAT were developed to model the notion. CABAT logic is defined as an extension of BAT logics and itself does not have independent and decent semantics. The aim of the paper is to show that, semantically speaking, both logics are rather complex and they can be characterized by neither finitely many valued deterministic semantics nor possible word semantics including neighbourhood semantics.
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  • Display to Labeled Proofs and Back Again for Tense Logics.Agata Ciabattoni, Tim Lyon, Revantha Ramanayake & Alwen Tiu - 2021 - ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 22 (3):1-31.
    We introduce translations between display calculus proofs and labeled calculus proofs in the context of tense logics. First, we show that every derivation in the display calculus for the minimal tense logic Kt extended with general path axioms can be effectively transformed into a derivation in the corresponding labeled calculus. Concerning the converse translation, we show that for Kt extended with path axioms, every derivation in the corresponding labeled calculus can be put into a special form that is translatable to (...)
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  • Belief Modalities Defined by Nuclei.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to show that the topological interpretation of knowledge as an interior kernel operator K of a topological space (X, OX) comes along with a partially ordered family of belief modalities B that fit K in the sense that the pairs (K, B) satisfy all axioms of Stalnaker’s KB logic of knowledge and belief with the exception of the contentious axiom of negative introspection (NI). The new belief modalities B introduced in this paper are (...)
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  • Proof Theory for Modal Logic.Sara Negri - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (8):523-538.
    The axiomatic presentation of modal systems and the standard formulations of natural deduction and sequent calculus for modal logic are reviewed, together with the difficulties that emerge with these approaches. Generalizations of standard proof systems are then presented. These include, among others, display calculi, hypersequents, and labelled systems, with the latter surveyed from a closer perspective.
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