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  1. Donation After Cardiocirculatory Death: A Call for a Moratorium Pending Full Public Disclosure and Fully Informed Consent.Ari R. Joffe, Joe Carcillo, Natalie Anton, Allan deCaen, Yong Y. Han, Michael J. Bell, Frank A. Maffei, John Sullivan, James Thomas & Gonzalo Garcia-Guerra - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:17.
    Many believe that the ethical problems of donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) have been "worked out" and that it is unclear why DCD should be resisted. In this paper we will argue that DCD donors may not yet be dead, and therefore that organ donation during DCD may violate the dead donor rule. We first present a description of the process of DCD and the standard ethical rationale for the practice. We then present our concerns with DCD, including the following: (...)
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  • Donation After Brain Circulation Determination of Death.Anne L. Dalle Ave & James L. Bernat - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):15.
    The fundamental determinant of death in donation after circulatory determination of death is the cessation of brain circulation and function. We therefore propose the term donation after brain circulation determination of death [DBCDD]. In DBCDD, death is determined when the cessation of circulatory function is permanent but before it is irreversible, consistent with medical standards of death determination outside the context of organ donation. Safeguards to prevent error include that: 1] the possibility of auto-resuscitation has elapsed; 2] no brain circulation (...)
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  • The Ethical Obligation of the Dead Donor Rule.Anne L. Dalle Ave, Daniel P. Sulmasy & James L. Bernat - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):43-50.
    The dead donor rule originally stated that organ donors must not be killed by and for organ donation. Scholars later added the requirement that vital organs should not be procured before death. Some now argue that the DDR is breached in donation after circulatory determination of death programs. DCDD programs do not breach the original version of the DDR because vital organs are procured only after circulation has ceased permanently as a consequence of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. We hold that (...)
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  • Ethische Relevanz und faktische Mängel in der Kommunikation von Spezifika der Organspende nach Kreislaufstillstand.Markus Christen & Martina Gloor - 2018 - Ethik in der Medizin 30 (4):343-361.
    ZusammenfassungIn zahlreichen Ländern nimmt die Zahl von Organspenden nach Kreislaufstillstand zu, obwohl in der Medizinethik verschiedene Aspekte der DCDD kritisch diskutiert werden. In unserer Arbeit identifizieren wir ethisch relevante Aspekte der DCDD basierend auf einer umfassenden Literaturanalyse. Wir fokussieren dabei insbesondere auf zwei Aspekte: vorbereitende Maßnahmen und Irreversibilität des Todeskriteriums. Danach untersuchen wir in einer weltweit durchgeführten Auswertung von Webseiten von Organspende-Organisationen und einer begleitenden Umfrage, inwieweit diese ethisch relevanten Aspekte von DCDD in der Information potenziell spendewilliger Personen eine Rolle (...)
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  • Bioética, Reanimación Cardiopulmonar y Donación de Órganos En Asistolia.Pablo de Lora, Iván Ortega-Deballon, David Rodríguez-Arias, José Antonio Seoane, Alfredo Serrano & Rosana Triviño - 2013 - Dilemata 13:283-296.
    The so-called uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death (uDCDD) have been implemented in several countries, including Spain and France, to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. These protocols allow obtaining kidneys, livers and lungs of patients who do not survive cardio-pulmonary resuscitation performed in out-of-hospital settings. Simultaneously with the development and recent proliferation of these protocols, some emergency teams have begun to employ unconventional methods of CPR, with still uncertain but promising results. The coexistence of these two possibilities (...)
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  • The Ethics of Limiting Informed Debate: Censorship of Select Medical Publications in the Interest of Organ Transplantation.Michael Potts, Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & David W. Evans - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):625-638.
    Recently, several articles in the scholarly literature on medical ethics proclaim the need for “responsible scholarship” in the debate over the proper criteria for death, in which “responsible scholarship” is defined in terms of support for current neurological criteria for death. In a recent article, James M. DuBois is concerned that academic critiques of current death criteria create unnecessary doubt about the moral acceptability of organ donation, which may affect the public’s willingness to donate. Thus he calls for a closing (...)
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  • An Analysis of Heart Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.Anne Laure Dalle Ave, David Shaw & James L. Bernat - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (5):312-317.
  • Does Controlled Donation After Circulatory Death Violate the Dead Donor Rule?Emil J. Nielsen Busch & Marius T. Mjaaland - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-8.
    The vital status of patients who are a part of controlled donation after circulatory death is widely debated in bioethical literature. Opponents to currently applied cDCD protocols argue tha...
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  • Respecting Choice in Definitions of Death.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S4):S53-S55.
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  • Conceptual Issues in DCDD Donor Death Determination.James L. Bernat - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S4):S26-S28.
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  • On Noncongruence Between the Concept and Determination of Death.James L. Bernat - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (6):25-33.
  • Controversies in defining death: a case for choice.Robert M. Veatch - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (5):381-401.
    When a new, brain-based definition of death was proposed fifty years ago, no one realized that the issue would remain unresolved for so long. Recently, six new controversies have added to the debate: whether there is a right to refuse apnea testing, which set of criteria should be chosen to measure the death of the brain, how the problem of erroneous testing should be handled, whether any of the current criteria sets accurately measures the death of the brain, whether standard (...)
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  • When Are You Dead Enough to Be a Donor? Can Any Feasible Protocol for the Determination of Death on Circulatory Criteria Respect the Dead Donor Rule?Govert den Hartogh - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (4):299-319.
    The basic question concerning the compatibility of donation after circulatory death protocols with the dead donor rule is whether such protocols can guarantee that the loss of relevant biological functions is truly irreversible. Which functions are the relevant ones? I argue that the answer to this question can be derived neither from a proper understanding of the meaning of the term “death” nor from a proper understanding of the nature of death as a biological phenomenon. The concept of death can (...)
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  • Revisiting the Persisting Tension Between Expert and Lay Views About Brain Death and Death Determination: A Proposal Inspired by Pragmatism.Eric Racine - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):623-631.
    Brain death or determination of death based on the neurological criterion has been an enduring source of controversy in academic and clinical circles. The controversy chiefly concerns how death is defined, and it also bears on the justification of the proposed criteria for death determination and their interpretation. Part of the controversy on brain death and death determination stems from disputed crucial medical facts, but in this paper I formulate another hypothesis about the nature of ongoing controversies. At stake is (...)
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  • Conceptual Clarity in Clinical Bioethical Analysis.J. Clint Parker - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (1):1-15.
    Conceptual clarity is essential when engaging in dialogue to avoid unnecessary disagreement and to promote mutual understanding. In this issue devoted to clinical bioethics, the authors exemplify the virtue of careful conceptual analysis as they explore complex clinical questions regarding the essential nature of medicine, the boundaries of killing and letting die, the meaning of irreversibility in definitions of death, the argument for a right to try experimental medications, the ethical borders in complex medical billing, and the definition and modeling (...)
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  • Why DCD Donors Are Dead.John P. Lizza - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (1):42-60.
    Critics of organ donation after circulatory death argue that, even if donors are past the point of autoresuscitation, they have not satisfied the “irreversibility” requirement in the circulatory and respiratory criteria for determining death, since their circulation and respiration could be artificially restored. Thus, removing their vital organs violates the “dead-donor” rule. I defend DCD donation against this criticism. I argue that practical medical-ethical considerations, including respect for do-not-resuscitate orders, support interpreting “irreversibility” to mean permanent cessation of circulation and respiration. (...)
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  • Living Organ Donation Near and at the End of Life: Drawing and Re-Drawing the Boundaries Around Permissible Practices in Organ Donation.Ana S. Iltis - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):123-125.
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  • Beyond Transplantation: Considering Brain Death as a Hard Clinical Endpoint.Michelle J. Clarke, Megan S. Remtema & Keith M. Swetz - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):43-45.
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  • EPR and uDCDD: A Response to Commentaries.Arjun Prabhu, Lisa S. Parker & Michael A. DeVita - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (7):1-3.
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  • Harmonizing Standards for Death Determination in DCDD.James L. Bernat - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):10-12.
  • Brain-Dead Patients Are Not Cadavers: The Need to Revise the Definition of Death in Muslim Communities. [REVIEW]Mohamed Y. Rady & Joseph L. Verheijde - 2013 - HEC Forum 25 (1):25-45.
    The utilitarian construct of two alternative criteria of human death increases the supply of transplantable organs at the end of life. Neither the neurological criterion (heart-beating donation) nor the circulatory criterion (non-heart-beating donation) is grounded in scientific evidence but based on philosophical reasoning. A utilitarian death definition can have unintended consequences for dying Muslim patients: (1) the expedited process of determining death for retrieval of transplantable organs can lead to diagnostic errors, (2) the equivalence of brain death with human death (...)
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  • Declare Death or Attempt Experimental Resuscitation?James L. Bernat - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (5):17-19.
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  • Defining Death Without Science? A Pragmatic Rebuttal.Eric Racine - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):41-43.
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  • Death Revisited: Rethinking Death and the Dead Donor Rule.A. S. Iltis & M. J. Cherry - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):223-241.
    Traditionally, people were recognized as being dead using cardio-respiratory criteria: individuals who had permanently stopped breathing and whose heart had permanently stopped beating were dead. Technological developments in the middle of the twentieth century and the advent of the intensive care unit made it possible to sustain cardio-respiratory and other functions in patients with severe brain injury who previously would have lost such functions permanently shortly after sustaining a brain injury. What could and should physicians caring for such patients do? (...)
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  • What Are Our Moral Duties? Critical Reflections on Clinical Equipoise and Publication Ethics, Clinical Choices, and Moral Theory.Mark J. Cherry - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):581-589.
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