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Principles of Biomedical Ethics

Oxford University Press (1979)

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  1. The Concept of Social Dignity as a Yardstick to Delimit Ethical Use of Robotic Assistance in the Care of Older Persons.Nadine Andrea Felber, Félix Pageau, Athena McLean & Tenzin Wangmo - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):99-110.
    With robots being introduced into caregiving, particularly for older persons, various ethical concerns are raised. Among them is the fear of replacing human caregiving. While ethical concepts like well-being, autonomy, and capabilities are often used to discuss these concerns, this paper brings forth the concept of social dignity to further develop guidelines concerning the use of robots in caregiving. By social dignity, we mean that a person’s perceived dignity changes in response to certain interactions and experiences with other persons. In (...)
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  • When the Universal is Particular: A Re-Examination of the Common Morality Using the Work of Charles Taylor.Michelle C. Bach - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):141-151.
    Beauchamp and Childress’ biomedical principlism is nearly synonymous with medical ethics for most clinicians. Their four principles are theoretically derived from the “common morality”, a universal cache of moral beliefs and claims shared by all morally serious humans. Others have challenged the viability of the common morality, but none have attempted to explain why the common morality makes intuitive sense to Western ethicists. Here I use the work of Charles Taylor to trace how events in the Western history of ideas (...)
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  • Ethical Issues in Biomedical Research Using Electronic Health Records: A Systematic Review.Jan Piasecki, Ewa Walkiewicz-Żarek, Justyna Figas-Skrzypulec, Anna Kordecka & Vilius Dranseika - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):633-658.
    Digitization of a health record changes its accessibility. An electronic health record can be accessed by multiple authorized users. Health information from EHRs contributes to learning healthcare systems’ development. The objective of this systematic review is to answer a question: What are ethical issues concerning research using EHRs in the literature? We searched Medline Ovid, Embase and Scopus for publications concerning ethical issues of research use of EHRs. We employed the constant comparative method to retrieve common ethical themes. We descriptively (...)
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  • To Be Alive When Dying: Moral Catharsis and Hope in Patients with Limited Life Prognosis.Oscar Vergara - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):517-527.
    The Stoics considered that in order to die well, one must previously have lived and not merely existed, an assertion which will not be contested in this paper. The question raised here is whether an individual whose life expectancy is jeopardized by serious illness or whose life has not been lived to the ‘full’ for whatever reason should have to abandon all hope or, alternately, whether that life could still somehow be saved. One clear obstacle to achieving this stems from (...)
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  • Decision-Making Approaches in Transgender Healthcare: Conceptual Analysis and Ethical Implications.Karl Gerritse, Laura A. Hartman, Marijke A. Bremmer, Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels & Bert C. Molewijk - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):687-699.
    Over the past decades, great strides have been made to professionalize and increase access to transgender medicine. As the evidence base grows and conceptualizations regarding gender dysphoria/gender incongruence evolve, so too do ideas regarding what constitutes good treatment and decision-making in transgender healthcare. Against this background, differing care models arose, including the ‘Standards of Care’ and the so-called ‘Informed Consent Model’. In these care models, ethical notions and principles such as ‘decision-making’ and ‘autonomy’ are often referred to, but left unsubstantiated. (...)
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  • What is the Appropriate Role of Reason in Secular Clinical Ethics? An Argument for a Compatibilist View of Public Reason.Abram Brummett - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (2):281-290.
    This article describes and rejects three standard views of reason in secular clinical ethics. The first, instrumental reason view, affirms that reason may be used to draw conceptual distinctions, map moral geography, and identify invalid forms of argumentation, but prohibits recommendations because reason cannot justify any content-full moral or metaphysical commitments. The second, public reason view, affirms instrumental reason, and claims ethicists may make recommendations grounded in the moral and metaphysical commitments of bioethical consensus. The third, comprehensive reason view, also (...)
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  • When Do Caregivers Ignore the Veil of Ignorance? An Empirical Study on Medical Triage Decision–Making.Azgad Gold, Binyamin Greenberg, Rael Strous & Oren Asman - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (2):213-225.
    In principle, all patients deserve to receive optimal medical treatment equally. However, in situations in which there is scarcity of time or resources, medical treatment must be prioritized based on a triage. The conventional guidelines of medical triage mandate that treatment should be provided based solely on medical necessity regardless of any non-medical value-oriented considerations. This study empirically examined the influence of value-oriented considerations on medical triage decision–making. Participants were asked to prioritize medical treatment relating to four case scenarios of (...)
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  • Neonates as Intrinsically Worthy Recipients of Pain Management in Neonatal Intensive Care.Emre Ilhan, Verity Pacey, Laura Brown, Kaye Spence, Kelly Gray, Jennifer E. Rowland, Karolyn White & Julia M. Hush - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (1):65-72.
    One barrier to optimal pain management in the neonatal intensive care unit is how the healthcare community perceives, and therefore manages, neonatal pain. In this paper, we emphasise that healthcare professionals not only have a professional obligation to care for neonates in the NICU, but that these patients are intrinsically worthy of care. We discuss the conditions that make neonates worthy recipients of pain management by highlighting how neonates are vulnerable to pain and harm, and completely dependent on others for (...)
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  • Global Bioethics and Respect for Cultural Diversity: How Do We Avoid Moral Relativism and Moral Imperialism?Mbih Jerome Tosam - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (4):611-620.
    One of the major concerns of advocates of common morality is that respect for cultural diversity may result in moral relativism. On their part, proponents of culturally responsive bioethics are concerned that common morality may result in moral imperialism because of the asymmetry of power in the world. It is in this context that critics argue that global bioethics is impossible because of the difficulties to address these two theoretical concerns. In this paper, I argue that global bioethics is possible (...)
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  • Against Ulysses Contracts for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.Antoinette Lundahl, Gert Helgesson & Niklas Juth - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (4):695-703.
    Patients with borderline personality disorder sometimes request to be admitted to hospital under compulsory care, often under the argument that they cannot trust their suicidal impulses if treated voluntarily. Thus, compulsory care is practised as a form of Ulysses contract in such situations. In this normative study we scrutinize the arguments commonly used in favour of such Ulysses contracts: the patient lacking free will, Ulysses contracts as self-paternalism, the patient lacking decision competence, Ulysses contracts as a defence of the authentic (...)
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  • Defensive Practice is Indefensible: How Defensive Medicine Runs Counter to the Ethical and Professional Obligations of Clinicians.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):413-420.
    Defensive medicine has become pervasive. Defensive medicine is often thought of as a systems issue, the inevitable result of an adversarial malpractice environment, with consequent focus on system-responses and tort reform. But defensive medicine also has ethical and professionalism implications that should be considered beyond the need for tort reform. This article examines defensive medicine from an ethics and professionalism perspective, showing how defensive medicine is deeply problematic. First, a definition of defensive medicine is offered that describes the essence of (...)
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  • Overcoming the Limits of Empathic Concern: The Case for Availability and its Application to the Medical Domain.Elodie Malbois & Christine Clavien - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (2):191-203.
    Empathic concern is essential to our social lives because it motivates helping behavior. It has, however, well-known shortcomings such as its limitation in scope. Here, we highlight a further shortcoming of empathic concern: it contributes little to understanding the relevant features of complex social situations, and unaided by further cognitive inputs, likely fails to produce effective helping. We then elaborate on the conditions needed for an accurate assessment of others’ situations: the ability to pay attention and try to understand others (...)
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  • Psychosis, Vulnerability, and the Moral Significance of Biomedical Innovation in Psychiatry. Why Ethicists Should Join Efforts.Paolo Corsico - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (2):269-279.
    The study of the neuroscience and genomics of mental illness are increasingly intertwined. This is mostly due to the translation of medical technologies into psychiatry and to technological convergence. This article focuses on psychosis. I argue that the convergence of neuroscience and genomics in the context of psychosis is morally problematic, and that ethics scholarship should go beyond the identification of a number of ethical, legal, and social issues. My argument is composed of two strands. First, I argue that we (...)
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  • To Die Well: The Phenomenology of Suffering and End of Life Ethics.Fredrik Svenaeus - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):335-342.
    The paper presents an account of suffering as a multi-level phenomenon based on concepts such as mood, being-in-the-world and core life value. This phenomenological account will better allow us to evaluate the hardships associated with dying and thereby assist health care professionals in helping persons to die in the best possible manner. Suffering consists not only in physical pain but in being unable to do basic things that are considered to bestow meaning on one’s life. The suffering can also be (...)
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  • Does Clinical Ethics Need a Land Ethic?Alistair Wardrope - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):531-543.
    A clinical ethics fit for the Anthropocene—our current geological era in which human activity is the primary determinant of environmental change—needs to incorporate environmental ethics to be fit for clinical practice. Conservationist Aldo Leopold’s essay ‘The Land Ethic’ is probably the most widely-cited source in environmental philosophy; but Leopold’s work, and environmental ethics generally, has made little impression on clinical ethics. The Land Ethic holds that “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of (...)
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  • What Deserves Our Respect? Reexamination of Respect for Autonomy in the Context of the Management of Chronic Conditions.Aya Enzo, Taketoshi Okita & Atsushi Asai - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (1):85-94.
    The global increase in patients with chronic conditions has led to increased interest in ethical issues regarding such conditions. A basic biomedical principle—respect for autonomy—is being reexamined more critically in its clinical implications. New accounts of this basic principle are being proposed. While new accounts of respect for autonomy do underpin the design of many public programs and policies worldwide, addressing both chronic disease management and health promotion, the risk of applying such new accounts to clinical setting remain understudied. However, (...)
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  • Science Fiction and Human Enhancement: Radical Life-Extension in the Movie ‘In Time’.Johann A. R. Roduit, Tobias Eichinger & Walter Glannon - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (3):287-293.
    The ethics of human enhancement has been a hotly debated topic in the last 15 years. In this debate, some advocate examining science fiction stories to elucidate the ethical issues regarding the current phenomenon of human enhancement. Stories from science fiction seem well suited to analyze biomedical advances, providing some possible case studies. Of particular interest is the work of screenwriter Andrew Niccol, which often focuses on ethical questions raised by the use of new technologies. Examining the movie In Time, (...)
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  • Relational Autonomy in Informed Consent (RAIC) as an Ethics of Care Approach to the Concept of Informed Consent.Peter I. Osuji - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (1):101-111.
    The perspectives of the dominant Western ethical theories, have dominated the concepts of autonomy and informed consent for many years. Recently this dominant understanding has been challenged by ethics of care which, although, also emanates from the West presents a more nuanced concept: relational autonomy, which is more faithful to our human experience. By paying particular attention to relational autonomy, particularity and Process approach to ethical deliberations in ethics of care, this paper seeks to construct a concept of informed consent (...)
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  • Medical Oath: Use and Relevance of the Declaration of Geneva. A Survey of Member Organizations of the World Medical Association.Zoé Rheinsberg, Ramin Parsa-Parsi, Otmar Kloiber & Urban Wiesing - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (2):189-196.
    The Declaration of Geneva is one of the core documents of medical ethics. A revision process was started by the World Medical Association in 2016. The WMA has also used this occasion to examine how the Declaration of Geneva is used in countries throughout the world by conducting a survey of all WMA constituent members. The findings are highly important and raise urgent questions for the World Medical Association and its National Medical Associations : The Declaration of Geneva is only (...)
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  • About the Right to Be Ill.Jacek Halasz - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (1):113-123.
    The article raises the issue of ‘the right to be ill’, formulated by Tadeusz Kielanowski, a Polish physician and humanist. According to him, the right to health should be supplemented by the principle which would serve the protection of people with diseases or disabilities. One-sided interpretation of ‘the right to health’ may result in various forms of intolerance and discrimination. This paper presents what dangers Kielanowski recognized and explains why his approach was considered to be a novelty; what the idea (...)
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  • The Sensible Health Care Professional: A Care Ethical Perspective on the Role of Caregivers in Emotionally Turbulent Practices.Vivianne Baur, Inge van Nistelrooij & Linus Vanlaere - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (4):483-493.
    This article discusses the challenging context that health care professionals are confronted with, and the impact of this context on their emotional experiences. Care ethics considers emotions as a valuable source of knowledge for good care. Thinking with care ethical theory and looking through a care ethical lens at a practical case example, the authors discern reflective questions that shed light on a care ethical approach toward the role of emotions in care practices, and may be used by practitioners and (...)
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  • Autism, Intellectual Disability, and a Challenge to Our Understanding of Proxy Consent.Abraham Graber - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (2):229-236.
    This paper focuses on a hypothetical case that represents an intervention request familiar to those who work with individuals with intellectual disability. Stacy has autism and moderate intellectual disability. Her parents have requested treatment for her hand flapping. Stacy is not competent to make her own treatment decisions; proxy consent is required. There are three primary justifications for proxy consent: the right to an open future, substituted judgment, and the best interest standard. The right to an open future justifies proxy (...)
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  • Finding Their Voices Again: A Media Project Offers a Floor for Vulnerable Patients, Clients and the Socially Deprived. [REVIEW]Ralf Stutzki, Markus Weber & Stella Reiter-Theil - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):739-750.
    ‘DU bist Radio’ (DBR) is an award winning [DBR has been awarded with the “Catholic Media Award of the German Bishops Conference, Prädikat WERTvoll” (2011), the Suisse “Media Prize Aargau/Solothurn” (2010), the German “Alternative Media Award” (2009) and was nominated for the “Prix Europa” (2009)] monthly radio format that goes on air on three Swiss radio stations. The purpose of this program which was first broadcast in 2009 is the development of a new media format which—without applying any journalistic (or (...)
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  • Autonomy-Based Arguments Against Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: A Critique. [REVIEW]Manne Sjöstrand, Gert Helgesson, Stefan Eriksson & Niklas Juth - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):225-230.
    Respect for autonomy is typically considered a key reason for allowing physician assisted suicide and euthanasia. However, several recent papers have claimed this to be grounded in a misconception of the normative relevance of autonomy. It has been argued that autonomy is properly conceived of as a value, and that this makes assisted suicide as well as euthanasia wrong, since they destroy the autonomy of the patient. This paper evaluates this line of reasoning by investigating the conception of valuable autonomy. (...)
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  • Patient Autonomy and Choice in Healthcare: Self-Testing Devices as a Case in Point.Anna-Marie Greaney, Dónal P. O’Mathúna & P. Anne Scott - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (4):383-395.
    This paper aims to critique the phenomenon of advanced patient autonomy and choice in healthcare within the specific context of self-testing devices. A growing number of self-testing medical devices are currently available for home use. The premise underpinning many of these devices is that they assist individuals to be more autonomous in the assessment and management of their health. Increased patient autonomy is assumed to be a good thing. We take issue with this assumption and argue that self-testing provides a (...)
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  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine: The Challenges of Ethical Justification: A Philosophical Analysis and Evaluation of Ethical Reasons for the Offer, Use and Promotion of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. [REVIEW]Marcel Mertz - 2007 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):329-345.
    With the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) increasing in western societies, questions of the ethical justification of these alternative health care approaches and practices have to be addressed. In order to evaluate philosophical reasoning on this subject, it is of paramount importance to identify and analyse possible arguments for the ethical justification of CAM considering contemporary biomedical ethics as well as more fundamental philosophical aspects. Moreover, it is vital to provide adequate analytical instruments for this task, such as (...)
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  • Hypothetical Approval in Prudence and Medicine.Dan Egonsson - 2006 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):245-252.
    We often assume that hypothetical approval – either in the form of preferences or consent – under ideal conditions adds to the legitimacy of an arrangement or act. I want to show that this assumption, reasonable as it may seem, will also give rise to ethical problems. I focus on three problem areas: prudence, euthanasia and coercive psychiatric treatment. If we are to count as prudentially or morally␣relevant those preferences you would have if you were informed and rational, we will (...)
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  • Using Empirical Research to Formulate Normative Ethical Principles in Biomedicine.Mette Ebbesen & Birthe D. Pedersen - 2006 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (1):33-48.
    Bioethical research has tended to focus on theoretical discussion of the principles on which the analysis of ethical issues in biomedicine should be based. But this discussion often seems remote from biomedical practice where researchers and physicians confront ethical problems. On the other hand, published empirical research on the ethical reasoning of health care professionals offer only descriptions of how physicians and nurses actually reason ethically. The question remains whether these descriptions have any normative implications for nurses and physicians? In (...)
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  • Patient Autonomy: A View From the Kitchen.Rita M. Struhkamp - 2004 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (1):105-114.
    In contemporary liberal ethics patient autonomy is often interpreted as the right to self-determination: when it comes to treatment decisions, the patient is given the right to give or withhold informed consent. This paper joins in the philosophical and ethical criticism of the liberal interpretation as it does not regard patient autonomy as a right, rule or principle, but rather as a practice. Patient autonomy, or so I will argue, is realised in the concrete activities of day-to-day health care, in (...)
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  • Reproductive Autonomous Choice – A Cherished Illusion? Reproductive Autonomy Examined in the Context of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.Kristin Zeiler - 2004 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (2):175-183.
    Enhancement of autonomous choice may be considered as an important reason for facilitating the use of genetic tests such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. The principle of respect for autonomy is a crucial component not only of Western liberal traditions but also of Western bioethics. This is especially so in bioethical discussions and analyses of clinical encounters within medicine. On the basis of an analysis of qualitative research interviews performed with British, Italian and Swedish geneticists and gynaecologists on ethical aspects of (...)
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  • Distance, Dialogue and Reflection: Interpersonal Reflective Equilibrium as Method for Professional Ethics Education.Mariëtte van den Hoven & Jos Kole - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (2):145-164.
    The method of reflective equilibrium is well known within the domain of moral philosophy, but hardly discussed as a method in professional ethics education. We argue that an interpersonal version of RE is very promising for professional ethics education. We offer several arguments to support this claim. The first group of arguments focus on a changed practice that is more team-oriented, inter-professional and aims at shared decision-making with patients and clients. The second group of arguments relate to the core aim (...)
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  • Defending secular clinical ethics expertise from an Engelhardt-inspired sense of theoretical crisis.Abram Brummett - 2022 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 43 (1):47-66.
    The national standards for clinical ethics consultation set forth by the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities endorse an “ethics facilitation” approach, which characterizes the role of the ethicist as one skilled at facilitating consensus within the range of ethically acceptable options. To determine the range of ethically acceptable options, ASBH recommends the standard model of decision-making, which is grounded in the values of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr. has sharply criticized the standard model for presuming (...)
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  • The Inviolateness of Life and Equal Protection: A Defense of the Dead-Donor Rule.Adam Omelianchuk - 2022 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 43 (1):1-27.
    There are increasing calls for rejecting the ‘dead donor’ rule and permitting ‘organ donation euthanasia’ in organ transplantation. I argue that the fundamental problem with this proposal is that it would bestow more worth on the organs than the donor who has them. What is at stake is the basis of human equality, which, I argue, should be based on an ineliminable dignity that each of us has in virtue of having a rational nature. To allow mortal harvesting would be (...)
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  • Which Framework to Use? A Systematic Review of Ethical Frameworks for the Screening or Evaluation of Health Technology Innovations.Tijs Vandemeulebroucke, Yvonne Denier, Evelyne Mertens & Chris Gastmans - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (3):1-35.
    Innovations permeate healthcare settings on an ever-increasing scale. Health technology innovations impact our perceptions and experiences of health, care, disease, etc. Because of the fast pace these HTIs are being introduced in different healthcare settings, there is a growing societal consensus that these HTIs need to be governed by ethical reflection. This paper reports a systematic review of argument-based literature which focused on articles reporting on ethical frameworks to screen or evaluate HTIs. To do this a four step methodology was (...)
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  • Should Doctors Offer Biomarker Testing to Those Afraid to Develop Alzheimer’s Dementia?: Applying the Method of Reflective Equilibrium for a Clinical Dilemma.Marthe Smedinga, Eline M. Bunnik, Edo Richard & Maartje H. N. Schermer - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (2):287-297.
    An increasing number of people seek medical attention for mild cognitive symptoms at older age, worried that they might develop Alzheimer’s disease. Some clinical practice guidelines suggest offering biomarker testing in such cases, using a brain scan or a lumbar puncture, to improve diagnostic certainty about Alzheimer’s disease and enable an earlier diagnosis. Critics, on the other hand, point out that there is no effective Alzheimer treatment available and argue that biomarker tests lack clinical validity. The debate on the ethical (...)
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  • Manufacturing Life, What Life? Ethical Debates Around Biobanks and Social Robots.Núria Vallès-Peris, Violeta Argudo-Portal & Miquel Domènech - 2022 - NanoEthics 16 (1):21-34.
    In this paper, we explore how the definition of life takes on an essential character in the ethical debates around health technologies, with life thus being manufactured in the tensions and conflicts around the use of such artefacts and devices. We introduce concepts from science and technology studies to approach bioethics, overcoming the dualistic conception that separates the natural and the technological and questioning the dominant rationality that divides life into dualities. Drawing on two research projects in which we have (...)
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  • Strictly Human: Limitations of Autonomous Systems.Sadjad Soltanzadeh - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (2):269-288.
    Can autonomous systems replace humans in the performance of their activities? How does the answer to this question inform the design of autonomous systems? The study of technical systems and their features should be preceded by the study of the activities in which they play roles. Each activity can be described by its overall goals, governing norms and the intermediate steps which are taken to achieve the goals and to follow the norms. This paper uses the activity realist approach to (...)
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  • The Ethics of Innovations in Genomic Selection: On How to Broaden the Scope of Discussion.F. L. B. Meijboom & K. Kramer - 2022 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 35 (2):1-18.
    The use of genomic selection in agricultural animal breeding is in academic literature generally considered an ethically unproblematic development, but some critical views have been offered. Our paper shows that an important preliminary question for any ethical evaluation of genomic selection is how the scope of discussion should be set, that is, which ethical issues and perspectives ought to be considered. This scope is determined by three partly overlapping choices. The first choice is which ethical concepts to include: an ethical (...)
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  • Ethical Aspects of Vulnerability in Research.Elisabeth Weisser-Lohmann - 2012 - Poiesis and Praxis 9 (1-2):157-162.
    In connection with research on humans, the term “vulnerability” is only appropriate to identify the special need for protection of certain sections of the population and individuals, if this term refers to the additional risk of certain groups of subjects. Authors who focus on the additional risk suffering of a subject group when defining vulnerability succeed in considering the specific worthiness of protection in a context-sensitive way. The attempt to define the risk–benefit assessment for vulnerable subject groups on a binding (...)
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  • Mapping the Ethical Landscape of Carbon Capture and Storage.Philip Boucher & Clair Gough - 2012 - Poiesis and Praxis 9 (3-4):249-270.
    This article describes a method of scoping for potential ethical contentions within a resource constrained research environment where actor participation and bottom–up analysis is precluded. Instead of reverting to a top–down analytical structure, a data-led process is devised. This imitates a bottom–up analytic structure in the absence of the direct participation of actors, culminating in the construction of a map of the ethical landscape; a high-resolution ethical matrix of coded interpretations of various actors’ ethical framings of the technology. Despite its (...)
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  • In Defence of Principlism in AI Ethics and Governance.Elizabeth Seger - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-7.
    It is widely acknowledged that high-level AI principles are difficult to translate into practices via explicit rules and design guidelines. Consequently, many AI research and development groups that claim to adopt ethics principles have been accused of unwarranted “ethics washing”. Accordingly, there remains a question as to if and how high-level principles should be expected to influence the development of safe and beneficial AI. In this short commentary I discuss two roles high-level principles might play in AI ethics and governance. (...)
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  • Ethical Issues in Multilingual Research Situations: A Focus on Interview-Based Research.Natalie Schembri & Alma Jahić Jašić - 2022 - Research Ethics 18 (3):210-225.
    Research Ethics, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 210-225, July 2022. Interview-based research in multilingual situations can present researchers with specific ethical challenges relating to language-based power play, data handling and presentation. Studies indicate favouring the L1 as an interviewing language may produce better quality data, but external pressures can favour English as the dominant research language. This article examines researcher perceptions and experiences of the ethical consequences of language choice and the practical issues involved. Interviews were conducted with five European (...)
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  • Human Nature: A Foundation for Palliative Care: Original Article.Beverly J. B. Whelton - 2008 - Nursing Philosophy 9 (2):77-88.
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  • Informierte Einwilligung in der Demenzforschung. Eine qualitative Studie zum Informationsverständnis von Probanden.Holger Schütz, Bert Heinrichs, Michael Fuchs & Andreas Bauer - 2016 - Ethik in der Medizin 28 (2):91-106.
    Background: Informed consent is a legal as well as ethical prerequisite in clinical research. For dementia research, informed consent can be a problem if subjects with dementia, whose capacity for understanding and thus also decision making might be limited, are to be exam- ined. This might result in exclusion of dementia patients from research, as capacity for understanding and decision making are often equated with the ability for rational decision making. However, this valuation has been criticized at times for attaching (...)
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  • Rationales for Organ Donation: Charity or Duty?David A. Peters - 1986 - Journal of Medical Humanities 7 (2):106-121.
    Media appeals encouraging people to sign organ donor cards suggest that donating one's own organs after death or donating the organs of a deceased family member is an act of charity, i.e., something which it would be meritorious for people to do but not wrong to avoid. This paper argues to the contrary that posthumous organ donation is a moral duty, a duty of the type that rests at the base of recently enacted state “Good Samaritan” laws which require a (...)
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  • Race, Religion, and Informed Consent - Lessons From Social Science.Dayna Bowen Matthew - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (1):150-173.
    Patients belonging to ethnic, racial, and religious minorities have been all but excluded from the legal academy's on-going conversation about informed consent. This article repairs that egregious omission. It begins by observing the narrowing of ethical justifications that underlie our informed consent law, tracing the ethical literature from the ancients to modern formulations of autonomy-centered models. Next, this article reviews the vast body of empirical data available in social science literature, that demonstrates how distinct from the autonomy model the broad (...)
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  • What's in a Name?Sheila E. Horn - 1985 - Journal of Medical Humanities 6 (2):99-108.
    Medical students pose as physicians during clinical training. This article presents three cases where students justify misrepresenting their status for different reasons: self-concern for career, necessity for clinical training, and belief that the truth could cause undue psychological stress in the patient. The author suggests that serious consequences of this practice should be constantly reviewed in a critical light.
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  • Nurses' Attitudes to Euthanasia: The Influence of Empirical Studies and Methodological Concerns on Nursing Practice.Janet Holt - 2008 - Nursing Philosophy 9 (4):257-272.
    This paper introduces the controversy surrounding active voluntary euthanasia and describes the legal position on euthanasia and assisted suicide in the UK. Findings from studies of the nurses' attitudes to euthanasia from the national and international literature are reviewed. There are acknowledged difficulties in carrying out research into attitudes to euthanasia and hence the review of findings from the published studies is followed by a methodological review. This methodological review examines the research design and data collection methods used in the (...)
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  • Modern medical research ethics - bioethics.J. E. Vásquez Abanto, A. B. Vásquez Abanto & S. B. Arellano Vásquez - 2015 - Liberal Arts in Russia 4 (4):292-303.
    For today, the medical association came to common opinion, that a doctor-scientist cannot be higher than the universal values. At a decision-making, equally with the scientific interests, which, undoubtedly, will bring to development of the theoretical and practical medicine, a doctor must take into account moral values. The doctrine of the informed consent of patient that is examined as a necessary condition of any medical interference became ethic basis of experiment with participation of human. An observance of confidentiality of the (...)
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  • Currents in Contemporary Ethics.Mary R. Anderlik & Mark A. Rothstein - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (3):450-454.
    In financial disputes involving research, the parties are traditionally individual researchers and their institutions, biotech and pharmaceutical companies, and other entities engaged in the commercial development of biomedical research. Occasionally, research subjects claim that researchers have misled them or misappropriated their biological materials to derive financial gain. The best known example is the case of Moore v. Regents of the University of California, decided in 1990.With new developments in genomics, large-scale repositories of tissue and other biological specimens are increasingly important. (...)
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