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  1. Nudges, Recht und Politik: Institutionelle Implikationen.Robert Lepenies & Magdalena Malecka - 2016 - Zeitschrift für Praktische Philosophie 3 (1): 487–530.
    In diesem Beitrag argumentieren wir, dass eine umfassende Implementierung sogenannter Nudges weitreichende Auswirkungen für rechtliche und politische Institutionen hat. Die wissenschaftliche Diskussion zu Nudges ist derzeit hauptsächlich von philosophischen Theorien geprägt, die im Kern einen individualistischen Ansatz vertreten. Unsere Analyse bezieht sich auf die Art und Weise, in der sich Anhänger des Nudging neuster Erkenntnisse aus den Verhaltenswissenschaften bedienen – immer in der Absicht, diese für effektives Regieren einzusetzen. Wir unterstreichen, dass die meisten Nudges, die derzeit entweder diskutiert werden oder (...)
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  • Responsible Nudging for Social Good: New Healthcare Skills for AI-Driven Digital Personal Assistants.Marianna Capasso & Steven Umbrello - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):11-22.
    Traditional medical practices and relationships are changing given the widespread adoption of AI-driven technologies across the various domains of health and healthcare. In many cases, these new technologies are not specific to the field of healthcare. Still, they are existent, ubiquitous, and commercially available systems upskilled to integrate these novel care practices. Given the widespread adoption, coupled with the dramatic changes in practices, new ethical and social issues emerge due to how these systems nudge users into making decisions and changing (...)
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  • Nudging and Participation: A Contractualist Approach to Behavioural Policy.Johann Jakob Häußermann - 2020 - Philosophy of Management 19 (1):45-68.
    As behavioural economics reveals, human decision-making deviates from neoclassical assumptions about human behaviour and people fail to make the ‘right’ welfare-enhancing choice. The purpose of Sunstein and Thaler’s concept of ‘nudge’ is to improve individual welfare. To provide normative justification, they argue that the only relevant normative criterion is whether the individual is ‘better off as judged by themselves’, so that the direction in which people are to be nudged is defined by their own preferences. In light of behavioural findings, (...)
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  • Meta-Consent for the Secondary Use of Health Data Within a Learning Health System: A Qualitative Study of the Public’s Perspective.Jean-François Ethier, Anne-Marie Cloutier, Nissrine Safa, Roxanne Dault, Adrien Barton & Annabelle Cumyn - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-17.
    BackgroundThe advent of learning healthcare systems raises an important implementation challenge concerning how to request and manage consent to support secondary use of data in learning cycles, particularly research activities. Current consent models in Quebec were not established with the context of LHSs in mind and do not support the agility and transparency required to obtain consent from all involved, especially the citizens. Therefore, a new approach to consent is needed. Previous work identified the meta-consent model as a promising alternative (...)
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  • The Mere Substitution Defence of Nudging Works for Neurointerventions Too.Thomas Douglas - 2022 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 10 (3):407-420.
    Nudges are often defended on the basis that they merely substitute existing influences on choice with other influences that are similar in kind; they introduce no new kind of influence into the choice situation. I motivate the view that, if this defence succeeds in establishing the moral innocuousness of typical nudges, it also establishes the moral innocuousness of an intuitively wrongful neurochemical intervention. I then consider two attempts to rebut this view and argue that both fail. I end by spelling (...)
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  • If Nudges Treat their Targets as Rational Agents, Nonconsensual Neurointerventions Can Too.Thomas Douglas - 2022 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 25 (2):369-384.
    Andreas Schmidt and Neil Levy have recently defended nudging against the objection that nudges fail to treat nudgees as rational agents. Schmidt rejects two theses that have been taken to support the objection: that nudges harness irrational processes in the nudgee, and that they subvert the nudgee’s rationality. Levy rejects a third thesis that may support the objection: that nudges fail to give reasons. I argue that these defences can be extrapolated from nudges to some nonconsensual neurointerventions; if Schmidt’s and (...)
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  • Sinnvolle Lebensführung im Spannungsfeld von Risiko und Sicherheit Die Ethik der Risikominimierung im Lichte von Kierkegaards und Nietzsches Kritik der Moderne.Sebastian Hüsch - 2016 - Zeitschrift für Praktische Philosophie 3 (1):53-78.
    Der Beitrag betrachtet die für die Gegenwartsgesellschaft charakteristische Orientierung an Sicherheit und Risikovermeidung vor dem Hintergrund der Reflexionen Søren Kierkegaards und Friedrich Nietzsches bezüglich der Abgründigkeit der menschlichen Existenz. Die Untersuchung wirft die Frage auf, ob die Suche nach einem im alltäglichen Sinne verstandenen „guten Leben“ letzten Endes zu Lasten der Möglichkeiten einer als sinnhaft erlebten Existenz geht.
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  • If Nudges Treat Their Targets as Rational Agents, Nonconsensual Neurointerventions Can Too.Thomas Douglas - 2022 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1:1-16.
    Andreas Schmidt and Neil Levy have recently defended nudging against the objection that nudges fail to treat nudgees as rational agents. Schmidt rejects two theses that have been taken to support the objection: that nudges harness irrational processes in the nudgee, and that they subvert the nudgee’s rationality. Levy rejects a third thesis that may support the objection: that nudges fail to give reasons. I argue that these defences can be extrapolated from nudges to some nonconsensual neurointerventions; if Schmidt’s and (...)
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  • Economic Methodology in the Twenty-First Century (So Far): Some Post-Reflection Reflections.Douglas Wade Hands - 2020 - Revue de Philosophie Économique 2:221-252.
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  • The Ethics of Nudging: An Overview.Andreas T. Schmidt & Bart Engelen - 2020 - Philosophy Compass 15 (4).
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  • Science and Values: A Philosophical Perspective on the Justifiability of Evidence Based Policymaking.O. C. Dede - 2021 - Dissertation, Erasmus Institute for Philosophy and Economics
    Science is widely regarded as the most reliable epistemic source of providing knowledge about the world. Policymakers intend to make purposeful changes in the world. The practice of policymakers relying on scientific experts to make informed decisions about which policies to implement is called Evidence Based Policymaking. This thesis provides a perspective from the philosophy of science in order to discuss the justifiability of Evidence Based Policymaking with respect to broadly democratic and liberal values. Justifying EBP with broadly democratic and (...)
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  • A Virtue Ethics Critique of Ethical Dimensions of Behavioral Economics.Daryl Koehn - 2020 - Business and Society Review 125 (2):241-260.
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  • The Beneficent Nudge Program and Epistemic Injustice.Evan Riley - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (3):597-616.
    Is implementing the beneficent nudge program morally permissible in worlds like ours? I argue that there is reason for serious doubt. I acknowledge that beneficent nudging is highly various, that nudges are in some circumstances morally permissible and even called for, and that nudges may exhibit respect for genuine autonomy. Nonetheless, given the risk of epistemic injustice that nudges typically pose, neither the moral permissibility of beneficent nudging in the abstract, nor its case-by-case vindication, appears sufficient to justify implementing a (...)
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  • Why a Virtual Assistant for Moral Enhancement When We Could have a Socrates?Francisco Lara - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-27.
    Can Artificial Intelligence be more effective than human instruction for the moral enhancement of people? The author argues that it only would be if the use of this technology were aimed at increasing the individual's capacity to reflectively decide for themselves, rather than at directly influencing behaviour. To support this, it is shown how a disregard for personal autonomy, in particular, invalidates the main proposals for applying new technologies, both biomedical and AI-based, to moral enhancement. As an alternative to these (...)
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  • Reflections on the 2017 Nobel Memorial Prize Awarded to Richard Thaler.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2017 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 10 (2):61-75.
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  • Robotic Nudges for Moral Improvement Through Stoic Practice.Michał Klincewicz - 2019 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 23 (3):425-455.
    This paper offers a theoretical framework that can be used to derive viable engineering strategies for the design and development of robots that can nudge people towards moral improvement. The framework relies on research in developmental psychology and insights from Stoic ethics. Stoicism recommends contemplative practices that over time help one develop dispositions to behave in ways that improve the functioning of mechanisms that are constitutive of moral cognition. Robots can nudge individuals towards these practices and can therefore help develop (...)
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  • Why Nudges Coerce: Experimental Evidence on the Architecture of Regulation.Adam Hill - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1279-1295.
    Critics frequently argue that nudges are more covert, less transparent, and more difficult to monitor than traditional regulatory tools. Edward Glaeser, for example, argues that “[p]ublic monitoring of soft paternalism is much more difficult than public monitoring of hard paternalism”. As one of the leading proponents of soft paternalism, Cass Sunstein, acknowledges, while “[m]andates and commands are highly visible”, soft paternalism, “and some nudges in particular[,] may be invisible”. In response to this challenge, proponents of nudging argue that invisibility for (...)
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  • Behavioral Policies and Inequities: The Case of Incentivized Smoking Cessation Policies.O. Çağlar Dede - 2019 - Journal of Economic Methodology 26 (3):272-289.
    ABSTRACTBehavioral policies, such as nudges and boosts, are gaining prominence. Such policies are advertised as evidential public policies. Yet, they have significant evidential problems. I analyze an important example of behavioral policy, so-called Incentivized Smoking Cessation Policies. I focus on their evaluation with respect to health inequities. I demonstrate that the evaluations of Incentivized Smoking Cessation Policies can be characterized by a plurality of researchers making use of different kinds of evidence gathering methods. I argue that the evaluation of Incentivized (...)
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  • Evidence-Based Policy: The Tension Between the Epistemic and the Normative.Donal Khosrowi & Julian Reiss - 2019 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 31 (2):179-197.
    Acceding to the demand that public policy should be based on “the best available evidence” can come at significant moral cost. Important policy questions cannot be addressed using “the best available evidence” as defined by the evidence-based policy paradigm; the paradigm can change the meaning of questions so that they can be addressed using the preferred kind of evidence; and important evidence that does not meet the standard defined by the paradigm can get ignored. We illustrate these problems in three (...)
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  • Die politische Quacksalberei des libertären Paternalismus.Thomas Schramme - 2016 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 3 (1):531-558.
    Der libertäre Paternalismus befürwortet Eingriffe in die Entscheidungsfindung von Bürgern, ohne ihnen Optionen völlig nehmen zu wollen. Vielmehr soll die Lenkung des Willens durch Schubser geschehen. Im folgenden Beitrag möchte ich zeigen, dass der libertäre Paternalismus auf tönernen Füßen steht. Ich bediene mich dabei des polemischen Bilds von Quacksalbern. Dieses Bild passt zu meinem argumentativen Vorgehen, da ich erstens zeigen will, dass der libertäre Paternalismus falsche Diagnosen über vermeintliche Krankheiten der Willensbildung stellt, und zweitens, dass er die falsche Therapie empfiehlt. (...)
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  • Indirect Legislation: It is Just a Question of Time.Malik Bozzo-Rey - 2017 - History of European Ideas 43 (1):106-121.
    ABSTRACTThis paper focuses on unveiling the underlying conceptions required to elaborate a concept such as indirect legislation, and on possible methods of distinguishing it from direct legislation. Three elements will be put to the test to analyse whether they could be used as distinguishing criteria. Firstly, indirect legislation – like contemporary forms of indirect means to influence behaviours, such as the famous nudges of Thaler and Sunstein – relies heavily on an accurate and complete account of human nature. However, so (...)
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