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  1. Holism and Reductionism in Biology and Ecology the Mutual Dependence of Higher and Lower Level Research Programmes.Rick C. Looijen - 2000 - Springer.
    Holism and reductionism are usually seen as opposite and mutually exclusive approaches to nature. Recently, some have come to see them as complementary rather than mutually exclusive. In this book I have argued that, even stronger, they should be seen as mutually dependent and co-operating research programmes. I have discussed holism and reductionism in biology in general and in ecology in particular. After an introductory chapter I have provided an overview of holistic and reductionistic positions in biology, and of the (...)
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  • Whitehead and Science Education.Charles Birch - 1988 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 20 (2):33–41.
  • Self-Organization, Emergent Properties and the Unity of the World.Gerhard Roth & Helmut Schwegler - 1990 - Philosophica 46.
  • Evolutionary Theory and Christian Ethics: Are They in Harmony?Michael Ruse - 1994 - Zygon 29 (1):5-24.
  • Metaphysics and Common Usage.David L. Hull - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):290-291.
  • Nature’s Two Ends: The Ambiguity of Progress in Evolution.Horace L. Fairlamb - 1997 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (1):35-55.
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  • Creativity in Biology and in the Human Mind (Manifestation of Concepts).J. Siegfried Wagener - 1985 - Acta Biotheoretica 34 (1):3-51.
  • Emergence and Reduction in Chemistry: Ontological or Epistemological Concepts?Lee McIntyre - 2007 - Synthese 155 (3):337-343.
    In this paper I argue that the ontological interpretation of the concepts of reduction and emergence is often misleading in the philosophy of science and should nearly always be eschewed in favor of an epistemological interpretation. As a paradigm case, an example is drawn from the philosophy of chemistry to illustrate the drawbacks of “ontological reduction” and “ontological emergence,” and the virtues of an epistemological interpretation of these concepts.
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  • The Creativity of Natural Selection? Part II: The Synthesis and Since.John Beatty - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):705-731.
    This is the second of a two-part essay on the history of debates concerning the creativity of natural selection, from Darwin through the evolutionary synthesis and up to the present. In the first part, I focussed on the mid-late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, with special emphasis on early Darwinism and its critics, the self-styled “mutationists.” The second part focuses on the evolutionary synthesis and some of its critics, especially the “neutralists” and “neo-mutationists.” Like Stephen Gould, I consider the (...)
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  • Ridurre il riduzionismo genetico.Gereon Wolters - 2008 - Humana Mente 2 (6).
    n this article the author develops a critique of reductionism in biological sciences from three different points of view. The first is related to the problem of reduction in the context of scientific theories. More specifically, reduction deals with a special form of intertheoretic relationship between molecular biology and the rest of biology. The second meaning of reductionism has to do with the significance of its genetic outfit for the ontogeny of an organism, i.e. its development from zygote to its (...)
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  • French Roots of French Neo-Lamarckisms, 1879–1985.Laurent Loison - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (4):713 - 744.
    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo) Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured (...)
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  • Colloquium 1: Aristotle’s Metaphysics as the Ontology of Being-Alive and its Relevance Today.Alfred Miller - 2005 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 20 (1):1-107.
  • Whence Philosophy of Biology?Jason M. Byron - 2007 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (3):409-422.
    A consensus exists among contemporary philosophers of biology about the history of their field. According to the received view, mainstream philosophy of science in the 1930s, 40s, and 50s focused on physics and general epistemology, neglecting analyses of the 'special sciences', including biology. The subdiscipline of philosophy of biology emerged (and could only have emerged) after the decline of logical positivism in the 1960s and 70s. In this article, I present bibliometric data from four major philosophy of science journals (Erkenntnis, (...)
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  • Evolutionary Naturalist Realism: Can This Blend Be Coherent?1.Srdan Lelas - 1989 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 3 (2):136 – 156.
    (1989). Evolutionary naturalist realism: Can this blend be coherent? 1 . International Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 136-156.
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  • The Human Genome Project: Towards an Analysis of the Empirical, Ethical, and Conceptual Issues Involved. [REVIEW]Marga Vicedo - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):255-278.
    In this paper I claim that the goal of mapping and sequencing the human genome is not wholly new, but rather is an extension of an older project to map genes, a central aim of genetics since its birth. Thus, the discussion about the value of the HGP should not be posed in global terms of acceptance or rejection, but in terms of how it should be developed. The first section of this paper presents a brief history of the project. (...)
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  • Why the Problem of Reductionism in Biology has Implications for Economics.Geoffrey M. Hodgson - 1993 - World Futures 37 (2):69-90.
    For several decades, economists have been preoccupied with an attempt to place their entire subject on the ‘sound microfoundations’ of general equilibrium theory, with its individualistic premises. However, this project has run into seemingly intractable problems. This essay examines underlying questions such as the appropriate building block of analysis and the structure of explanation in economics. The examination of biology is found to be instructive, due to debates concerning the limitations of reductionism within that discipline. The final part of the (...)
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  • Holism and Reduction in Sociobiology: Lessons From the Ants and Human Culture. [REVIEW]Edward O. Wilson & Charles J. Lumsden - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):401-412.
    Most research in the natural sciences passes through repeated cycles of a analytic reduction to the next lower level of organization, then resynthesis to the original level, then new analyticareduction, and so on. A residue of unexplained phenomena at the original level appears at first to require a holistic description independent of the lower level, but the residue shrinks as knowledge increases.This principle is well illustrated by recent studies from the social organization of insects, several examples of which are cited (...)
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  • The Significance of a Non-Reductionist Ontology for the Discipline of Mathematics: A Historical and Systematic Analysis. [REVIEW]D. F. M. Strauss - 2010 - Axiomathes 20 (1):19-52.
    A Christian approach to scholarship, directed by the central biblical motive of creation, fall and redemption and guided by the theoretical idea that God subjected all of creation to His Law-Word, delimiting and determining the cohering diversity we experience within reality, in principle safe-guards those in the grip of this ultimate commitment and theoretical orientation from absolutizing or deifying anything within creation. In this article my over-all approach is focused on the one-sided legacy of mathematics, starting with Pythagorean arithmeticism (“everything (...)
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  • Towards an Alternative Evolution Model.Henri van Waesberghe - 1982 - Acta Biotheoretica 31 (1):3-28.
    Lamarck and Darwin agreed on the inconstancy of species and on the exclusive gradualism of evolution . Darwinism, revived as neo-Darwinism, was almost generally accepted from about 1930 till 1960. In the sixties the evolutionary importance of selection has been called in question by the neutralists. The traditional conception of the gene is disarranged by recent molecular-biological findings. Owing to the increasing confusion about the concept of genotype, this concept is reconsidered. The idea of the genotype as a cluster of (...)
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  • Complexity and Evolution: What Everybody Knows.Daniel W. McShea - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (3):303-324.
    The consensus among evolutionists seems to be that the morphological complexity of organisms increases in evolution, although almost no empirical evidence for such a trend exists. Most studies of complexity have been theoretical, and the few empirical studies have not, with the exception of certain recent ones, been especially rigorous; reviews are presented of both the theoretical and empirical literature. The paucity of evidence raises the question of what sustains the consensus, and a number of suggestions are offered, including the (...)
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  • Eco-Cybernetics: The Ecology and Cybernetics of Missing Emergences.Donato Bergandi - 2000 - Kybernetes 29 (7/8):928-942..
    Considers that in ecosystem, landscape and global ecology, an energetics reading of ecological systems is an expression of a cybernetic, systemic and holistic approach. In ecosystem ecology, the Odumian paradigm emphasizes the concept of emergence, but it has not been accompanied by the creation of a method that fully respects the complexity of the objects studied. In landscape ecology, although the emergentist, multi-level, triadic methodology of J.K. Feibleman and D.T. Campbell has gained acceptance, the importance of emergent properties is still (...)
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  • Animalidade Transcendental: O Problema da Naturalização Do a Priori Em Konrad Lorenz.Lorenzo Baravalle - 2014 - Scientiae Studia 12 (2):285-308.
    Um dos aspectos característicos da fundamentação epistemológica da etologia de Konrad Lorenz é a tentativa de síntese entre a teoria darwiniana e a gnosiologia kantiana. A partir dessa premissa, delinearemos, antes de tudo, uma breve história da tradição transcendentalista, focalizando a atenção em alguns elementos que seus críticos consideraram insustentáveis. Em segundo lugar, analisaremos a tentativa de Lorenz de implantar a estrutura transcendental em suas pesquisas etológicas, com uma consequente naturalização do conceito de "a priori". Em terceiro lugar, veremos como (...)
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  • French Roots of French Neo-Lamarckisms, 1879–1985.Laurent Loison - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (4):713-744.
    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879–1931) was structured by (...)
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  • Categories, Life, and Thinking.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):269-283.
  • Taxa, Life, and Thinking.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):303-313.
  • The Metaphysics of Individuality and its Consequences for Systematic Biology.E. O. Wiley - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):302-303.
  • Natural Kinds.Stephen P. Schwartz - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):301-302.
  • The World Represented as a Hierarchy of Nature May Not Require “Species”.Stanley N. Salthe - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):300-301.
  • Species as Individuals: Logical, Biological, and Philosophical Problems.Michael Ruse - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):299-300.
  • Typologies: Obstacles and Opportunities in Scientific Change.Alexander Rosenberg - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):298-299.
  • The Demise of Mental Representations.Edward S. Reed - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):297-298.
  • Taxonomy is Older Than Thinking: Epigenetic Decisions.Andrew Packard - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):296-297.
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  • Units “of” Selection: The End of “Of”?F. J. Odling-Smee & H. C. Plotkin - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):295-296.
  • What Does Ghiselin Mean by “Individual”?Joseph B. Kruskal - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):294-295.
  • Natural Categories and Natural Concepts.Frank C. Keil - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):293-294.
  • Categorization and Affordances.Rebecca K. Jones & Anne D. Pick - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):292-293.
  • ‘Species-Typicality’: Can Individuals Have Typical Parts?Timothy D. Johnston - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):291-292.
  • Universals, Particulars, and Paradigms.Helen Heise - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):289-290.
  • Individuality and Comparative Biology.William L. Fink - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):288-289.
  • Rethinking Categories and Life.Peter A. Corning - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):286-288.
  • Pick Your Poison: Historicism, Essentialism, and Emergentism in the Definition of Species.Arthur L. Caplan - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):285-286.
  • Biopopulations, Not Biospecies, Are Individuals and Evolve.Mario Bunge - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):284-285.
  • Group-Level Traits Emerge.Paul E. Smaldino - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):281-295.
  • Strong Group-Level Traits and Selection-Transmission Thickets.Jeffrey C. Schank - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):272-273.
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  • Spinoza and Jeffers on Man in Nature.George Sessions - 1977 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 20 (1-4):481 – 528.
    Western society has been diverted from the goal of spiritual freedom and autonomy as expressed in the ancient Pythagorean 'theory of the cosmos'. Indeed, following Heidegger's analysis, it can be seen that modern Western society has arrived at the opposite pole of anthropocentric 'absolute subjectivism' in which the entire non-human world is seen as a material resource to be consumed in the satisfaction of our egoistic passive desires. It is further argued that Spinozism is actually a modern version of the (...)
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