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Plato and Aristotle on friendship and altruism

Mind 86 (344):532-554 (1977)

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  1. Philia: the biological foundations of Aristotle’s ethics.Jorge Torres - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (4):1-27.
    This article is the first one to offer an investigation, from a biological perspective, of “natural philia” or “kin-based” philia in Aristotle’s practical philosophy. After some preliminary considerations about its place in Aristotle’s ethical treatises, the discussion focuses on Aristotle’s biology. Here we learn that natural philia, couched in terms of a biological praxis rather than a trait of character, is widespread in the animal kingdom, although in different ways and to varying degrees. To account for such differences, Aristotle establishes (...)
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  • Should We Take the Friendships of Children Seriously?Mary Healy - 2011 - Journal of Moral Education 40 (4):441-456.
    The concept of friendship has had a great deal of attention within recent years from philosophers. However, this attention restricts itself to friendship between adults and rarely considers the issue of friendship between children. The issue of friendship and how we socialise with others ought to be an important concept for education, yet schools rarely take the forming, nurturing and nourishing of friendship beyond helping to deal with disputes between friends when they disrupt school life. I wish to argue that (...)
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  • On the Normative Consequences of Virtue and Utility Friendships in Aristotle.Daniel Simão Nascimento - 2017 - Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofia 43 (2):263-284.
    In this article, I use the expanded hohfeldian model presented by Wenar to argue that, according to Aristotle's theory of friendship, every bond of friendship that is based on utility or virtue creates duties and hohfeldian incidents between those who are friends. In section 1, I provide a quick presentation of Hohfeld's work and of Wenar's hohfeldian model. In section 2, I present my thesis about the creation of certain hohfeldian incidents and certain duties in virtue and utility friendships as (...)
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  • Colloquium 8.Ruby Blondell - 1998 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 14 (1):213-238.
  • Freiheit und Freundschaft in Axel Honneths Recht der Freiheit.Philipp Schwind & Sebastian Muders - 2017 - Philosophy and Society 28 (3):454-474.
    In Axel Honneths Recht der Freiheit (RF) dienen persönliche Beziehungen, zu welchen Honneth neben Familien- und Liebesbeziehungen auch die Freundschaft zählt, der Verwirklichung einer „besondere[n], schwer zu charakterisierende[n] Form von Freiheit“ (RF 233). Diese Behauptung fügt sich ein in die Kernthese des Rechts der Freiheit. Demnach vermochte es die „Freiheit im Sinne der Autonomie des Einzelnen“ innerhalb unzähliger „Vorstellung[en] vom Guten“ als einzige, die moderne Gesellschaft nachhaltig zu prägen, wohingegen alle anderen Werte, die in der Moderne wirkmächtig geworden sind, als (...)
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  • What is Friendship?Uri D. Leibowitz - 2018 - Disputatio 10 (49):97-117.
    The paper identifies a distinctive feature of friendship. Friendship, it is argued, is a relationship between two people in which each participant values the other and successfully communicates this fact to the other. This feature of friendship, it is claimed, explains why friendship plays a key role in human happiness, why it is praised by philosophers, poets, and novelists, and why we all seek friends. Although the characterization of friendship proposed here differs from other views in the literature, it is (...)
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  • A Topical Bibliography of Scholarship on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics: 1880 to 2004.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30:1-116.
    Scholarship on Aristotle’s NICOMACHEAN ETHICS (hereafter “the Ethics”) flourishes in an almost unprecedented fashion. In the last ten years, universities in North America have produced on average over ten doctoral dissertations a year that discuss the practical philosophy that Aristotle espouses in his Nicomachean Ethics, Eudemian Ethics, and Politics. Since the beginning of the millennium there have been three new translations of the entire Ethics into English alone, several more that translate parts of the work into English and other modern (...)
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  • Přátelství, dobro, polis. K významu přátelství v celku Aristotelovy praktické filosofie.Jakub Jinek - 2011 - Studia Neoaristotelica 8 (1):72-94.
    Aristotle’s subtle distinction between the forms of friendship and his concept of loving friend as one’s other self propose a solution to the fundamental objection to any eudaimonian theory of slavery, namely that friendship – as basically non-moral phenomenon – is but an egoistic device of one’s happy life. Aristotelian theorems are based on his concept of analogy and on a philosophically specific notion of “self”. Since both of these are rooted in Platonism, Aristotle has toevolve them dialectically in a (...)
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  • Friendship as a Non-Relative Virtue.Rachel Friedman - 2021 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 20 (1).
    This article takes its bearings from Martha Nussbaum’s “Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach.” There, Nussbaum proposes an analytic framework that is intended to allow those who disagree about the virtues, in particular due to cultural differences, to engage in fruitful dialogue with one another. To explore what such an approach might look like in practice, this article considers the case study of friendship. It critiques Aristotle’s account of that virtue and provides an alternative based on contemporary understandings. By placing these (...)
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  • Aristotle on the Structure of Akratic Action.Elena Giovanna Cagnoli Fiecconi - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (3):229-256.
    _ Source: _Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 229 - 256 I argue that, for Aristotle, akratic actions are against one’s general commitment to act in accordance with one’s correct conception of one’s ends overall. Only some akratic actions are also against one’s correct decision to perform a particular action. This thesis explains Aristotle’s views on impetuous _akrasia_, weak _akrasia_, stubborn opinionated action and inverse _akrasia_. In addition, it sheds light on Aristotle’s account of practical rationality. Rational actions are coherent primarily (...)
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  • Vice in the Nicomachean Ethics.Karen Margrethe Nielsen - 2017 - Phronesis 62 (1):1-25.
    _ Source: _Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 1 - 25 This paper aims to articulate Aristotle’s general account of vice, an account that applies to all special vices, regardless of their spheres of action and emotion, and whether they are states of excess or deficiency. Vice is ignorance in the decision : the paper explains what this means.
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  • Civic Friendship and Thin Citizenship.R. K. Bentley - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (1):5-19.
    Contemporary appeals for a deepening of civic friendship in liberal democracies often draw on Aristotle. This paper warns against a certain kind of attempt to use Aristotle in our own theorising, namely accounts of civic friendship that characterise it as similar in some way to Aristotelian virtue friendship. The most prominent of these attempts have focused on disinterested mutual regard as a basic ingredient in all Aristotelian forms of friendship. The argument against this is that it inadequately accounts for the (...)
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  • ‘We're Just Not Friends Anymore’: Self-Knowledge and Friendship Endings.Mary Healy - 2015 - Ethics and Education 10 (2):186-197.
    A long standing argument in philosophy purports that friendship plays a considerable role in our self-knowledge and perspectives on the world, much of which can be accredited to the enduring influence of the Aristotelian conceptualisation of friendship. More recent thinking on friendship terminations has given cause to rethink and clarify the basis of such suppositions. This has particular relevance within the realm of childhood where 'friendship termination' is considered a common experience. This article seeks to remind us that friendship can (...)
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  • Colloquium 3: Aristotle on Moral Considerability.Susanne Foster - 2003 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):75-94.
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  • Challenges of the Virtue of Friendship (Philia) in the Mining Industry: A Case of Multicultural Society of Indonesia.Unang Mulkhan - 2021 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 10 (1):19-35.
    This paper aims to explore challenges of the Aristotelian friendship in multicultural society and in the specific industrial and organizational contexts. Data was collected from forty-eight participant interviews with managers and employees of four mining companies in Indonesia with twelve informants from each company, both management and employees. The paper found that the virtue of friendship within the mining companies has several drawbacks when an imbalance of power exists between managers and employees. This paper suggests that to understand virtue of (...)
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  • Virtue Ethics and the Interests of Others.Mark Lebar - 1999 - Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    In recent decades "virtue ethics" has become an accepted theoretical structure for thinking about normative ethical principles. However, few contemporary virtue ethicists endorse the commitments of the first virtue theorists---the ancient Greeks, who developed their virtue theories within a commitment to eudaimonism. Why? I believe the objections of modern theorists boil down to concerns that eudaimonist theories cannot properly account for two prominent moral requirements on our treatment of others. ;First, we think that the interests and welfare of at least (...)
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  • Is Aristotelian Friendship Disinterested?: Aristotle on Loving the Other for Himself and Wishing Goods for the Other's Sake.Bradford Jean-Hyuk Kim - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    It has been not atypical for commentators to argue that Aristotelian friendship features disinterested concern for others, that is, concern for others that is completely independent of one's own happiness. Often, the relevant commentators point to some normative features of Aristotelian friendship, wishing goods for the other's sake and loving the other for herself, where these are assumed to be disinterested. While the disinterested interpretations may be correct overall, I argue that wishing goods for the other's sake and loving the (...)
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  • Reply to Müller: Aristotle on Vicious Choice.Jay R. Elliott - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (6):1193-1203.
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  • How Friendship Doesn’T Contribute to Happiness: A Reply to Leibowitz.Diana Sofronieva - 2020 - Disputatio 12 (56):121-136.
    Friendship and happiness are intimately connected. According to a recent account provided in Leibowitz friendship contributes to happiness because friends value each other and communicate this valuation to each other, which increases their self-worth, and this in turn increases their happiness. In this paper I argue that Leibowitz’s account of how friendship contributes to happiness is mistaken. I first present Leibowitz’s view, and then argue against it. I have two main worries with his account. One worry is that increase in (...)
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  • Erôs and Education : Socratic Seduction in Three Platonic Dialogues.Hege Dypedokk Johnsen - 2016 - Dissertation, Stockholm University
    Plato’s Socrates is famous for claiming that “I know one thing: That I know nothing”. There is one subject that Socrates repeatedly claims to have expertise in, however: ta erôtika. Socrates also refers to this expertise as his erôtikê technê, which may be translated as “erotic expertise”. In this dissertation, I investigate Socrates’ erotic expertise: what kind of expertise is it, what is it constituted by, where is it put into practice, and how is it practiced? I argue that the (...)
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  • General Bibliography.Peter Nicholson - 1978 - Polis: The Journal for Ancient Greek Political Thought 2 (1):19-26.
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  • A Extensão E a Definição Do Conceito de Philia.Mateus Perito - 2017 - Aufklärung 4 (1):145-162.
    O conceito de amizade foi deixado de lado ao longo dos anos nas pesquisas éticas. Entretanto, quando olhamos para os autores gregos, constatamos que o conceito de amizade ocupava um espaço muito maior no universo da ética. Através da análise das três formas de amizade expostas na ética de Aristóteles, o presente artigo objetiva demonstrar a extensão e a definição do conceito de philia apresentados na Ética a Nicômaco de Aristóteles, deixando claro a importância que o conceito de amizade tem (...)
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  • Happiness in Prison.Sabrina Intelisano - unknown
    In this thesis I am going to explore the relationship between happiness and imprisonment. I will discuss three theories of happiness - hedonism, life satisfaction theories and emotional states theories. I will argue that the main problem of these theories is that they take happiness to consist only of psychological states. Because of this, I will turn my attention towards those theories that evaluate happiness in terms of how well life is going for the person who is living it. I (...)
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  • Love and Friendship in the Lysis and the Symposium: Human and Divine.Jakub Jinek - 2008 - Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 5 (2008):109-126.
    The paper claims that we cannot understand properly Platonic conception of love and friendship unless we read the Lysis in the light of the Symposium and vice verse. Dealing with the crucial question of what made Plato write two different dialogues on the same topic, it advocates an alternative intertextual reading that does not deny progress of Plato’s thinking. Though the Symposium offers, in comparison to the Lysis, a more developed philosophical theory of love, Plato still has good reasons to (...)
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  • Self-Disclosure and Self-Sufficiency in Greek Culture: The Stranger's Stratagem.Glenn W. Most - 1989 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 109:114-133.
    The literary stock of Achilles Tatius has been increasing steadily in value since 1964, when an article about his romanceLeucippe and Cleitophonin an encyclopedia of world literature began, ‘Das Werk weist alle Mängel seines Genres samt einigen zusätzlichen eigenen auf.’ To be sure,Leucippe and Cleitophonremains among the last and probably least read of the Greek romances; yet in the last decades critics have begun to draw attention to original and effective aspects of its composition. As is usually the case, this (...)
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  • The Stranger's Stratagem: Self-Disclosure and Self-Sufficiency in Greek Culture.Glenn W. Most - 1989 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 109:114-133.
    The literary stock of Achilles Tatius has been increasing steadily in value since 1964, when an article about his romanceLeucippe and Cleitophonin an encyclopedia of world literature began, ‘Das Werk weist alle Mängel seines Genres samt einigen zusätzlichen eigenen auf.’ To be sure,Leucippe and Cleitophonremains among the last and probably least read of the Greek romances; yet in the last decades critics have begun to draw attention to original and effective aspects of its composition. As is usually the case, this (...)
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  • Aristotle on Vice.Jozef Müller - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):459-477.
    In this paper, I argue that the widely held view that Aristotle's vicious agent is a principled follower of a wrong conception of the good whose soul, just like the soul of the virtuous agent, is marked by harmony between his reason and non-rational desires is an exegetical mistake. Rather, Aristotle holds – consistently and throughout the Nicomachean Ethics – that the vicious agent lacks any real principles of action and that his soul lacks unity and harmony even more than (...)
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  • The Lysis on Loving One's Own.David K. Glidden - 1981 - Classical Quarterly 31 (01):39-.
    Cicero, Lucullus 38: ‘…non potest animal ullum non adpetere id quod accommodatum ad naturam adpareat …’ From earliest childhood every man wants to possess something. One man collects horses. Another wants gold. Socrates has a passion for companions. He would rather have a good friend than a quail or a rooster. In this way, Socrates begins his interrogation of Menexenus. He then congratulates Menexenus and Lysis for each having what he himself still does not possess. How is it that one (...)
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  • Valuable Asymmetrical Friendships.T. Brian Mooney & John N. Williams - 2016 - Philosophy 92 (1):51-76.
    Aristotle distinguishes friendships of pleasure or utility from more valuable ‘character friendships’ in which the friend cares for the other qua person for the other’s own sake. Aristotle and some neo-Aristotelians require such friends to be fairly strictly symmetrical in their separateness of identity from each other, in the degree to which they identify with each other, and in the degree to which they are virtuous. We argue that there is a neglected form of valuable friendship–neither of friendship nor utility–that (...)
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  • Love.Bennett W. Helm - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This essay focuses on personal love, or the love of particular persons as such. Part of the philosophical task in understanding personal love is to distinguish the various kinds of personal love. For example, the way in which I love my wife is seemingly very different from the way I love my mother, my child, and my friend. This task has typically proceeded hand-in-hand with philosophical analyses of these kinds of personal love, analyses that in part respond to various puzzles (...)
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  • Friendship.Bennett W. Helm - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Friendship, as understood here, is a distinctively personal relationship that is grounded in a concern on the part of each friend for the welfare of the other, for the other's sake, and that involves some degree of intimacy. As such, friendship is undoubtedly central to our lives, in part because the special concern we have for our friends must have a place within a broader set of concerns, including moral concerns, and in part because our friends can help shape who (...)
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