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  1. The Quantum-Like Approach to Modeling Classical Rationality Violations: An Introduction.Franco Vaio - 2019 - Mind and Society 18 (1):105-123.
    Psychological empirical research has shown that human choice behavior often violates the assumptions of classical rational choice models. In the last few decades a new research field has emerged which aims to account for the observed choice behavior by resorting to the concepts and mathematical techniques developed in the realm of quantum physics, such as the “mental state vector” defined in a Hilbert space and the interference of quantum probability. This article is a short introduction to the quantum-like approach to (...)
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  • Foundation of Quantum Mechanics: Once Again.Paul Drechsel - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):375-389.
    Brukner and Dakić proposed a very simple axiom system as a foundation for quantum theory. It implies the qubit and quantum entanglement. Because this axiom system aims at the core of our understanding of nature, it must be brought to the forum of the philosophy of nature. For philosophical reasons, a completely denied champion of quantum theory, imaginarity i, is added into this axiom system. In relation to Bell’s inequality, this leads to a deeper ‘philosophical’ understanding of quantum nature based (...)
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  • The Heart of an Image: Quantum Superposition and Entanglement in Visual Perception.Jonito Aerts Arguëlles - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (4):757-778.
    We analyse the way in which the principle that ‘the whole is greater than the sum of its parts’ manifests itself with phenomena of visual perception. For this investigation we use insights and techniques coming from quantum cognition, and more specifically we are inspired by the correspondence of this principle with the phenomenon of the conjunction effect in human cognition. We identify entities of meaning within artefacts of visual perception and rely on how such entities are modelled for corpuses of (...)
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  • Quantum and Concept Combination, Entangled Measurements, and Prototype Theory.Diederik Aerts - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):129-137.
    We analyze the meaning of the violation of the marginal probability law for situations of correlation measurements where entanglement is identified. We show that for quantum theory applied to the cognitive realm such a violation does not lead to the type of problems commonly believed to occur in situations of quantum theory applied to the physical realm. We briefly situate our quantum approach for modeling concepts and their combinations with respect to the notions of “extension” and “intension” in theories of (...)
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  • Concepts and Their Dynamics: A Quantum‐Theoretic Modeling of Human Thought.Diederik Aerts, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):737-772.
    We analyze different aspects of our quantum modeling approach of human concepts and, more specifically, focus on the quantum effects of contextuality, interference, entanglement, and emergence, illustrating how each of them makes its appearance in specific situations of the dynamics of human concepts and their combinations. We point out the relation of our approach, which is based on an ontology of a concept as an entity in a state changing under influence of a context, with the main traditional concept theories, (...)
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  • Deciding the Mind–Body Problem Experimentally.Pierre Uzan - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (4):333-354.
    A Bell-type strategy of decision for the long-standing question of the nature of psychophysical correlations has been previously presented in a recent article published in Mind and Matter. This strategy of decision is here applied to experimental data on psychophysiological correlations, namely, correlations between cardiovascular and emotional variables that have been reported in several independent publications. This statistical analysis shows that a substantial majority of these correlations cannot be interpreted as an exchange of signals or a mere “interaction”, whatever its (...)
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  • Correction To: Preface of the Special Issue: International Symposium “Worlds of Entanglement” - Second Part.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2018 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):5-5.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10699-021-09793-2.
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  • A Loophole of All ‘Loophole-Free’ Bell-Type Theorems.Marek Czachor - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (4):971-985.
    Bell’s theorem cannot be proved if complementary measurements have to be represented by random variables which cannot be added or multiplied. One such case occurs if their domains are not identical. The case more directly related to the Einstein–Rosen–Podolsky argument occurs if there exists an ‘element of reality’ but nevertheless addition of complementary results is impossible because they are represented by elements from different arithmetics. A naive mixing of arithmetics leads to contradictions at a much more elementary level than the (...)
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  • Quantum Structure in Cognition: Human Language as a Boson Gas of Entangled Words.Diederik Aerts & Lester Beltran - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):755-802.
    We model a piece of text of human language telling a story by means of the quantum structure describing a Bose gas in a state close to a Bose–Einstein condensate near absolute zero temperature. For this we introduce energy levels for the words used in the story and we also introduce the new notion of ‘cogniton’ as the quantum of human thought. Words are then cognitons in different energy states as it is the case for photons in different energy states, (...)
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  • Modeling Human Decision-Making: An Overview of the Brussels Quantum Approach.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):27-54.
    We present the fundamentals of the quantum theoretical approach we have developed in the last decade to model cognitive phenomena that resisted modeling by means of classical logical and probabilistic structures, like Boolean, Kolmogorovian and, more generally, set theoretical structures. We firstly sketch the operational-realistic foundations of conceptual entities, i.e. concepts, conceptual combinations, propositions, decision-making entities, etc. Then, we briefly illustrate the application of the quantum formalism in Hilbert space to represent combinations of natural concepts, discussing its success in modeling (...)
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  • Can Quantum Probability Provide a New Direction for Cognitive Modeling?Emmanuel M. Pothos & Jerome R. Busemeyer - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):255-274.
    Classical (Bayesian) probability (CP) theory has led to an influential research tradition for modeling cognitive processes. Cognitive scientists have been trained to work with CP principles for so long that it is hard even to imagine alternative ways to formalize probabilities. However, in physics, quantum probability (QP) theory has been the dominant probabilistic approach for nearly 100 years. Could QP theory provide us with any advantages in cognitive modeling as well? Note first that both CP and QP theory share the (...)
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  • Quantum Structure of Negation and Conjunction in Human Thought.Diederik Aerts, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World.Diederik Aerts - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Creative Thought as a Non-Darwinian Evolutionary Process.Dr Liane M. Gabora - 2005 - [Journal (Paginated)] (in Press).
    Selection theory requires multiple, distinct, simultaneously-actualized states. In cognition, each thought or cognitive state changes the 'selection pressure' against which the next is evaluated; they are not simultaneously selected amongst. Creative thought is more a matter of honing in a vague idea through redescribing successive iterations of it from different real or imagined perspectives; in other words, actualizing potential through exposure to different contexts. It has been proven that the mathematical description of contextual change of state introduces a non-Kolmogorovian probability (...)
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  • Quantum Particles as Conceptual Entities: A Possible Explanatory Framework for Quantum Theory. [REVIEW]Diederik Aerts - 2009 - Foundations of Science 14 (4):361-411.
    We put forward a possible new interpretation and explanatory framework for quantum theory. The basic hypothesis underlying this new framework is that quantum particles are conceptual entities. More concretely, we propose that quantum particles interact with ordinary matter, nuclei, atoms, molecules, macroscopic material entities, measuring apparatuses, in a similar way to how human concepts interact with memory structures, human minds or artificial memories. We analyze the most characteristic aspects of quantum theory, i.e. entanglement and non-locality, interference and superposition, identity and (...)
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  • Preliminary Considerations on a Possible Quantum Model of Consciousness Interfaced with a Non Lipschitz Chaotic Dynamics of Neural Activity.Elio Conte - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 3 (10):905-921.
    A model of consciousness and conscious experience is introduced. Starting with a non-Lipschitz Chaotic dynamics of neural activity, we propose that the synaptic transmission between adjacent as well as distant neurons should be regulated in brain dynamics through quantum tunneling. Further, based on various studies of different previous authors, we consider the emergence of very large quantum mechanical system representable by an abstract quantum net entirely based on quantum-like entities having in particular the important feature of expressing self-reference similar to (...)
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  • Quantum Information, Cognition, and Music.Maria L. Dalla Chiara, Roberto Giuntini, Roberto Leporini, Eleonora Negri & Giuseppe Sergioli - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • The Pet-Fish Problem on the World-Wide Web.Diederik Aerts, Marek Czachor, Bart D’Hooghe & Sandro Sozzo - 2007 - Cognition 2008:2009.
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  • The Quantum Mechanics and Conceptuality: Matter, Histories, Semantics, and Space-Time.Diederik Aerts - 2013 - Scientiae Studia 11 (1):75-99.
    Elaboramos aquí una nueva interpretación propuesta recientemente de la teoría cuántica, según la cual las partículas cuánticas son consideradas como entidades conceptuales que median entre los pedazos de materia ordinaria los cuales son considerados como estructuras de memoria para ellos. Nuestro objetivo es identificar qué es lo equivalente para el ámbito cognitivo humano de lo que el espacio-tiempo físico es para el ámbito de las partículas cuánticas y de la materia ordinaria. Para ello, se identifica la noción de "historia" como (...)
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  • A Theory of Concepts and Their Combinations II: A Hilbert Space Representation.Diederik Aerts & Liane Gabora - 2005 - Philosophical Explorations.
    The sets of contexts and properties of a concept are embedded in the complex Hilbert space of quantum mechanics. States are unit vectors or density operators, and contexts and properties are orthogonal projections. The way calculations are done in Hilbert space makes it possible to model how context influences the state of a concept. Moreover, a solution to the combination of concepts is proposed. Using the tensor product, a procedure for describing combined concepts is elaborated, providing a natural solution to (...)
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