Switch to: References

Citations of:

Biology and social theory in the nineteenth century: Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer

In John Offer (ed.), Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments. Routledge. pp. 2--203 (2000)

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. From 'Circumstances' to 'Environment': Herbert Spencer and the Origins of the Idea of Organism–Environment Interaction.Trevor Pearce - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):241-252.
    The word ‘environment’ has a history. Before the mid-nineteenth century, the idea of a singular, abstract entity—the organism—interacting with another singular, abstract entity—the environment—was virtually unknown. In this paper I trace how the idea of a plurality of external conditions or circumstances was replaced by the idea of a singular environment. The central figure behind this shift, at least in Anglo-American intellectual life, was the philosopher Herbert Spencer. I examine Spencer’s work from 1840 to 1855, demonstrating that he was exposed (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations