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  1. Cases Abusing Brain Death Definition in Organ Procurement in China.Norbert W. Paul, Kirk C. Allison & Huige Li - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (3):379-385.
    Organ donation after brain death has been practiced in China since 2003 in the absence of brain death legislation. Similar to international standards, China’s brain death diagnostic criteria include coma, absence of brainstem reflexes, and the lack of spontaneous respiration. The Chinese criteria require that the lack of spontaneous respiration must be verified with an apnea test by disconnecting the ventilator for 8 min to provoke spontaneous respiration. However, we have found publications in Chinese medical journals, in which the donors (...)
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  • Analysis of Official Deceased Organ Donation Data Casts Doubt on the Credibility of China’s Organ Transplant Reform.Matthew P. Robertson, Raymond L. Hinde & Jacob Lavee - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-20.
    Background Since 2010 the People’s Republic of China has been engaged in an effort to reform its system of organ transplantation by developing a voluntary organ donation and allocation infrastructure. This has required a shift in the procurement of organs sourced from China’s prison and security apparatus to hospital-based voluntary donors declared dead by neurological and/or circulatory criteria. Chinese officials announced that from January 1, 2015, hospital-based donors would be the sole source of organs. This paper examines the availability, transparency, (...)
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  • Human Rights Violations in Organ Procurement Practice in China.Norbert W. Paul, Arthur Caplan, Michael E. Shapiro, Charl Els, Kirk C. Allison & Huige Li - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):11.
    Over 90% of the organs transplanted in China before 2010 were procured from prisoners. Although Chinese officials announced in December 2014 that the country would completely cease using organs harvested from prisoners, no regulatory adjustments or changes in China’s organ donation laws followed. As a result, the use of prisoner organs remains legal in China if consent is obtained. We have collected and analysed available evidence on human rights violations in the organ procurement practice in China. We demonstrate that the (...)
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  • Determination of Death in Execution by Lethal Injection in China.Norbert W. Paul, Arthur Caplan, Michael E. Shapiro, Charl Els, Kirk C. Allison & Huige Li - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (3):459-466.
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