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  1. Ockham's razor, truth, and information.Kevin Kelly - manuscript
    in Handbook of the Philosophy of Information, J. van Behthem and P. Adriaans, eds., to appear.
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  2. Three Medieval Aristotelians on Numerical Identity and Time.John Morrison - forthcoming - In Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy.
    Aquinas, Ockham, and Burdan all claim that a person can be numerically identical over time, despite changes in size, shape, and color. How can we reconcile this with the Indiscernibility of Identicals, the principle that numerical identity implies indiscernibility across time? Almost all contemporary metaphysicians regard the Indiscernibility of Identicals as axiomatic. But I will argue that Aquinas, Ockham, and Burdan would reject it, perhaps in favor of a principle restricted to indiscernibility at a time.
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  3. William of Ockham.Spade Pv - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  4. Old Wine in New Wineskins: William Ockham and the Common Good in Context.Roberto Lambertini - 2024 - In Heikki Haara & Juhana Toivanen (eds.), Common Good and Self-Interest in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 131-148.
    The present chapter investigates the use of the expression bonum commune in two political works by William of Ockham: the third part of the Dialogus and the Octo quaestiones de potestate papae. The choice of these works is motivated by the fact that they represent the final – and most mature – phase of the English Franciscan’s political reflection. Relying on the findings of previous scholarship, the author believes it is appropriate to focus on the use of the expression rather (...)
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  5. Guglielmo di Ockham e la filosofia come insegnamento del vero.Fabrizio Amerini - 2023 - Noctua 10 (1):1-45.
    Truth is a key notion in Ockham’s philosophical reductionist program, a notion that has been the object of contrasting interpretations in scholarship. My interpretation is that, for Ockham, ‘being true’ expresses an epistemological relation, namely the one through which our mind reflects on a proposition of language, compares it with an extra-mental state of affairs, and thus ascertains their correspondence. Placing truth at a point of intersection of language with mind and reality, Ockham’s interpretation of Aristotle’s characterization of philosophy as (...)
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  6. Justifying Ockham’s Razor within Betz’s Theory of Dialectical Structures.Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi Etemadoleslami Bakhtiari - 2023 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations 17 (44):63-88.
    According to Ockham’s razor, assumptions must not be unnecessarily multiplied. While this principle is widely accepted, its justification is controversial. More precisely, we don’t know whether Ockham’s razor is truth-conducive. The present paper aims to address this problem within Betz’s theory of dialectical structures (2012). First of all, I give a brief explanation of this theory. Here, the essential elements of Betz’s theory, which pertains to my discussion, are highlighted. Secondly, I explain why Betz’s theory is favored over the Bayesian (...)
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  7. Ockham on Memory and the Metaphysics of Human Persons.Susan Brower Toland - 2023 - Philosophical Quarterly (2):453-473.
    This paper explores William Ockham's account of memory with a view to understanding its implications for his account of the nature and persistence of human beings. I show that Ockham holds a view according to which memory (i) is a type of self-knowledge and (ii) entails the existence of an enduring psychological subject. This is significant when taken in conjunction with his account of the afterlife. For, Ockham holds that during the interim state—namely, after bodily death, but prior to bodily (...)
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  8. "Deflecting Ockham's Razor: A Medieval Debate on Ontological Commitment".Susan Brower-Toland - 2023 - Mind 132 (527):659-679.
    William of Ockham (d. 1347) is well known for his commitment to parsimony and for his so-called ‘razor’ principle. But little is known about attempts among his own contemporaries to deflect his use of the razor. In this paper, I explore one such attempt. In particular, I consider a clever challenge that Ockham’s younger contemporary, Walter Chatton (d. 1343) deploys against the razor. The challenge involves a kind of dilemma for Ockham. Depending on how Ockham responds to this dilemma, his (...)
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  9. Observações Sobre Logica e Linguagem No Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus de Wittgenstein e o Pressuposto de Ockham da Redução Do Entes Numa Explicação.Leandro Sousa Costa - 2023 - Dissertatio 54:101-111.
    As observações dessa pesquisa propõem como hipótese de trabalho a perspectiva de que o Princípio de Ockham pode ser identificado na estrutura do Tractatus logico-philosophicus de Wittgenstein. O texto aborda aspectos da lógica e da linguagem na filosofia analítica, aspectos da lógica e da linguagem na filosofia do Tractatus e estabelece uma intermediação que permite tratar com a possibilidade de uma aproximação entre o Princípio de Ockham e a filosofia tractariana. Os resultados contidos nas observações explicitadas nesse texto apontam para (...)
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  10. God’s Knowledge of the World: Medieval Theories of Divine Ideas from Bonaventure to Ockham by Carl A. Vater (review).Benjamin R. DeSpain - 2023 - Review of Metaphysics 77 (2):373-375.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:God’s Knowledge of the World: Medieval Theories of Divine Ideas from Bonaventure to Ockham by Carl A. VaterBenjamin R. DeSpainVATER, Carl A. God’s Knowledge of the World: Medieval Theories of Divine Ideas from Bonaventure to Ockham. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2022. xi + 294 pp. Cloth, $75.00Carl Vater skillfully blends historical and constructive concerns in his study of medieval theories of the divine ideas. (...)
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  11. Ockham’s Razor, or the Murder of Concreteness. A Vindication of the Unitarian Tradition.Roberta De Monticelli - 2023 - Phenomenology and Mind 24:38-54.
    The notion of de re truth (Conte, 2016) is put to work in this paper (§ 1). It introduces us to a confrontation between a metaphysics of desertic landscapes, as presented in a stunning poem by Achille Varzi and Claudio Calosi, The Tribulations of Philosophye (§ 2), and an ontology of the lifeworld, as a long-term project based on the key concept of bonds (De Monticelli, 2018). The rich and structured objects of the everyday world are infinite sources of information (...)
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  12. Navaja de Ockham y la hipótesis de los multiversos (2nd edition).Ilan Jimenez - 2023 - Acta Academica 73 (Noviembre, 2023):319-344.
    Uno de los principales criterios que utiliza el método científico para establecer la pertinencia de una explicación o hipótesis competidora con respecto a un evento en la realidad física, es el principio de simplicidad o parsimonia científica. Este suele implicar la prescindencia de entidades o hipótesis consideradas innecesarias para la explicación de un fenómeno. Las raíces de este principio se suelen trazar hasta el filósofo nominalista medieval Guillermo de Ockham. En el presente trabajo, se pretende determinar el posible impacto de (...)
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  13. Ockham's nominalism: a philosophical introduction.Claude Panaccio - 2023 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    William of Ockham is a towering figure in the history of philosophy and he is commonly seen as the most important nominalist thinker of the Middle Ages. His nominalism basically consists in three theses: there are no universals in the external world, no relations either, and no quantities considered as distinct entities. This book provides an introduction to Ockham's defence of these positions and to what they amount to in metaphysics, semantics, and epistemology. It thus displays the outlines of a (...)
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  14. Heresy and toleration in the early fourteenth century : Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham reconsidered.Takashi Shogimen - 2023 - In Chris Jones & Takashi Shogimen (eds.), Rethinking medieval and Renaissance political thought: historiographical problems, fresh interpretations, new debates. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  15. Ockham and Chatton on Intellective Intuition.Fabrizio Amerini - 2022 - Vivarium 60 (1):63-92.
    Intellective intuitive cognition plays a key role in William of Ockham’s philosophy. On many occasions, Walter Chatton argues that this kind of cognition is unnecessary. Chatton has two main arguments for his point. First, he raises doubts about the possibility of distinguishing intellective intuitive cognition from sensory intuitive cognition. The former always arises with the latter, and whatever we can explain through the former, we can explain equally well through the latter. Second, he argues that we cannot separate the intellective (...)
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  16. A Navalha de Ockham: um Princípio Lógico de Parcimônia.William Saraiva Borges - 2022 - Scintilla 19 (1):129-142.
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  17. Zabarella on Prime Matter and Extension.Berman Chan - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (5):2405-2422.
    The 16th and 17th centuries witnessed a philosophical shift that would help pave the way for modern science, a shift from metaphysical theories of material objects to other views embracing only the empirically-accessible parts of material things. One much-debated topic in the course of this shift was regarding prime matter. The late scholastic Jacobus Zabarella (1533-1589) arrived upon his views about prime matter via his version of the regressus method, a program for a sort of scientific reasoning. In his De (...)
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  18. Guglielmo da Ockham e gli infinita in actu.Antonio Gerace - 2022 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 63:193-242.
    The article analyses the concept of actual infinity in William of Ockham’s thought, thanks to a close reading of his writings, first those on physics, where he argues more than once the existence of the actual infinity, intended as a set of infinite parts in act present in a continuum. By virtue of this representation of infinity, Ockham also states that two sets with infinite parts are not necessarily equal, but one of the two can be greater than the other, (...)
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  19. The Changing Role of Theological Authority in Ockham's Razor.Eric W. Hagedorn - 2022 - Res Philosophica 99 (2):97-120.
    Ockham’s own formulations of his Razor state that one should only include a given entity in one’s ontology when one has either sensory evidence, demonstrative argument, or theological authority in favor of it. But how does Ockham decide which theological claims to treat as data for theory construction? Here I show how over time (perhaps in no small part due to pressure and attention from ecclesiastical censors) Ockham refined and changed the way he formulated his Razor, particularly the “authority clause” (...)
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  20. The Metaphysics of Ockhamism.Andrea Iacona - 2022 - In Alessio Santelli (ed.), Ockhamism and Philosophy of Time: Semantic and Metaphysical Issues concerning Future Contingents. Springer.
    This paper investigates Ockhamism from a metaphysical point of view. Its main point is that the claim that future contingents are true or false is less demanding than usually expected, as it does not require particularly contentious assumptions about the future. First it will be argued that Ockhamism is consistent with a wide range of metaphysical views. Then it will be shown that each of these views leaves room for the claim that the future is open, at least on some (...)
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  21. Knowledge of Future Contingents.Andrea Iacona - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (2):447-467.
    This paper addresses the question whether future contingents are knowable, that is, whether one can know that things will go a certain way even though it is possible that things will not go that way. First I will consider a long-established view that implies a negative answer, and draw attention to some endemic problems that affect its credibility. Then I will sketch an alternative line of thought that prompts a positive answer: future contingents are knowable, although our epistemic access of (...)
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  22. William Ockham’s Concept of Science.Yul Kim - 2022 - philosophia medii aevi 28:159-209.
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  23. Why is a House Nothing More than Stones and Pieces of Wood?Kamil Majcherek - 2022 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 89 (1):109-144.
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  24. Clear and Distinct Perception in the Stoics, Augustine, and William of Ockham.Tamer Nawar - 2022 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 96 (1):185-207.
    There is a long history of philosophers granting a privileged epistemic status to cognition of directly present objects. In this paper, I examine three important historic accounts which provide different models of this cognitive state and its connection with its objects: that of the Stoics, who are corporealists and think that ordinary perception may have an epistemically privileged status, but who seem to struggle to accommodate non-perceptual cognizance; that of Augustine, who thinks that incorporeal objects are directly present to us (...)
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  25. The Evilization of the Term “Fulani” in Present Day Nigeria: A Reflection on the Notion of Signification in William of Ockham’s Logic.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri - 2022 - LASU JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY 4 (1):1-24.
    This paper attempts to demonstrate that the logical problematic of signification, has a very dangerous socio-political effect due to the ontological implication that is connected to the signification of terms in logic. It expounds the notion of signification in Formal Logic as exposed by William of Ockham. It thus, employs this notion of signification of terms, to discuss the term “Fulani”, to show the danger potent in distorting the signification of the term “Fulani” as in every conventional and connotative terms. (...)
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  26. Getting Real: Ockham on the Human Contribution to the Nature and Production of Artifacts.Jenny Pelletier - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):90.
    Given his known predilection for ontological parsimony, Ockham’s ontology of artifacts is unsurprisingly reductionist: artifacts are nothing over and above their existing and appropriately ordered parts. However, the case of artifacts is notable in that they are real objects that human artisans produce by bringing about a real change: they spatially rearrange existing natural thing(s) or their parts for the sake of some end. This article argues that the human contribution to the nature and production of artifacts is two-fold: (1) (...)
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  27. From Psychological to Factual Use.Jenny Pelletier - 2022 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 89 (1):77-108.
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  28. Kritik über Ockham, Kilcullen & Scott (2020): Dialogus, Part 1, Books 1–5.Christian Rode - 2022 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 25 (1):311-316.
    This article reviews Dialogus, Part 1, Books 1–5 978-0-19-726694-6.
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  29. The Logic of the Trinity: Augustine to Ockham.Paul Thom - 2022 - Fordham University Press.
    This book recounts the remarkable history of efforts by significant medieval thinkers to accommodate the ontology of the Trinity within the framework of Aristotelian logic and ontology. These efforts were remarkable because they pushed creatively beyond the boundaries of existing thought while trying to strike a balance between the Church's traditional teachings and theoretical rigor in a context of institutional politics. In some cases, good theology, good philosophy, and good politics turned out to be three different things. The principal thinkers (...)
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  30. Intentionality in the Middle Ages: Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham.А. А Санженаков - 2022 - Siberian Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):117-135.
    The article presents an overview of medieval approaches to understanding the phenomenon of intentionality. First, the author outlines the approach of Thomas Aquinas, according to which the process of cognition consists in assimilating the intellect to the object of cognition. This theory insists that there is no difference between the form of a real object, thanks to which it exists, and the form of this object in the mind of the cognizing subject. Duns Scotus makes this picture more sophisticated when (...)
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  31. Can Pascal’s Wager Save Morality from Ockham’s Razor?Tobias Beardsley - 2021 - Philosophia 50 (2):405-424.
    One version of moral error theory maintains that the central problem with morality is an ontological commitment to irreducible normativity. This paper argues that this version of error theory ultimately depends on an appeal to Ockham’s Razor, and that Ockham’s Razor should not be applied to irreducible normativity. This is because the appeal to Ockham’s Razor always contains an intractable element of epistemic circularity; and if this circularity is not vicious, we can construct a sound argument for the existence of (...)
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  32. Ockham Algebras—An Urquhart Legacy.T. S. Blyth & H. J. Silva - 2021 - In Ivo Düntsch & Edwin Mares (eds.), Alasdair Urquhart on Nonclassical and Algebraic Logic and Complexity of Proofs. Springer Verlag. pp. 367-387.
    We highlight the fundamental influence that the work of Alasdair Urquhart has had in the area of distributive lattice-ordered algebras and in particular to the development of Ockham algebras, to which we attach some new results.
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  33. La liberté de la volonté dans la vision béatifique. Suárez critique d'Ockham.Valentin Braekman - 2021 - Lo Sguardo. Rivista di Filosofia 33 (2):227-245.
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  34. The Politics of William of Ockham in the Light of his Principles.Daniel Brooks - 2021 - Franciscan Studies 79 (1):133-164.
    In the most recent monograph on William of Ockham’s political writings, Takashi Shogimen rightly asserts that “there is no such thing as the ‘standard’ view of the Venerabilis Inceptor as a political thinker.”1 This could be said of many medieval writers, but the extent to which it is true of Ockham is noteworthy. Who else has been described as both “a constitutional liberal” and “an anarchist?”2 Was he a “meticulous deconstructor of church and polity” who “irredeemably undermined the foundations of (...)
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  35. Unimpeded volition.Bennett Gilbert - 2021 - Metascience 31 (1):137-139.
    Review of William of Ockham, Questions on Virtue, Goodness, and the Will, ed. and tr. Eric W. Hagedorn (Cambridge University Press, 2021), in Metascience (2021.
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  36. Unimpeded volition: Eric W. Hagedorn (trans. & ed.): William of Ockham: questions on goodness, virtue, and the will. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021, xxvii + 344pp, $110.00 HB. ISBN 9781108498388. [REVIEW]Bennett Gilbert - 2021 - Metascience 31 (1):137-139.
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  37. El concepto de scientia en la obra de Guillermo de Ockham.Jean Paul Martínez Zepeda - 2021 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 35:68-91.
    Resumen El concepto de scientia plasmado en la obra de Guillermo de Ockham considera, en primer lugar, la teoría de la suposición, la cual transforma la visión del conocimiento evidente a partir del examen de términos y proposiciones como signos de las cosas. En segundo lugar, el conocimiento intuitivo de los singulares, el cual posibilita la formulación de proposiciones necesarias que describen hechos y estados de cosas. En tercer lugar, una perspectiva lógica de scientia como conjuntos de proposiciones que configuran (...)
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  38. William Ockham on Craft: Knowing How to Build Houses on the Canadian Shield.Jenny Pelletier - 2021 - In Isabelle Chouinard, Zoe McConaughey, Aline Medeiros Ramos & Roxane Noël (eds.), Women’s Perspectives on Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 303-318.
    Towards the end of Aline Medeiros Ramos’s study of John Buridan on craft as an intellectual virtue, she mentions William Ockham in passing and points towards his conception of craft. In this paper, I take up her implicit invitation to explore that conception. I begin by reconstructing Ockham’s notion of craft, and then proceed to discuss three consequences of that conception: the moral neutrality of craft, the role of deliberation in craftwork, and the epistemic status of craft and the craftworker. (...)
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  39. Infinite Regress and the Hume-Edwards-Ockham Objection.Daniel Shields - 2021 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 95:141-151.
    One of the standard objections against the impossibility of infinite regress is associated with David Hume and Paul Edwards, but originates with William Ockham. They claim that in an infinite regress every member of the series is explained, and nothing is unexplained. Every member is explained by the one before it, and the series as a whole is nothing over and above its members, and so needs no cause of its own. Utilizing the well-known Thomistic distinction between essentially ordered and (...)
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  40. William of Ockham: questions on virtue, moral goodness, and the will. William - 2021 - Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Eric W. Hagedorn.
    William of Ockham (d. 1347) was among the most influential and the most notorious thinkers of the late Middle Ages. In the twenty-seven questions translated in this volume, most never before published in English, he considers a host of theological and philosophical issues, including the nature of virtue and vice, the relationship between the intellect and the will, the scope of human freedom, the possibility of God's creating a better world, the role of love and hatred in practical reasoning, whether (...)
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  41. Eternity and Print How Medieval Ideas of Time Influenced the Development of Mechanical Reproduction of Texts and Images.Bennett Gilbert - 2020 - Contributions to the History of Concepts 15 (1):1-21.
    The methods of intellectual history have not yet been applied to studying the invention of technology for printing texts and images ca. 1375–ca. 1450. One of the several conceptual developments in this period refl ecting the possibility of mechanical replication is a view of the relationship of eternity to durational time based on Gregory of Nyssa’s philosophy of time and William of Ockham’s. Th e article considers how changes in these ideas helped enable the conceptual possibilities of the dissemination of (...)
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  42. Présentation : du nominalisme d’Ockham à l’histoire de la philosophie selon Claude Panaccio.Claude Lafleur - 2020 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 76 (2):143-147.
  43. Ockham : la nature du concept.Claude Lafleur & Joanne Carrier - 2020 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 76 (2):281-305.
    The Questiones in Libros Phisicorum Aristotelis (Questions on the books of Aristotle’s Physics), putatively discussed in public at the Franciscan Studium of London by Ockham before leaving England for Avignon in the spring of 1324, opens with seven questions about the nature of the concept. Here are offered a French translation and an orthographic edition, with an intertextual correspondence table, of this De conceptu, which, massively, appears to have been “magistrally” compiled from the excursus of the Expositio in Prohemium libri (...)
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  44. Ockham : logique et universaux isagogiques.Claude Lafleur & Joanne Carrier - 2020 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 76 (2):197-223.
    As a general introduction to Ockham’s commentaries on logic, that of Porphyry and Aristotle, the Expositionis in libros artis logice Prohemium deals with the nature of this discipline, its subject, its utility, its specificity, and of its epistemological status. The new French translation offered here is accompanied by an annotated edition that reproduces the medieval spelling of Ockham’s Latin. The same goes for the new translation of the beginning of Ockham’s first logical commentary, the Expositio in librum Porphirii De predicabilibus, (...)
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  45. Ockham : mots, concepts et réalités : édition orthographique et traduction française de Guillelmi de Ockham Expositio in Prohemium libri Peryermenias Aristotelis.Claude Lafleur & Joanne Carrier - 2020 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 76 (2):229-272.
    Claude Lafleur et Joanne Carrier Suivant l’ordre traditionnel à son époque d’un cours sur la « Vieille Logique », ou Ars Vetus, Ockham, après avoir commenté l’Isagoge de Porphyre et les Catégories d’Aristote, en vient à son Expositio in librum Perihermenias Aristotelis, dont on offre ici une traduction française et une édition orthographique de la partie considérée alors comme le Proême, une partie divisée elle-même en trois parties — l’exégèse du Vénérable incepteur insistant très fortement sur le début de la (...)
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  46. Ockham : mots, concepts et réalités.Claude Lafleur & Joanne Carrier - 2020 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 76 (2):229-272.
    Following the traditional order in his time of a course on “Old Logic”, or Ars Vetus, Ockham, after commenting on Porphyry’s Isagoge and Aristotle’s Categories, comes to his Expositio in librum Perihermenias Aristotelis, of which is offered here a French translation and an orthographic edition of the part considered then as the Proem (chapter 1 of Bekker’s edition, 16a1-18, for us famous because of the “semiotic triangle” of the written, vocal and mental signs, in relation, taking into account the realities (...)
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  47. Ockham : logique et universaux isagogiques : édition orthographique et traduction française de Guillelmi de Ockham Expositionis in libros artis logice Prohemium (Proême de l’Exposé sur les livres de l’art de la logique) et Expositio in Prohemium libri Porphirii De predicabilibus.Claude Lafleur & Joanne Carrier - 2020 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 76 (2):197-223.
    Claude Lafleur et Joanne Carrier En tant qu’introduction générale aux commentaires d’Ockham sur la logique, celle de Porphyre et d’Aristote, l’Expositionis in libros artis logice Prohemium traite la nature de cette discipline, de son sujet, de son utilité, de sa spécificité et de son statut épistémologique. La nouvelle traduction française ici offerte est accompagnée d’une édition annotée qui restitue l’orthographe médiévale du latin d’Ockham. Il en va de même pour la nouvelle traduction du début du premier commentaire logique d’Ockham, l’Expositio (...)
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  48. Ockham : la nature du concept : édition orthographique et traduction française de Guillelmi de Ockham Questiones in libros Phisicorum Aristotelis, 1-7.Claude Lafleur & Joanne Carrier - 2020 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 76 (2):281-305.
    Les Questiones in libros Phisicorum Aristotelis, putativement discutées en public au Studium franciscain de Londres par Ockham avant son départ d’Angleterre pour Avignon au printemps 1324, s’ouvrent par sept questions sur la nature du concept. Sont ici offertes une traduction française et une édition orthographique, avec un tableau de correspondance intertextuelle, de ce De conceptu, qui, massivement, paraît avoir été « magistralement » compilé à partir de l’excursus de l’Expositio in Prohemium libri Peryermenias Aristotelis, aussi traduit et édité de la (...)
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  49. Reseña. La navaja de Ockham, una lectura lírica y filosófica.Nicolás Duque Naranjo - 2020 - Revista Filosofía Uis 20 (1):329-336.
    Reseña del libro En el principio existía el axioma de no contradicción (Hacia Guillermo de Ockham por la Literatura y la Filosofía) Andrés Felipe López (2019). Madrid: Editorial Verbum, S.L. 140 pp.
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  50. Thomas, Scotus, and Ockham on the Object of Hope.Thomas M. Osborne - 2020 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 87:1-26.
    Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham disagree over how and whether virtues are specified by their objects. For Thomas, habits and acts are specified by their formal objects. For instance, the object of theft is something that belongs to someone else, and more particularly theft is distinct from robbery because theft is the open taking of another’s good, whereas robbery is open and violent. A habit such as a virtue or a vice shares or takes the act’s (...)
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