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  1. Diskursethik als Maximenethik: Von der Prinzipienbegründung zur Handlungsorientierung.Micha H. Werner - 2003 - Würzburg, Germany: Königshausen & Neumann.
    The book introduces a conception of discourse ethics, an intersubjectivist version of Kantian ethics. Analyzing contributions from Jürgen Habermas, Karl-Otto Apel, Wolfgang Kuhlmann, Albrecht Wellmer, Robert Alexy, Klaus Günther, Rainer Forst, Marcel Niquet and others, it reconstructs critical discussions on the justification of the principle of morality (part I) and on the various proposals on how to apply it (part II). It defends an alternative model of how discourse ethics can provide guidance under non-ideal circumstances and avoid both arbitrariness and (...)
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  2. God* Does Not Exist: A Novel Logical Problem of Evil.P. X. Monaghan - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (2):181-195.
    I often tell my students that the only thing that is not controversial in philosophy is that everything else in it is controversial. While this might be a bit of an exaggeration, it does contain a kernel of truth, as many exaggerations do: philosophy is a highly contentious discipline. So it is remarkable the extent to which there is agreement in the philosophy of religion amongst theists, agnostics, and atheists alike that John Mackie’s argument for atheism is either invalid or (...)
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  3. A Critique of Some Recent Victim-Centered Theories of Nonconsequentialism.S. Matthew Liao & Christian Barry - 2020 - Law and Philosophy 39 (5):503-526.
    Recently, Gerhard Øverland and Alec Walen have developed novel and interesting theories of nonconsequentialism. Unlike other nonconsequentialist theories such as the Doctrine of Double Effect, each of their theories denies that an agent’s mental states are relevant for determining how stringent their moral reasons are against harming others. Instead, Øverland and Walen seek to distinguish morally between instances of harming in terms of the circumstances of the people who will be harmed, rather than in features of the agent doing the (...)
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  4. How Deontologists Can Be Moderate.Christa M. Johnson - 2020 - Journal of Value Inquiry 54 (2):227-243.
    Moderate deontologists hold that while it is wrong to kill an innocent person to save, say, five other individuals, it is indeed morally permissible to kill one if, say, millions of lives are at stake. A basic worry concerning the moderate’s position is whether the view boils down to mere philosophical wishful thinking. In permitting agents to ever kill an innocent, moderates require that agents treat persons as means, in opposition to traditional deontological motivations. Recently Tyler Cook argued that deontologists (...)
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  5. Qadi `Abdul-Jabbar al-Mu`tazili's Moral Theory.Hossein Atrak - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical-Theological Reseach 9 (33):53-96.
    Abstract Qadi `Abdul-Jabbar, although has come to be Known as a Mu`tazili theologian, can be certainly mentioned as a moral philosopher by attention to his ethical views in the theological books. The paper is going to present his ethical opinions concerning normative ethics and Meta-ethics. It shows that `Abdul-Jabbar is a rationalist moral philosopher, who considers reason as the origin of moral obligations, and as the means of evaluating the rightness and wrongfulness of actions. Moreover, he is an essentialist, that (...)
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  6. Gerald Gaus, The Order of Public Reason: A Theory of Freedom and Morality in a Diverse and Bounded World , Pp. Xx + 621. [REVIEW]Fabian Wendt - 2012 - Utilitas 24 (4):548-551.
  7. Recalcitrant Pluralism.Philip Stratton-Lake - unknown
    Here I argue that the best form of deontology is an ethic of prima facie duties, and that this form of deontology is especially resistant to any form of reduction to a single principle.
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  8. Recalcitrant Pluralism.Philip Stratton-Lake - 2011 - Ratio 24 (4):364-383.
    In this paper I argue that the best form of deontology is one understood in terms of prima facie duties. I outline how these duties are to be understood and show how they offer a plausible and elegant connection between the reason why we ought to do certain acts, the normative reasons we have to do these acts, the reason why moral agents will do them, and the reasons certain people have to resent someone who does not do them. I (...)
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  9. God's Command.John E. Hare - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    This work is an exploration of divine command theory, which is the theory that what makes something morally obligatory is that God commands it.
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  10. Divine Command Ethics: An Argument in Favor of the Command Over the Will Formulation.Fred Richard Jensen - 2003 - Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara
    Since the 1970s, contemporary ethical theories metaphysically grounded in the activities of God have enjoyed a resurgence of philosophical interest. These so-called "divine command" theories can be divided into two major formulations: command and will. Today, most of the notable "divine command" ethicists embrace the will formulation in preference to the command formulation. ;In this work I will defend the command formulation from some important attacks and argue that the will formulation suffers from such a fundamental and, I believe, serious (...)
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  11. Command and the Neural Causation of Behavior.Randolf Didomenico - 1988 - Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder
    The concept of command is central to motor control theories and explanations for the initiation of behavior patterns. As currently conceived, command is a process of individual command neurons that receive sensory and other integrative information and trigger the expression of behavioral acts. I review the theory and methods used to show the existence of neurons mediating command function according to a major approach, which I call the Command Neuron Experiment . The CNE claims that command neurons are the cause (...)
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  12. Law as "Act of Reason" and "Command".Fulvio Di Blasi - 2006 - Nova Et Vetera 4:515-528.
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  13. Lost Command: "Benito Cereno" Reconsidered.George Knox - 1959 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 40 (3):280.
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  14. A Relational Moral Theory: African Ethics in and Beyond the Continent.Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - Oxford University Press.
    _A Relational Moral Theory_ draws on neglected resources from the Global South and especially the African philosophical tradition to provide a new answer to a perennial philosophical question: what do all morally right actions have in common as distinct from wrong ones? Metz points out that the principles of utility and of respect for autonomy, the two rivals that have dominated western moral theory for the last two centuries, share an individualist premise. Once that common assumption is replaced by a (...)
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  15. Sidgwick on Consequentialism and Deontology: A Critique.Thomas Hurka - 2014 - Utilitas 26 (2):129-152.
    In The Methods of Ethics Henry Sidgwick argued against deontology and for consequentialism. More specifically, he stated four conditions for self-evident moral truth and argued that, whereas no deontological principles satisfy all four conditions, the principles that generate consequentialism do. This article argues that both his critique of deontology and his defence of consequentialism fail, largely for the same reason: that he did not clearly grasp the concept W. D. Ross later introduced of a prima facie duty or duty other (...)
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  16. A Modified Divine Command Theory of Ethical Wrongness.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1973 - In Thomas L. Carson & Paul K. Moser (eds.), Morality and the Good Life. Oup Usa.
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  17. Justice, Contestability, and Conceptions of the Good.I. Barry'S. Argument - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (3).
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  18. Understanding Peace Within Contemporary Moral Theory.Court Lewis - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (4):1049-1068.
    In this essay, I continue Nicholas Wolterstorff’s work of developing a rights-based theory of ethics called eirenéism, which maintains the good life only occurs when justice—as a moral state of affairs where agents enjoy the goods to which they have a right—is achieved. As a result, justice is eirenē (the Greek word for peace). In the process of developing eirenéism I explain how eirenē differs from other conceptions of peace, and I offer several interpretive arguments for how best to understand (...)
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  19. Divine Command.John E. Hare - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Divine Command defends the thesis that what makes something morally obligatory is that God commands it, and what makes something morally forbidden is that God forbids it. John E. Hare successfully defends a version of divine command theory, but also shows that there is considerable overlap with some versions of natural law theory. Hare engages with a number of Christian theologians, most especially Karl Barth, and extends into a discussion of divine command within Judaism and Islam. The work concludes by (...)
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  20. Divine Command Theory.Philip L. Quinn - 2000 - In Hugh LaFollette - (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Blackwell. pp. 53--73.
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  21. The Concept of a Divine Command.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1996 - In D. Z. Phillips (ed.), Religion and Morality. St. Martin's Press. pp. 59--80.
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  22. Some Suggestions for Divine Command Theorists.William Alston - 1990 - In M. Beaty (ed.), Christian Theism and the Problems of Philosophy. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 303--326.
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  23. Note on the Command Held by Seleukos, 323–321 B.C.Edwyn R. Bevan - 1900 - The Classical Review 14 (08):396-398.
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  24. African Conceptions of Human Dignity: Vitality and Community as the Ground of Human Rights.Thaddeus Metz - 2012 - Human Rights Review 13 (1):19-37.
    I seek to advance enquiry into the philosophical question of in virtue of what human beings have a dignity of the sort that grounds human rights. I first draw on values salient in sub-Saharan African moral thought to construct two theoretically promising conceptions of human dignity, one grounded on vitality, or liveliness, and the other on our communal nature. I then argue that the vitality conception cannot account for several human rights that we intuitively have, while the community conception can (...)
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  25. Are There Command Arguments?Gary A. Wedeking - 1970 - Analysis 30 (5):161 - 166.
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  26. There Are Command Sh-Inferences.Hector-Neri Castañeda - 1971 - Analysis 32 (1):13 - 19.
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  27. Utilitarianism and the Divine Command Theory.Edward Wierenga - 1984 - American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (4):311 - 318.
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  28. Divine Command Theories and the Appeal to Love.John Chandler - 1985 - American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (3):231 - 239.
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  29. What is Deontology?, Part One: Orthodox Viewsa Gerald F. Gaus.Gerald Gaus - unknown
    Current moral philosophy is often seen as essentially a debate between the two great traditions of consequentialism and deontology. Although there has been considerable work clarifying consequentialism, deontology is more often attacked or defended than analyzed. Just how we are to understand the very idea of a deontological ethic? We shall see that competing conceptions of deontology have been advanced in recent ethical thinking, leading to differences in classifying ethical theories. If we do not focus on implausible versions, the idea (...)
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  30. Daniel Kahneman, Ed Diener, and Norbert Schwarz , Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology , Pp. Xii + 593.Fred Feldman - 2006 - Utilitas 18 (2):192.
  31. Robert George , Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1996, Pp. X + 311.T. M. Wilkinson - 1999 - Utilitas 11 (1):134.
  32. A Non-Proportional Hybrid Moral Theory.Tim Mulgan - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (3):291.
    A common objection to consequentialism is that it makes unreasonable demands upon moral agents, by failing to allow agents to give special weight to their own personal projects and interests. A prominent recent response to this objection is that of Samuel Scheffler, who seeks to make room for moral agents by building agent-centred prerogatives into a consequentialist moral theory. In this paper, I present a new objection to Scheffler's account. I then sketch an improved prerogative, which avoids this objection by (...)
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  33. Review of Robert Myers Self-Governance and Cooperation. [REVIEW]Anthony Skelton - 2002 - Utilitas 14 (1):128-130.
    A critical review of Robert Myers Self-Governance and Cooperation.
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  34. Obligation and Rightness.W. D. Falk - 1945 - Philosophy 20 (76):129 - 147.
    Butler observes in the Preface to the Sermons that the subject of morals can be approached in two different ways: “One begins from enquiring into the abstract relations of things: the other from a matter of fact, namely what the particular nature of man is, its several parts, their economy or constitution; from whence it proceeds to determine what course of life it is, which is correspondent to his whole nature. In the former method the conclusion is expressed thus, that (...)
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  35. Scalar Properties, Binary Judgments.Larry Alexander - 2008 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (2):85–104.
    In the moral realm, our deontic judgments are usually (always?) binary. An act (or omission) is either morally forbidden or morally permissible. 1 Yet the determination of an act's deontic status frequently turns on the existence of properties that are matters of degree. In what follows I shall give several examples of binary moral judgments that turn on scalar properties, and I shall claim that these examples should puzzle us. How can the existence of a property to a specific degree (...)
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  36. Paul Rooney. Divine Command Morality. (Aldershot: Avebury, 1996.) Pp. 128. £32.50.B. A. - 1998 - Religious Studies 34 (2):231-234.
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  37. A Theory of Command Relations.Chris Barker & Geoffrey K. Pullum - 1990 - Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (1):1 - 34.
  38. Ross Harrison, Hobbes, Locke, and Confusion's Masterpiece (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), Pp. 281.Deborah Baumgold - 2005 - Utilitas 17 (3):348-349.
  39. Obligation and Moral Worth: Reflections on Prichard and Kant.Norman O. Dahl - 1986 - Philosophical Studies 50 (3):369 - 399.
  40. Reconsidering Mo Tzu on the Foundations of Morality.Kristopher Duda - 2001 - Asian Philosophy 11 (1):23 – 31.
    Dennis Ahern and David Soles raise substantial problems for the conventional interpretation of Mo Tzu as a utilitarian. Although they defend different interpretations, both scholars agree that Mo Tzu is committed to a divine command theory in some form, citing the same key passages where, supposedly, Mo Tzu explicitly endorses the divine command theory. In this paper, I defend the orthodox interpretation, insisting that Mo Tzu is a utilitarian. I show that the passages cited by Ahern and Soles do not (...)
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  41. Categorical Consistency in Ethics.Alan Gewirth - 1967 - Philosophical Quarterly 17 (69):289-299.
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  42. Two Sets of Concerns About Heath’s Pragmatic Theory of Convergence.Pablo Gilabert - 2005 - Dialogue 44 (2):383-390.
  43. The Recent Revival of Divine Command Ethics.Philip L. Quinn - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:345-365.
  44. The Non-Identity Fallacy: Harm, Probability and Another Look at Parfit’s Depletion Example.Melinda A. Roberts - 2007 - Utilitas 19 (3):267-311.
    The non-identity problem is really a collection of problems having distinct logical features. For that reason, non-identity problems can be typed. This article focuses on just one type of non-identity problem, the problem, which includes Derek Parfit's depletion example and many others. The can't-expect-better problem uses an assessment about the low probability of any particular person's coming into existence to reason that an earlier wrong act does not harm that person. This article argues that that line of reasoning is unusually (...)
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  45. Values and the Heart's Command.Bas C. Van Fraassen - 1973 - Journal of Philosophy 70 (1):5-19.
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Divine Command Theories
  1. Al-Ghazālī's Divine Command Theory.Shoaib Ahmed Malik - 2021 - Journal of Religious Ethics 49 (3):546-576.
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  2. The Psychopath Objection to Divine Command Theory.Matthew Alexander Flannagan - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 13 (3).
    : Recently, Erik Wielenberg has developed a novel objection to divine command meta-ethics. The objection that DCM "has the implausible implication that psychopaths have no moral obligations and hence their evil acts, no matter how evil, are morally permissible". This article criticizes Wielenberg's argument. Section 1 will expound Wielenberg's new "psychopath" argument in the context of the recent debate over the Promulgation Objection. Section 2 will discuss two ambiguities in the argument; in particular, Wielenberg’s formulation is ambiguous between whether Wielenberg (...)
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  3. Maitzen’s Objection From God’s Goodness.Philipp Kremers - forthcoming - Sophia:1-18.
    Stephen Maitzen argues that divine command metaethics must be mistaken because it is committed to the implausible assumption that the sentence ‘God is (morally) good’ is a tautology. In this article, I show that a charitable interpretation of R. M. Adams’ version of divine command metaethics is not committed to accept this assumption. I conclude that Maitzen’s objection merely manages to refute a strawman version of divine command metaethics.
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  4. Be a Good Person, Not That Theocratic Way.Pouya Lotfi Yazdi - manuscript
    In this article, first of all, I (Hereafter: the writer)1 will concur counterexampleobjection against divine command theory and present New Humanism as an example of it. In addition, the writer will argue if one imagines none of objections -for example the counterexample objection- does not work against divine command theory, and then, a theocratic government applies divine command theory, thus, the theocracy will struggle in a problem that the writer calls Inapplicability Problem Argument.
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  5. The Muʿtazila's Arguments Against Divine Command Theory.Hashem Morvarid - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    The Muʿtazilī theologians, particularly the later Imāmī ones, developed numerous interesting arguments against divine command theory. The arguments, however, have not received the attention they deserve. Some of the arguments have been discussed in passing, and some have not been dis-cussed at all. In this article, I aim to present and analyse the arguments. To that end, I first distinguish between different semantic, ontological, epistemological, and theological theses that were often conflated in the debate, and examine the logical relation among (...)
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