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Summary Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) is the most influential Christian philosopher and theologian of the Scholastic period. His influence is primarily due to his synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology, as well as the breadth and systematic rigor of his writings. He wrote extensively on philosophical theology, metaphysics, epistemology, human nature (including philosophy of mind) and ethics (including moral psychology, virtue ethics, and natural law theory). The wide-ranging appeal of his theories have inspired a variety of "Thomisms" throughout the 20th century, under such prefatory labels as "Existential," "Transcendental," "Phenomenological," and "Analytical." His philosophical system has been explicitly promoted as the foundation par excellence for Catholic theology by Pope Leo XIII and Pope John Paul II.  
Key works For a comprehensive collection of Aquinas's works (in Latin) see Opera Omnia. Aquinas's most significant writings are the voluminous Summa theologiae and Summa contra Gentiles. Among his philosophical writings are comprehensive commentaries on Aristotle's works, including Metaphysics, Physics, De anima, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, and Posterior Analytics. Extensive arguments on certain topics can be found in collections of Disputed Questions on subjects such as truth, virtue, evil, the soul, and the power of God. Shorter, yet philosophically impactful, treatises Aquinas wrote include On Being and Essence and On Kingship.
Introductions A classical introduction to Aquinas's overall philosophical thought is Gilson 1956. An excellent recent introductory text is Davies 1993. A more in-depth scholarly treatment of various themes in Aquinas's philosophical system is provided by Stump 2003.
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  1. Hirschfeld, Mary L. Aquinas and the Market: Towards a Humane Economy.Jovito Cariño - 2022 - Kritike 16 (1):197-199.
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  2. Commentary on Thomas Aquinas's Treatise on Happiness and Ultimate Purpose by J. Budziszewski, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2020, Pp. XXXVI + 666, £120.00, Hbk. [REVIEW]Dominic Ryan - 2022 - New Blackfriars 103 (1106):554-556.
    New Blackfriars, Volume 103, Issue 1106, Page 554-556, July 2022.
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  3. Thomas Aquinas and Contemplation by Rik Van Nieuwenhove, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2021, Pp. VIII + 220, £65.00, Hbk. [REVIEW]Mark Wynn - 2022 - New Blackfriars 103 (1106):556-558.
    New Blackfriars, Volume 103, Issue 1106, Page 556-558, July 2022.
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  4. Accommodating Ambiguity Within Aquinas’ Philosophy Of Truth.Catherine Nancekievill - 2022 - New Blackfriars 103 (1106):517-535.
    New Blackfriars, Volume 103, Issue 1106, Page 517-535, July 2022.
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  5. COVID-19, Camus, Aquinas, and Me.Raymond D. Boisvert - 2022 - The Pluralist 17 (2):54-58.
    early march 2020: i'm in a french village on the Mediterranean near the Spanish border. The outdoor marché, thronged, is active twice a week. The cafés are crowded. On my morning walk, I am buoyed by the sounds of schoolchildren. The village's only grocery, a small outlet of a major chain, is well-stocked.Mid-March: pandemic. "Non-essential" vendors are banned from the marché. The cafés are shuttered. The school is closed. The little store has depleted shelves. There is a mandate to stay (...)
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  6. Aquinas’s Theory of Goodness.Eleonore Stump - 2022 - The Monist 105 (3):321-336.
    The aim of this essay is to sketch the basic outline of Aquinas’s metaethics and its support for his virtue-based ethics. When Aquinas’s central metaethical thesis is combined with his theological views, especially his understanding of the doctrine of divine simplicity, then the theological interpretation of the central metaethical thesis constitutes the basis for a religious ethics that makes God essential to human morality but without tying morality to God’s will. The result is a metaphysically grounded, objective normative virtue ethics (...)
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  7. Aquinas\.Giulio di Basilio - 2021 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 88 (2):419-440.
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  8. Aquinas's Theory of Decision and its Aristotelian Origins.Giulio di Basilio - 2021 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 88 (2):419-440.
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  9. ¿Fue Diego de Deza un premolinista?David Torrijos Castrillejo - 2022 - Isidorianum 31 (1):41-74.
    Diego de Deza has been designed by Christian Pesch as a premolinist while Friedrich Stegmüller has stressed the alleged disagreement between his version of Thomism and the one professed by later Spanish theologians. This paper aims to revisit this interpretation of Deza’s doctrine of divine foreknowledge by showing its fundamental agreement with Domingo Báñez, especially in placing the divine free will as an ingredient of divine knowledge of created things. Moreover, Deza’s teaching about divine grace brings him quite close to (...)
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  10. Traditional Ethics Today. The Case of Thomas Aquinas.Angelo Campodonico - 2015 - In Elisa Grimi (ed.), Tradition as the Future of Innovation. Newcastle Upon Tyne, Regno Unito: pp. 139-154.
    This paper concerns an ethics of our medieval tradition (in particular good, happiness, natural law and virtue) and tries to show how to recover it, facing the problems of pluralism, freedom and scientific approach in modern and contemporary age. The author points out: - The central role of the desire for good and happiness and for goods adequate or inadequate to the openness of desire (particularly of the human person). Today we speak of the meaning of life. - The role (...)
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  11. Aquinas on Kinship and Caritas.Jesse Russell - forthcoming - New Blackfriars.
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  12. Can a Metaphysically Perfect God Have Moral Virtues and Duties? Re-Reading Aquinas.Agustín Echavarría - 2022 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 96 (3):381-402.
    Contemporary philosophers of religion usually depict God as a responsible moral agent with virtues and obligations. This picture seems to be incompatible with the metaphysically perfect being of classical theism. In this paper I will defend the claim, based on a reading of Thomas Aquinas’s thought, that there is no such incompatibility. I will present Aquinas’s arguments that show that we can attribute to God not only moral goodness in general, but also some moral virtues in a strict sense, such (...)
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  13. Interpreting Aquinas: Resources From Gadamer’s Hermeneutics.Matthew McWhorter - forthcoming - International Philosophical Quarterly.
  14. Matteo d'Acquasparta vs Tommaso d'Aquino. Ilemorfismo metafisico e immortalità dell'anima. [REVIEW]Simone Guidi - 2012 - la Cultura 3:531-539.
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  15. The Holy Spirit and Moral Action in Thomas Aquinas by Jack Mahoney Sj, Lexington Books/Fortress Academic, Lanham, 2021, Pp. VII + 186, £73.00, Hbk. [REVIEW]Nicholas Paul Crowe - 2022 - New Blackfriars 103 (1105):427-429.
    New Blackfriars, Volume 103, Issue 1105, Page 427-429, May 2022.
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  16. Aquinas, Original Sin, and the Challenge of Evolution by Daniel W. Houck, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2020, Pp. X + 284, £75.00, Hbk. [REVIEW]Simon Francis Gaine - 2022 - New Blackfriars 103 (1105):414-416.
    New Blackfriars, Volume 103, Issue 1105, Page 414-416, May 2022.
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  17. Aquinas on Faith, Reason, and Charity.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2022 - Routledge.
    This book offers a new reading of Aquinas' views on faith. The author argues that the theological nature of faith is crucial to Aquinas' thought, and that it gives rise to a peculiar and otherwise incomprehensible relationship with reason. The first part of the book examines various modern and contemporary accounts of the relationship between faith and reason in Aquinas' thought. The author shows that these accounts are unconvincing because they exhibit what he calls a Lockean view of faith and (...)
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  18. Thomas Aquinas and the Civil Economy Tradition: The Mediterranean Spirit of Capitalism.Paolo Santori - 2021 - Routledge.
    Delving into the history of economic thought, this book presents a picture of the Mediterranean spirit of capitalism, a tradition that has its protagonists in Thomas Aquinas and the eighteenth-century civil economy, and seeks to understand its presence and relevance for contemporary societies. The book argues that it is reductive to attribute to the 'Protestant ethic' the different formations of capitalism in the Western world. Instead, it is vital to acknowledge the differences in the ways in which the market is (...)
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  19. Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth: A New Conversation.Jeffrey Skaff - 2021 - Routledge.
    This book argues for substantial and pervasive convergence between Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth with regards to God's relation to history and to the Christocentric orientation of that history. In short, it contends that Thomas can affirm what Barth calls the humanity of God. The argument has great ecumenical potential, finding fundamental agreement between two of the most important figures in the Reformed and Roman Catholic traditions. It also contributes to contemporary theology by demonstrating the fruitfulness of exchanging metaphysical vocabularies (...)
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  20. Thomas Aquinas: The Basics.Franklin T. Harkins - 2020 - Routledge.
    "Thomas Aquinas: The Basics is an engaging introduction to the theology of arguably the greatest theologian and philosopher of the Middle Ages. The sophistication and complexity of his thought can be daunting for those approaching his work for the first time. Through this lively and accessible book, Harkins provides an entry point to understanding Aquinas's mature theological thought. As well as giving an overview of Aquinas's life and written works, this book examines Aquinas's understanding of: the nature and purpose of (...)
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  21. Andrés Ayala, IVE; The Radical Difference Between Aquinas and Kant: Human Understanding and the Agent Intellect in Aquinas. [REVIEW]Alberto Barattero - 2022 - The Incarnate Word 9 (1):173-176.
  22. Michael Dauphinais, Andrew Hofer, OP, and Roger W. Nutt (Editors); Thomas Aquinas and the Crisis of Christology. [REVIEW]Luis Prado - 2022 - The Incarnate Word 9 (1):177-181.
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  23. Roger Nutt and Michael Dauphinais (Editors); Thomas Aquinas, Biblical Theologian. [REVIEW]Fabio Schilereff - 2022 - The Incarnate Word 9 (1):182-185.
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  24. The Fabrian Vision of the Comparison of Being and Nothingness in Aquinas and Heidegger.Marcelo Navarro - 2022 - The Incarnate Word 9 (1):51-78.
    In this paper I follow Fabro’s analysis of “Dell’ente, dell’essere e del nulla” from the eighth chapter of his book Tomismo e Pensiero Moderno, and his explanation of essere and nulla in Heidegger and Aquinas. Remaining faithful to the author’s outline in said chapter, firstly, I highlight the essential topic of being and the openness to the Absolute in both, the Heideggerian and Thomistic metaphysical thought. Secondly, I consider the reduction of the object of metaphysics to the essence and the (...)
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  25. The Arguments of Aquinas: A Philosophical View.J. J. Macintosh - 2017 - Routledge.
    The Arguments of Aquinas is intended for readers with philosophical interests, who may not be specialists in medieval philosophy. Some think that a medieval saint must be, as such, wrong, dated, and boring; others feel that a saint, any saint, must be right, relevant, and inspirational. Both groups are likely to misread Aquinas, if indeed they read him at all. The works of great philosophers are products of their times, but that does not lessen their value for us. We profit (...)
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  26. The Politics of Praise: Naming God and Friendship in Aquinas and Derrida.William W. Young Iii - 2007 - Routledge.
    The Politics of Praise argues that the redemptive potential of naming God lies in how this event transforms friendship. It breaks new ground by tracing the connections between naming God and friendship in the work of Thomas Aquinas and Jacques Derrida. Advancing an innovative reading of Aquinas on the divine names, the book explores how Dionysius' mysticism shapes Aquinas' appropriation of Aristotle's ethics, then retraces how Derrida's reading of religion renders possible an alternative conception of friendship. These explorations lead to (...)
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  27. Aquinas on God: The 'Divine Science' of the Summa Theologiae.Rudi Te Velde - 2006 - Routledge.
    Aquinas on God presents an accessible exploration of Thomas Aquinas' conception of God. Focusing on the Summa theologiae - the work containing Aquinas' most systematic and complete exposition of the Christian doctrine of God - Rudi te Velde acquaints the reader with Aquinas' theological understanding of God and the metaphysical principles and propositions that underlie his project. Aquinas' conception of God is dealt with not as an isolated metaphysical doctrine, but from the perspective of his broad theological view which underlies (...)
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  28. Modernity and the Question of Hope: Some Perspectives Through Thomas Aquinas.Jovito Cariño - 2021 - Kritike 15 (3):40-63.
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  29. The Problem of Universals From the Scientific Point of View: Thomas Aquinas Should Be More Appreciated.Shiro Ishikawa - 2022 - Open Journal of Philosophy 12 (1):86-104.
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  30. 3. Two Forms of Negative Theology Explained Using Thomas Aquinas.Jozef Wissink - 2022 - In Ilse Bulhof & Laurens ten Kate (eds.), Flight of the Gods: Philosophical Perspectives on Negative Theology. Fordham University Press. pp. 100-120.
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  31. 10 Analogy and Meta Phor From Thomas Aquinas to Duns Scotus and Walter Burley.E. Jennifer Ashworth - 2013 - In Charles Bolyard & Rondo Keele (eds.), Later Medieval Metaphysics: Ontology, Language, and Logic. Fordham University Press. pp. 223-248.
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  32. Faith overcoming metaphysics: Gianni Vattimo and Thomas Aquinas on being.Victor Salas - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-15.
    This paper considers Gianni Vattimo’s rejection of metaphysical conceptions of being in favor of a hermeneutic ontology developed along the lines of ‘weak thought.’ I argue that Vattimo’s critique neglects an abiding pluralism within the very history of metaphysical thought itself; at least some metaphysical conceptions of being in that history do not fall prey to his critique. To establish my claim I turn to Thomas Aquinas, whose metaphysics is couched within a larger theological context and presents itself dynamically, thereby (...)
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  33. Computational Topic Models for Theological Investigations.Mark Graves - 2022 - Theology and Science 20 (1):69-84.
    Sallie McFague’s theological models construct a tensive relationship between conceptual structures and symbolic, metaphorical language to interpret the defining and elusive aspects of theological phenomena and loci. Computational models of language can extend and formalize the conceptual structures of theological models to develop computer-augmented interpretations of theological texts. Previously unclear is whether computational models can retain the tensive symbolism essential for theological investigation. I demonstrate affirmatively by constructing a computational topic model of the moral theology of Thomas Aquinas from Summa (...)
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  34. Can God Immediately Produce a Necessary Effect? Some Remarks on Gloria Frost’s Aquinas and Scotus on the Source of Contingency.Francesco Binotto - 2022 - Noctua 9 (1):79-103.
    This discussion note aims to call into question the first part of Gloria Frost’s article, Aquinas and Scotus on the Source of Contingency, devoted to Aquinas’s thought on the source of contingency in creation. I shall discuss three controversial claims that represent the key points of Frost’s interpretation of Aquinas’s account on contingency: with re spect to existence, every creature exists contingently on the grounds that no creature is necessarily willed by God; with respect to cause-and-effect relationship, only those effects (...)
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  35. Collapsing the Sacred and the Profane: Pan-Sacramental & Panentheistic Possibilities in Aquinas and Their Implications for Spirituality.Hans Gustafson - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
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  36. ‘We Know in Part’: How the Positive Apophaticism of Aquinas Transforms the Negative Theology of Pseudo-Dionysius.Alan Philip Darley - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
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  37. St. Thomas, Doctor Graecus?: A Rapprochement Between Irenaeus and Aquinas on Salvation.Daniel M. Garland - 2013 - Heythrop Journal.
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  38. Thomas Aquinas on the Vegetative Soul.Martin Pickavé - 2021 - In Fabrizio Baldassarri & Andreas Blank (eds.), Vegetative Powers: The Roots of Life in Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern Natural Philosophy. Springer. pp. 139-152.
    This short chapter explores Aquinas’s teaching on the vegetative soul. At first glance, Aquinas does not seem too interested in the vegetative soul, and this type of soul certainly takes last rank compared with the sensory and the intellectual souls, which are of more relevance when it comes to human perfection and morality. However, this does not mean that Aquinas’s teaching on the vegetative soul lacks sophistication. The chapter first examines why there is a need to posit a vegetative soul (...)
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  39. Knowledge of Oneself and of Others: Aquinas, Wittgenstein and Rembrandt☆.John Haldane - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  40. Thomas Aquinas, "Thomas Aquinas's Quodlibetal Questions." Trans. Turner Nevitt and Brian Davies.Christopher A. Bobier - 2022 - Philosophy in Review 42 (1):1-3.
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  41. Re‐Thinking Truth: Assessing Heidegger's Critique of Aquinas in Light of Vallicella's Critique of Heidegger.Jonathan Lyonhart - 2022 - Wiley: New Blackfriars 103 (1105):326-336.
    New Blackfriars, Volume 103, Issue 1105, Page 326-336, May 2022.
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  42. Thomas Aquinas, Pierre Rousselot, and the Performative Aesthetics of Contemplative Theology.Robert St Hilaire - 2013 - Wiley: The Heythrop Journal.
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  43. Reconciling the Teachings of Cyril of Alexandria and Thomas Aquinas on the Universal Headship of Christ.Daniel Lendman - 2019 - Wiley: The Heythrop Journal.
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  44. The Raison D’Etre of Sacramental Character: Rereading Aquinas’s Treatment of Sacramental Character in Light of ‘64.7’.Michael R. De Salvo - 2019 - Wiley: The Heythrop Journal.
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  45. Thomas Aquinas and the Complex Simplicity of the Rational Soul.Jeremy W. Skrzypek - 2022 - Wiley: European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4).
    European Journal of Philosophy, Volume 29, Issue 4, Page 900-917, December 2021.
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  46. Aquinas’s Third Way.Gaven Kerr - 2022 - Maynooth Philosophical Papers 11:1-19.
    Aquinas’s Five Ways are often presented as standard cosmological arguments for God’s existence. They tend to be anthologized and presented independently of the metaphysical thought that informs them. Thus, when Aquinas deploys technical metaphysical issues in his articulation of the ways, the contemporary reader may have trouble interpreting them correctly. This is particularly the case when Aquinas uses terminology familiar to a contemporary reader that nevertheless should be understood within the context of Aquinas’s own metaphysical thought. The Third Way is (...)
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  47. Thomas Aquinas and Hervaeus Natalis on First and Second Intentionality.Fabrizio Amerini - 2022 - Topoi 41 (1):159-169.
    Thomas Aquinas and Hervaeus Natalis share a correlational theory of intentionality. When I cognize a thing, I am in a real relation with the thing cognized and at the same time the thing is in a relation of reason with me. Hervaeus coins the term “intentionality” to designate precisely this relation of reason. First and second intentionality express two stages of this relation. First intentionality refers to the relation that a thing has to the mind, while second intentionality indicates the (...)
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  48. Heidegger and Aquinas: An Essay on Overcoming Metaphysics.John D. Caputo - 2020 - Fordham University Press.
  49. The Early Modern Rationalists and the Substantial Form: From Natural Philosophy to Metaphysics.Valtteri Viljanen - manuscript
    This paper argues that, contrary to what one might think, early modern rationalism displays an increasing and well-grounded sensitivity to certain metaphysical questions the substantial form was designed to answer – despite the fact that the notion itself was in such disrepute, and emphatically banished from natural philosophy. This main thesis is established by examining the thought of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz through the framework constituted by what have been designated as the two aspects, metaphysical and physical, of the substantial (...)
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  50. Pre-Liberal Political Philosophy: Rawls and Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas.Daniel A. Dombrowski - 2022 - Brill.
    John Rawls is the most influential 20th century political philosopher, but critics have complained about the ahistorical character of his approach. The purpose of this book is to argue that these critics are, at best, only half correct._Pre-Liberal Political Philosophy_ concentrates on four pre-liberal thinkers who are major figures in the history of philosophy and who are surprisingly formative in the development of Rawls’s mature political philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas.
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