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  1. On IQ and other sciencey descriptions of minds.Devin Sanchez Curry - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    Philosophers of mind (from eliminative materialists to psychofunctionalists to interpretivists) generally assume that a normative ideal delimits which mental phenomena exist (though they disagree about how to characterize the ideal in question). This assumption is dubious. A comprehensive ontology of mind includes some mental phenomena that are neither (a) explanatorily fecund posits in any branch of cognitive science that aims to unveil the mechanistic structure of cognitive systems nor (b) ideal (nor even progressively closer to ideal) posits in any given (...)
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  2. Intelligence Socialism.Carlotta Pavese - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind.
    From artistic performances in the visual arts and in music to motor control in gymnastics, from tool use to chess and language, humans excel in a variety of skills. On the plausible assumption that skillful behavior is a visible manifestation of intelligence, a theory of intelligence—whether human or not—should be informed by a theory of skills. More controversial is the question as to whether, in order to theorize about intelligence, we should study certain skills in particular. My target is the (...)
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  3. Perspectives on Spiritual Intelligence.Marius Dorobantu & Fraser Watts (eds.) - 2024 - Routledge.
    The topic of intelligence involves questions that cut deep into ultimate concerns and human identity, and the study of intelligence is ideal ground for dialogue between science and religion. This volume investigates the notion of spiritual intelligence (SI) from a variety of perspectives, bringing together contributions from theology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, linguistics, psychology, biology, and cognitive science. It considers a definition of SI as "processing things differently, not processing different things" and aims to describe SI in naturalistic terms. (...)
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  4. Participatory Spiritual Intelligence: A Theological Perspective.Jordan Joseph Wales - 2024 - In Marius Dorobantu & Fraser Watts (eds.), Perspectives on Spiritual Intelligence. Routledge.
    Influenced by both 17th-century philosophical developments and 21st-century computer science, intelligence today is often defined as “the ability to solve problems.” Drawing on early and medieval Christian thinkers, a theological perspective affords a richer view. For these writers, intellegentia is more than receptive or oriented towards problem-solving. It participates both in the world and in God, by coming to know the world as good not first in how it may serve us but in its kaleidoscopic refraction of the one divine (...)
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  5. Intelligence and scientific expertise.Pierluigi Barrotta & Roberto Gronda - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-19.
    In this article we develop a pragmatist-inspired notion of intelligence that should lead to a better understanding of the notion of scientific expertise. The notion of intelligence is drawn from Dewey and is therefore used here in its technical sense. Our thesis is that scientific knowledge is a necessary but not sufficient condition for scientific expertise; intelligence should also be added. Conceived of as the capacity to apply general knowledge to particulars, we reach the conclusion that intelligence is a necessary (...)
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  6. Intelligent Behaviour.Dimitri Coelho Mollo - 2022 - Erkenntnis 89 (2):705-721.
    The notion of intelligence is relevant to several fields of research, including cognitive and comparative psychology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and philosophy, among others. However, there is little agreement within and across these fields on how to characterise and explain intelligence. I put forward a behavioural, operational characterisation of intelligence that can play an integrative role in the sciences of intelligence, as well as preserve the distinctive explanatory value of the notion, setting it apart from the related concepts of cognition and (...)
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  7. Theories of Independent Intelligences as a Lakatosian Research Program.Jonathan Egeland - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (5):2441-2456.
    Theories of different and independent types of intelligence constitute a Lakatosian research program, as they all claim that human intelligence has a multidimensional structure, consisting of independent cognitive abilities, and that human intelligence is not characterized by any general ability that is of greater practical importance, or that has greater predictive validity, than other, more specialized cognitive abilities. This paper argues that the independent intelligences research program is degenerating, since it has not led to novel, empirically corroborated predictions. However, despite (...)
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  8. L'intelligenza tra natura e cultura.Davide Serpico - 2022 - Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.
    ENG: We all have our own ideas about what it is like to be intelligent. Indeed, even the experts disagree on this topic. This has generated diverse theories on the nature of intelligence and its genetic and environmental bases. Many scientific and philosophical questions thus remain unaddressed: is it possible to characterize intelligence in scientific terms? What do IQ tests measure? How is intelligence influenced by genetics, epigenetics, and the environment? What are the ethical and social implications of the research (...)
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  9. Intelligence as Accurate Prediction.Trond A. Tjøstheim & Andreas Stephens - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):475-499.
    This paper argues that intelligence can be approximated by the ability to produce accurate predictions. It is further argued that general intelligence can be approximated by context dependent predictive abilities combined with the ability to use working memory to abstract away contextual information. The flexibility associated with general intelligence can be understood as the ability to use selective attention to focus on specific aspects of sensory impressions to identify patterns, which can then be used to predict events in novel situations (...)
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  10. Intelligence as Accurate Prediction.Trond A. Tjøstheim & Andreas Stephens - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (2):475-499.
    This paper argues that intelligence can be approximated by the ability to produce accurate predictions. It is further argued that general intelligence can be approximated by context dependent predictive abilities combined with the ability to use working memory to abstract away contextual information. The flexibility associated with general intelligence can be understood as the ability to use selective attention to focus on specific aspects of sensory impressions to identify patterns, which can then be used to predict events in novel situations (...)
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  11. Intelligence involves intensionality: An explanatory issue for radical enactivism (again).Silvano Zipoli Caiani - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-23.
    How can we explain the intelligence of behaviors? Radical enactivists maintain that intelligent behaviors can be explained without involving the attribution of representational contents. In this paper, I challenge this view by providing arguments showing that the intelligence of a behavior is reliant on ways of presenting the relative purpose and the environment in which that behavior is performed. This involves that a behavior is intelligent only if intesional contents are ascribed to the related agent. Importantly, this conclusion also concerns (...)
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  12. g as bridge model.Devin Sanchez Curry - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (5):1067-1078.
    Psychometric g—a statistical factor capturing intercorrelations between scores on different IQ tests—is of theoretical interest despite being a low-fidelity model of both folk psychological intelligence and its cognitive/neural underpinnings. Psychometric g idealizes away from those aspects of cognitive/neural mechanisms that are not explanatory of the relevant variety of folk psychological intelligence, and it idealizes away from those varieties of folk psychological intelligence that are not generated by the relevant cognitive/neural substrate. In this manner, g constitutes a high-fidelity bridge model of (...)
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  13. Street smarts.Devin Sanchez Curry - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):161-180.
    A pluralistic approach to folk psychology must countenance the evaluative, regulatory, predictive, and explanatory roles played by attributions of intelligence in social practices across cultures. Building off of the work of the psychologist Robert Sternberg and the philosophers Gilbert Ryle and Daniel Dennett, I argue that a relativistic interpretivism best accounts for the many varieties of intelligence that emerge from folk discourse. To be intelligent is to be comparatively good at solving intellectual problems that an interpreter deems worth solving.
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  14. Strong continuity of life and mind: the free energy framework, predictive processing and ecological psychology.Matthew Sims - 2021 - Dissertation, University of Edinburgh
    Located at the intersection of philosophy of cognitive science and philosophy of biology, this thesis aims to provide a novel approach to understanding the strong continuity between life and mind. This thesis applies the Free Energy Framework, predictive processing and the conceptual apparatus from ecological psychology to reveal different manners in which the organizational processes and principles underlying life have been enriched so as to result in cognitive processes. By using these anticipatory cognitive frameworks this thesis unveils different forms of (...)
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  15. Morphing Intelligence: From IQ Measurement to Artificial Brains. [REVIEW]Ekin Erkan - 2020 - Chiasma 6 (1):248-260.
    In her seminal text, What Should We Do With Our Brain? (2008), Catherine Malabou gestured towards neuroplasticity to upend Bergson's famous parallel of the brain as a "central telephonic exchange," whereby the function of the brain is simply that of a node where perceptions get in touch with motor mechanisms, the brain as an instrument limited to the transmission and divisions of movements. Drawing from the history of cybernetics one can trace how Bergson's 'telephonic exchange' prefigures the neural 'cybernetic metaphor.' (...)
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  16. Catherine Malabou. Morphing Intelligence: From IQ Measurement to Artificial Brains. Trans. Carolyn Shread. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019. 198 pp. [REVIEW]N. Katherine Hayles - 2020 - Critical Inquiry 46 (3):706-707.
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  17. Intelligence and Intelligibility: Cross-Cultural Studies of Human Cognitive Experience.G. E. R. Lloyd - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    G. E. R. Lloyd considers how we can resolve the tension that exists between an appreciation of the cognitive capacities that all humans share, and a recognition of the great variety in their manifestations in different individuals and groups--while avoiding the imposition of prior Western assumptions and concepts.
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  18. Introduction to Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Skill and Expertise.Carlotta Pavese - 2020 - In Ellen Fridland & Carlotta Pavese (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Skill and Expertise. New York, NY: Routledge.
    The diverse and breathtaking intelligence of the human animal is often embodied in skills. People, throughout their lifetimes, acquire and refine a vast number of skills. And there seems to be no upper limit to the creativity and beauty expressed by them. Think, for instance, of Olympic gymnastics: the amount of strength, flexibility, and control required to perform even a simple beam routine amazes, startles, and delights. In addition to the sheer beauty of skill, performances at the pinnacle of expertise (...)
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  19. How to count biological minds: symbiosis, the free energy principle, and reciprocal multiscale integration.Matthew Sims - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):2157-2179.
    The notion of a physiological individuals has been developed and applied in the philosophy of biology to understand symbiosis, an understanding of which is key to theorising about the major transition in evolution from multi-organismality to multi-cellularity. The paper begins by asking what such symbiotic individuals can help to reveal about a possible transition in the evolution of cognition. Such a transition marks the movement from cooperating individual biological cognizers to a functionally integrated cognizing unit. Somewhere along the way, did (...)
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  20. Agency, Intelligence and Reasons in Animals.Hans-Johann Https://Orcidorg909X Glock - 2019 - Philosophy 94 (4):645-671.
    What kind of activity are non-human animals capable of? A venerable tradition insists that lack of language confines them to ‘mere behaviour’. This article engages with this ‘lingualism’ by developing a positive, bottom-up case for the possibility of animal agency. Higher animals cannot just act, they can act intelligently, rationally, intentionally and for reasons. In developing this case I draw on the interplay of behaviour, cognition and conation, the unduly neglected notion of intelligence and its connection to rationality, the need (...)
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  21. A New Theory of Stupidity.Sacha Golob - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (4):562-580.
    This article advances a new analysis of stupidity as a distinctive form of cognitive failing. Section 1 outlines some problems in explicating this notion and suggests some desiderata. Section 2 sketches an existing model of stupidity, found in Kant and Flaubert, which serves as a foil for my own view. In section 3, I introduce my theory: I analyse stupidity as form of conceptual self-hampering, characterised by a specific aetiology and with a range of deleterious effects. In section 4, I (...)
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  22. Intuition, intelligence, data compression.Jens Kipper - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 27):6469-6489.
    The main goal of my paper is to argue that data compression is a necessary condition for intelligence. One key motivation for this proposal stems from a paradox about intuition and intelligence. For the purposes of this paper, it will be useful to consider playing board games—such as chess and Go—as a paradigm of problem solving and cognition, and computer programs as a model of human cognition. I first describe the basic components of computer programs that play board games, namely (...)
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  23. The intelligent reflex.John W. Krakauer - 2019 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (5):822-830.
    ABSTRACTThe seeming distinction between motor and cognitive skills has hinged on the fact that the former are automatic and non-propositional, whereas the latter are slow and deliberative. Here, the physiological and behavioral phenomenon of long-latency stretch reflexes is used to show that “knowing-that” can be incorporated into “knowing-how,” either immediately or through learning. The experimental demonstration that slow computations can, with practice, be cached for fast retrieval, without the need for re-computation, dissolves the intellectualist/anti-intellectualist distinction: All complex human tasks, at (...)
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  24. Morphing Intelligence: From Iq Measurement to Artificial Brains.Catherine Malabou - 2019 - Columbia University Press.
    Acclaimed philosopher Catherine Malabou traces the modern metamorphoses of intelligence, seeking to understand how neurobiological and neurotechnological advances have transformed our present-day view. She emphasizes the intertwined, networked relationships among the biological, the technological, and the symbolic.
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  25. Implications for virtue epistemology from psychological science: Intelligence as an interactionist virtue.Mark Alfano & Gus Skorburg - 2018 - In Heather Battaly (ed.), Handbook of Virtue Epistemology. Routledge. pp. 433-445.
    This chapter aims to expand the body of empirical literature considered relevant to virtue theory beyond the burned-over districts that are the situationist challenges to virtue ethics and epistemology. We thus raise a rather simple-sounding question: why doesn’t virtue epistemology have an account of intelligence? In the first section, we sketch the history and present state of the person-situation debate to argue for the importance of an interactionist framework in bringing psychological research in general, and intelligence research in particular, to (...)
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  26. Implications for virtue epistemology from psychological science: Intelligence as an interactionist virtue.Mark Alfano & Joshua August Skorburg - 2018 - In Heather Battaly (ed.), Handbook of Virtue Epistemology. Routledge. pp. 433-445.
    This chapter aims to expand the body of empirical literature considered relevant to virtue theory beyond the burned-over districts that are the situationist challenges to virtue ethics and epistemology. We thus raise a rather simple-sounding question: why doesn’t virtue epistemology have an account of intelligence? In the first section, we sketch the history and present state of the person-situation debate to argue for the importance of an interactionist framework in bringing psychological research in general, and intelligence research in particular, to (...)
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  27. XV—Intelligent Capacities.Victoria McGeer - 2018 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 118 (3):347–376.
    In The Concept of Mind, Gilbert Ryle argued that a more sophisticated understanding of the dispositional nature of ‘intelligent capacities’ could bolster philosophical resistance to the tempting view that the human mind is possessed of metaphysically ‘occult’ powers and properties. This temptation is powerful in the context of accounting for the special qualities of responsible agency. Incompatibilists indulge the temptation; compatibilists resist it, using a variety of strategies. One recent strategy, reminiscent of Ryle’s, is to exploit a more sophisticated understanding (...)
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  28. Mandevillian Intelligence: From Individual Vice to Collective Virtue.Paul Smart - 2018 - In Carter Joseph Adam, Clark Andy, Kallestrup Jesper, Palermos Spyridon Orestis & Pritchard Duncan (eds.), Socially-Extended Knowledge. Oxford University Press. pp. 253–274.
    Mandevillian intelligence is a specific form of collective intelligence in which individual cognitive shortcomings, limitations and biases play a positive functional role in yielding various forms of collective cognitive success. When this idea is transposed to the epistemological domain, mandevillian intelligence emerges as the idea that individual forms of intellectual vice may, on occasion, support the epistemic performance of some form of multi-agent ensemble, such as a socio-epistemic system, a collective doxastic agent, or an epistemic group agent. As a specific (...)
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  29. Mandevillian Intelligence.Paul R. Smart - 2018 - Synthese 195 (9):4169-4200.
    Mandevillian intelligence is a specific form of collective intelligence in which individual cognitive vices are seen to play a positive functional role in yielding collective forms of cognitive success. The present paper introduces the concept of mandevillian intelligence and reviews a number of strands of empirical research that help to shed light on the phenomenon. The paper also attempts to highlight the value of the concept of mandevillian intelligence from a philosophical, scientific and engineering perspective. Inasmuch as we accept the (...)
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  30. What kind of kind is intelligence?Serpico Davide - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 31 (2):232-252.
    The model of human intelligence that is most widely adopted derives from psychometrics and behavioral genetics. This standard approach conceives intelligence as a general cognitive ability that is genetically highly heritable and describable using quantitative traits analysis. The paper analyzes intelligence within the debate on natural kinds and contends that the general intelligence conceptualization does not carve psychological nature at its joints. Moreover, I argue that this model assumes an essentialist perspective. As an alternative, I consider an HPC theory of (...)
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  31. Intellectual Skill and the Rylean Regress.Brian Weatherson - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):370-386.
    Intelligent activity requires the use of various intellectual skills. While these skills are connected to knowledge, they should not be identified with knowledge. There are realistic examples where the skills in question come apart from knowledge. That is, there are realistic cases of knowledge without skill, and of skill without knowledge. Whether a person is intelligent depends, in part, on whether they have these skills. Whether a particular action is intelligent depends, in part, on whether it was produced by an (...)
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  32. The Development of Ideas on Computable Intelligence.Yinsheng Zhang - 2017 - Journal of Human Cognition 1 (1):97-108.
    This paper sums up the fundamental features of intelligence through the common features stated by various definitions of "intelligence": Intelligence is the ability of achieving systematic goals (functions) of brain and nerve system through selecting, and artificial intelligence or machine intelligence is an imitation of life intelligence or a replication of features and functions. Based on the definition mentioned above, this paper discusses and summarizes the development routes of ideas on computable intelligence, including Godel's "universal recursive function", the computation activities (...)
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  33. The Epistemology of Stupidity.Pascal Engel - 2016 - In Miguel Ángel Fernández Vargas (ed.), Performance Epistemology: Foundations and Applications. New York, NY: Oxford University Press UK. pp. 196-223.
    This chapter analyzes stupidity as a problem for epistemology. Its proper home belongs to virtue epistemology, as a specific epistemic vice, which has to be studied along the lines of both reliabilist virtue epistemology and of responsibilist virtue epistemology. The author distinguishes between two kinds of stupidity: stupidity proper and foolishness. The former is a defect in the competence of an agent, as well as in the performance of judgment, and it is generally studied as a failure of rationality along (...)
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  34. Transcendental Stupidity.Tano Posteraro - 2016 - Symposium 20 (2):1-21.
    The activity of thinking has been traditionally set against the risk of error and its concomitants: inconsistency, incoherence, the false. Philosophy pursues and protects the truth; such is its mission statement. But this is, for Deleuze, an inadequate conception that gives us the image of a thought so weak, so thin and impoverished, that everything happens as if from the outside. What, asks Deleuze, of stupidity? How are we to account for it transcendentally? In his attempt at an answer, Deleuze (...)
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  35. Who made clever Hans stupid?Vinciane Despret - 2015 - Angelaki 20 (2):77-85.
    The case of Clever Hans is one of the most notorious episodes in the history of animal psychology. The “Clever Hans effect” has since become the name of a cardinal scientific sin, the experimenter effect by which researchers inadvertently give their subjects the answers to their questions. Yet this discrediting accusation is often overstated, and in need of a careful differentiation. In this section from Vinciane Despret's book Hans she digs through the files to reconsider this famous horse and his (...)
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  36. Handbook of Intelligence: Evolutionary Theory, Historical Perspective, and Current Concepts.Sam Goldstein, Jack A. Naglieri & Dana Princiotta (eds.) - 2015 - New York, NY: Imprint: Springer.
    Numerous functions, cognitive skills, and behaviors are associated with intelligence, yet decades of research has yielded little consensus on its definition. Emerging from often conflicting studies is the provocative idea that intelligence evolved as an adaptation humans needed to keep up with - and survive in - challenging new environments. The Handbook of Intelligence addresses a broad range of issues relating to our cognitive and linguistic past. It is the first full-length volume to place intelligence in an evolutionary/cultural framework, tracing (...)
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  37. Society of knowledges as space of development of intellect of personality.G. Moskalyk - 2015 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 8:38-46.
    Purpose. In the article the author analyzes the history of the formation of the concept of "knowledge society", stressed the ambiguity of the category "knowledge". We consider the views of various researchers on topics studied question, their difference and contradiction, analyzed the degree of research scholars of the subject. The author of the article pays attention to the integrity and consistency – logical properties of the educational process. The concept of "resources", "intellectual resources". Proven strategic resources of building a "knowledge (...)
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  38. Society of knowledges as space of development of intellect of personality.G. Moskalyk - 2015 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 8:38-46.
    Purpose. In the article the author analyzes the history of the formation of the concept of "knowledge society", stressed the ambiguity of the category "knowledge". We consider the views of various researchers on topics studied question, their difference and contradiction, analyzed the degree of research scholars of the subject. The author of the article pays attention to the integrity and consistency – logical properties of the educational process. The concept of "resources", "intellectual resources". Proven strategic resources of building a "knowledge (...)
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  39. Stereotype threat and intellectual virtue.Mark Alfano - 2014 - In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155-74.
    For decades, intelligence and achievement tests have registered significant differences between people of different races, ethnicities, classes, and genders. We argue that most of these differences are explained not as reflections of differences in the distribution of intellectual virtues but as evidence for the metacognitive mediation of the intellectual virtues. For example, in the United States, blacks typically score worse than whites on tests of mathematics. This might lead one to think that fewer blacks possess the relevant intellectual virtues, or (...)
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  40. Skillful Coping: Essays on the Phenomenology of Everyday Perception and Action.Hubert L. Dreyfus (ed.) - 2014 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    For fifty years Hubert Dreyfus has done pioneering work which brings phenomenology and existentialism to bear on the philosophical and scientific study of the mind. This is a selection of his most influential essays, developing his critique of the representational model of the mind in analytical philosophy of mind and mainstream cognitive science.
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  41. Play Intelligence: From Iq to Piq.James W. Findlay - 2014 - Upa.
    Play Intelligence: From IQ to PIQ challenges the very heart of our modern science with a radical, if not explosive, hypothesis that human intelligence is playing. If we dare but live this radical theory, we could solve the most challenging problems facing humanity today and have fun while doing so.
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  42. Eugenics and IQ testing.Aida Roige - 2014 - Eugenics Archives.
    Intelligence, genius and mental ability were a cluster of traits that received much attention in eugenics discourse. Intelligence was regarded as one of the good qualities superior men possessed, in turn beneficial for society as a whole. On the other hand, the socially problematic or unproductive were identified as being of inferior mental quality: “feeble-minded”. By and large, eugenicists thought that (1) intelligence was a unitary psychological trait that could be measured, being quantified as an intelligence quotient (IQ); (2) intelligence (...)
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  43. Rational and irrational thought: The thinking that IQ tests miss.Keith E. Stanovich - 2009 - Scientific American Mind 20 (6):34-39.
  44. The vitality of stupidity.René ten Bos - 2007 - Social Epistemology 21 (2):139 – 150.
    It is argued that the focus within organization studies on wisdom is one-sided in the sense that it ignores stupidity, wisdom's little stepbrother. Too often it is simply taken for granted that an increase in wisdom will lead to a decrease in stupidity. The problem with this assumption is that it is philosophically uninformed. Stupidity and wisdom stand in a deeply paradoxical relationship, which has been studied by philosophers at least since the Stoics. Some recent contributions to this endless debate (...)
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  45. Towards a theory of intelligence beyond G.James R. Flynn - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):132-134.
    Brain physiology and IQ gains over time both show that various cognitive skills, such as on-the-spot problem solving and arithmetic reasoning, are functionally independent, despite being bundled up in the correlational matrix called g. We need a theory of intelligence that treats the physiology and sociology of intelligence as having integrity equal to the psychology of individual differences. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  46. Belief-Desire Coherence.Stephen David Petersen - 2003 - Dissertation, University of Michigan
    Broadly construed, this dissertation addresses a question central to normative epistemology: "what makes for good thinking?" My answer is a computational, internal, pragmatic, coherence epistemology. I call it, somewhat incompletely and inaccurately, "belief-desire coherence". It is designed to draw from progress in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology. ;Probably the standard philosophical answer to "what makes for good thinking?" is a variation on "thinking directed toward the truth." I save the bulk of my arguments against this traditional alethic approach for the (...)
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  47. The Encyclopaedia of Stupidity.Matthijs van Boxsel - 2003 - Reaktion.
    Matthijs van Boxsel believes that no one is intelligent enough to understand their own stupidity. In The Encyclopædia of Stupidity he shows how stupidity manifests itself in all areas, in everyone, at all times, proposing that stupidity is the foundation of our civilization. In short sections with such titles as ‘The Blunderers’ Club’, ‘Fools in Hell’, ‘Genealogy of Idiots’, and ‘The Aesthetics of the Empty Gesture’, stupidity is analysed on the basis of fairy tales, cartoons, triumphal arches, garden architecture, Baroque (...)
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  48. Ken Richardson, the making of intelligence. Maps of the mind. New York: Columbia university press, 2000. Pp. VIII+210. Isbn 0-231-12004-4. $24.95. [REVIEW]R. G. A. Dolby - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (2):213-250.
  49. Intelligence without representation – Merleau-Ponty’s critique of mental representation.Hubert L. Dreyfus - 2002 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1 (4):367-83.
    Existential phenomenologists hold that the two most basic forms of intelligent behavior, learning, and skillful action, can be described and explained without recourse to mind or brain representations. This claim is expressed in two central notions in Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception: the intentional arc and the tendency to achieve a maximal grip. The intentional arc names the tight connection between body and world, such that, as the active body acquires skills, those skills are “stored”, not as representations in the mind, (...)
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  50. Intelligence without representation – Merleau-ponty's critique of mental representation the relevance of phenomenology to scientific explanation.Hubert L. Dreyfus - 2002 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1 (4):367-383.
    Existential phenomenologists hold that the two most basic forms of intelligent behavior, learning, and skillful action, can be described and explained without recourse to mind or brain representations. This claim is expressed in two central notions in Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception: the intentional arc and the tendency to achieve a maximal grip. The intentional arc names the tight connection between body and world, such that, as the active body acquires skills, those skills are stored, not as representations in the mind, (...)
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