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  1. Two-Dimensional Time.Michael Kowalik - manuscript
    Philosophical views about the logical structure of time are typically divided between proponents of A and B theories, based on McTaggart's A and B series. Drawing on Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology, I develop and defend McTaggart's thesis that the C series and the A series working together give a consistent description of temporal experience, provided that the two series are treated as distinct dimensions internal to time. In the proposed two-dimensional model, the C series expresses a nesting order of the (...)
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  2. The Apparent Nature of Relative Simultaneity.Andrew Wutke - manuscript
    This paper presents the proof of the apparent nature of relative simultaneity originally derived from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR). The proof does not challenge the validity of the STR but uncovers fundamental and widespread error in understanding of practical implications of Lorentz transformations. It is demonstrated that more than a century long debates generally miss the point. This results in counterintuitive claims of coexisting multiple time realities by mere equivalence of equal clock indications and simultaneity. Such claims have (...)
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  3. Knowledge-of-own-factivity, the definition of surprise, and a solution to the Surprise Examination paradox.Alessandro Aldini, Samuel Allen Alexander & Pierluigi Graziani - forthcoming - CIFMA 2022.
    Fitch's Paradox and the Paradox of the Knower both make use of the Factivity Principle. The latter also makes use of a second principle, namely the Knowledge-of-Factivity Principle. Both the principle of factivity and the knowledge thereof have been the subject of various discussions, often in conjunction with a third principle known as Closure. In this paper, we examine the well-known Surprise Examination paradox considering both the principles on which this paradox rests and some formal characterisations of the surprise notion, (...)
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  4. Temporal interpretation of monadic intuitionistic quantifiers.Guram Bezhanishvili & Luca Carai - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-24.
    We show that monadic intuitionistic quantifiers admit the following temporal interpretation: “always in the future” and “sometime in the past”. It is well known that Prior’s intuitionistic modal logic ${\sf MIPC}$ axiomatizes the monadic fragment of the intuitionistic predicate logic, and that ${\sf MIPC}$ is translated fully and faithfully into the monadic fragment ${\sf MS4}$ of the predicate ${\sf S4}$ via the Gödel translation. To realize the temporal interpretation mentioned above, we introduce a new tense extension ${\sf TS4}$ of ${\sf (...)
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  5. L. Farinas and E. ORLOWSKA, Preface 115 P. WOLPER, The tableau method for temporal logic: an over-view 119 M. MICHEL, Computation of temporal operators 137. [REVIEW]L. Farinas del Cerro - forthcoming - Logique Et Analyse.
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  6. Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present Logic.K. Gan-Krzywoszyńska & P. Leśniewski - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-7.
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  7. Meyer’s Struggle with Presentism or How We Can Understand the Debate between Presentism and Eternalism.Jerzy Gołosz - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    The paper consists of two parts. The first critically analyses Meyer’s [2005] version of the triviality objection to presentism (according to which, presentism is either trivial or untenable), and tries to show that his argument is untenable because – contrary to what he claimed – he did not take into account the entire possible spectrum of interpretations of the presentist’s thesis. In the second, positive part of the paper, it is shown that a leading form of tensed theory of time (...)
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  8. Possibility Semantics.Wesley H. Holliday - forthcoming - In Melvin Fitting (ed.), Selected Topics from Contemporary Logics. London: College Publications.
    In traditional semantics for classical logic and its extensions, such as modal logic, propositions are interpreted as subsets of a set, as in discrete duality, or as clopen sets of a Stone space, as in topological duality. A point in such a set can be viewed as a "possible world," with the key property of a world being primeness—a world makes a disjunction true only if it makes one of the disjuncts true—which classically implies totality—for each proposition, a world either (...)
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  9. Syntactic Proofs for Yablo’s Paradoxes in Temporal Logic.Ahmad Karimi - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    Temporal logic is of importance in theoretical computer science for its application in formal verification, to state requirements of hardware or software systems. Linear temporal logic is an appropriate logical environment to formalize Yablo’s paradox which is seemingly non-self-referential and basically has a sequential structure. We give a brief review of Yablo’s paradox and its various versions. Formalization of these paradoxes yields some theorems in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) for which we give syntactic proofs using an appropriate axiomatization of LTL.
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  10. Temporal logic.Temporal Logic - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  11. Permanence vs. termination: a logical analysis.Matteo Pascucci & Claudio E. A. Pizzi - forthcoming - Logique Et Analyse.
    The present article is devoted to a logical inquiry on the notions of permanence and termination, which play a central role in many areas of temporal reasoning. In the first part, we introduce a bimodal framework to represent these notions and provide a syntactic and semantic comparison with a monomodal framework representing the notion of future necessity. In the second part, we focus on the problem of defining synonymous logical systems over the two frameworks; as an example, we provide an (...)
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  12. Jerzy Łoś Positional Calculus and the Origin of Temporal Logic.Marcin Tkaczyk & Tomasz Jarmużek - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
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  13. Discrete Duality for Nelson Algebras with Tense Operators.Aldo V. Figallo, Gustavo Pelaitay & Jonathan Sarmiento - 2023 - Studia Logica 111 (1):1-19.
    In this paper, we continue with the study of tense operators on Nelson algebras (Figallo et al. in Studia Logica 109(2):285–312, 2021, Studia Logica 110(1):241–263, 2022). We define the variety of algebras, which we call tense Nelson D-algebras, as a natural extension of tense De Morgan algebras (Figallo and Pelaitay in Logic J IGPL 22(2):255–267, 2014). In particular, we give a discrete duality for these algebras. To do this, we will extend the representation theorems for Nelson algebras given in Sendlewski (...)
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  14. Computational complexity of hybrid interval temporal logics.Przemysław Andrzej Wałęga - 2023 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 174 (1):103165.
  15. Loop-Check Specification for a Sequent Calculus of Temporal Logic.Romas Alonderis, Regimantas Pliuškevičius, Aida Pliuškevičienė & Haroldas Giedra - 2022 - Studia Logica 110 (6):1507-1536.
    In our previous work we have introduced loop-type sequent calculi for propositional linear discrete tense logic and proved that these calculi are sound and complete. Decision procedures using the calculi have been constructed for the considered logic. In the present paper we restrict ourselves to the logic with the unary temporal operators “next” and “henceforth always”. Proof-theory of the sequent calculus of this logic is considered, focusing on loop specification in backward proof-search. We describe cyclic sequents and prove that any (...)
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  16. Branching time and doomsday.Giacomo Andreoletti - 2022 - Ratio 35 (2):79-90.
    Branching time is a popular theory of time that is intended to account for the openness of the future. Generally, branching-time models the openness of the future by positing a multiplicity of concrete alternative futures mirroring all the possible ways the future could unfold. A distinction is drawn in the literature among branching-time theories: those that make use of moment-based structures and those that employ history-based ones. In this paper, I introduce and discuss a particular kind of openness relative to (...)
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  17. Complete Intuitionistic Temporal Logics for Topological Dynamics.Joseph Boudou, Martín Diéguez & David Fernández-Duque - 2022 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 87 (3):995-1022.
    The language of linear temporal logic can be interpreted on the class of dynamic topological systems, giving rise to the intuitionistic temporal logic ${\sf ITL}^{\sf c}_{\Diamond \forall }$, recently shown to be decidable by Fernández-Duque. In this article we axiomatize this logic, some fragments, and prove completeness for several familiar spaces.
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  18. In Search of Modal Hypodoxes using Paradox Hypodox Duality.Peter Eldridge-Smith - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (5):2457-2476.
    The concept of hypodox is dual to the concept of paradox. Whereas a paradox is incompatibly overdetermined, a hypodox is underdetermined. Indeed, many particular paradoxes have dual hypodoxes. So, naively the dual of Russell’s Paradox is whether the set of all sets that are members of themselves is self-membered. The dual of the Liar Paradox is the Truth-teller, and a hypodoxical dual of the Heterological paradox is whether ‘autological’ is autological. I provide some analysis of the duality and I search (...)
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  19. Measuring Inconsistency in Some Logics with Tense Operators.John Grant - 2022 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 63 (3):415-440.
    This paper starts the systematic study of inconsistency measures for propositional logics enriched with operators involving time. We use Prior’s operators for tense logic: H, G, P, and F; however, we apply different semantics to them. We define two logics. The first one, ATPL, allows formulas with the application of any of the four operators any number of times to propositional logic formulas. The semantics is given in terms of TPL structures. We then show how to measure the inconsistency of (...)
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  20. A separation theorem for discrete-time interval temporal logic.Dimitar P. Guelev & Ben Moszkowski - 2022 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 32 (1):28-54.
    Gabbay's separation theorem about linear temporal logic with past has proved to be one of the most useful theoretical results in temporal logic. In this paper, we establish an analogous statement a...
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  21. Revising System Specifications in Temporal Logic.Paulo T. Guerra & Renata Wassermann - 2022 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 31 (4):591-618.
    Although formal system verification has been around for many years, little attention was given to the case where the specification of the system has to be changed. This may occur due to a failure in capturing the clients’ requirements or due to some change in the domain (think for example of banking systems that have to adapt to different taxes being imposed). We are interested in having methods not only to verify properties, but also to suggest how the system model (...)
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  22. Temporal Logic of Minkowski Spacetime.Robin Hirsch & Brett McLean - 2022 - In Ivo Düntsch & Edwin Mares (eds.), Alasdair Urquhart on Nonclassical and Algebraic Logic and Complexity of Proofs. Springer Verlag. pp. 389-409.
    We present the proof that the temporal logic of two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime is decidable, PSPACE-complete. The proof is based on a type of two-dimensional mosaic. Then, we present the modification of the proof so as to work for slower-than-light signals. Finally, a subframe of the slower-than-light Minkowski frame is used to prove the new result that the temporal logic of real intervals with during as the accessibility relation is also PSPACE-complete.
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  23. Satisfiability, Lattices, Temporal Logic and Constraint Logic Programming on Intervals.André Vellino - 2022 - In Ivo Düntsch & Edwin Mares (eds.), Alasdair Urquhart on Nonclassical and Algebraic Logic and Complexity of Proofs. Springer Verlag. pp. 521-536.
    This essay narrates some of the influences that Alasdair Urquhart has had on computer science at the intersection of automated theorem proving, temporal logic and lattice theory—topics that have no obvious relationship to one another. I illustrate this by showing how Allen’s temporal relations are represented in a system for constraint logic programming over intervals and how the combination of a linear-resolution theorem prover and an interval constraint satisfaction system are connected via a lattice-theoretical semantic model. I also speculate on (...)
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  24. Non-classical Comparative Logic I: Standard Categorical Logic–from SLe to IFLe.Amer Amikhteh & Seyed Ahmad Mirsanei - 2021 - Logical Studies 12 (1):1-24.
    n this paper, a non-classical axiomatic system was introduced to classify all moods of Aristotelian syllogisms, in addition to the axiom "Every a is an a" and the bilateral rules of obversion of E and O propositions. This system consists of only 2 definitions, 2 axioms, 1 rule of a premise, and moods of Barbara and Datisi. By adding first-degree propositional negation to this system, we prove that the square of opposition holds without using many of the other rules of (...)
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  25. The future ain’t what it used to be: Strengthening the case for mutable futurism.Giacomo Andreoletti & Giuseppe Spolaore - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10569-10585.
    This paper explores mutable futurism, the view according to which the future can literally change—that is, it can happen that a future time t changes from containing an event E to lacking it. Mutable futurism has received little attention so far, and the details and implications of the view are underexplored in the literature. For instance, it currently lacks a precise metaphysical model and a formal semantics. Although we do not endorse mutable futurism, our goal here is to strengthen the (...)
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  26. An Algebraic Study of Tense Operators on Nelson Algebras.A. V. Figallo, G. Pelaitay & J. Sarmiento - 2021 - Studia Logica 109 (2):285-312.
    Ewald considered tense operators G, H, F and P on intuitionistic propositional calculus and constructed an intuitionistic tense logic system called IKt. In 2014, Figallo and Pelaitay introduced the variety IKt of IKt-algebras and proved that the IKt system has IKt-algebras as algebraic counterpart. In this paper, we introduce and study the variety of tense Nelson algebras. First, we give some examples and we prove some properties. Next, we associate an IKt-algebra to each tense Nelson algebras. This result allowed us (...)
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  27. Credible Futures.Andrea Iacona & Samuele Iaquinto - 2021 - Synthese 199:10953-10968.
    This paper articulates in formal terms a crucial distinction concerning future contingents, the distinction between what is true about the future and what is reasonable to believe about the future. Its key idea is that the branching structures that have been used so far to model truth can be employed to define an epistemic property, credibility, which we take to be closely related to knowledge and assertibility, and which is ultimately reducible to probability. As a result, two kinds of claims (...)
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  28. Discrete Linear Temporal Logic with Knowing-Value Operator.Kaiyang Lin - 2021 - In Sujata Ghosh & Thomas Icard (eds.), Logic, Rationality, and Interaction: 8th International Workshop, Lori 2021, Xi’an, China, October 16–18, 2021, Proceedings. Springer Verlag. pp. 141-148.
    In epistemic logic we are not only interested in the propositional knowledge expressed by “knowing that” operators, but also care about other types of knowledge used in natural language. In [1], Plaza proposed the “knowing value” operators and gave the complete axiomatization for the logic of knowledge with nonrigid designators. Moreover, in [2] Halpern and colleagues holds that, when analyzing a system in terms of knowledge, not only is the current state of knowledge of the agents in the system relevant, (...)
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  29. A Framework for Intuitionistic Grammar Logics.Tim Lyon - 2021 - In Pietro Baroni, Christoph Benzmüller & Yὶ N. Wang (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 93413 Cham, Germany: pp. 495-503.
    We generalize intuitionistic tense logics to the multi-modal case by placing grammar logics on an intuitionistic footing. We provide axiomatizations for a class of base intuitionistic grammar logics as well as provide axiomatizations for extensions with combinations of seriality axioms and what we call "intuitionistic path axioms". We show that each axiomatization is sound and complete with completeness being shown via a typical canonical model construction.
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  30. Social Bot Detection as a Temporal Logic Model Checking Problem.Mina Young Pedersen, Marija Slavkovik & Sonja Smets - 2021 - In Sujata Ghosh & Thomas Icard (eds.), Logic, Rationality, and Interaction: 8th International Workshop, Lori 2021, Xi’an, China, October 16–18, 2021, Proceedings. Springer Verlag. pp. 158-173.
    Software-controlled bots, also called social bots, are computer programs that act like human users on social media platforms. Recent work on detection of social bots is dominated by machine learning approaches. In this paper we explore bot detection as a model checking problem. We introduce Temporal Network Logic which we use to specify social networks where agents can post and follow each other. In this logic we formalize different types of social bot behavior. These are formulas that are satisfied in (...)
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  31. Philosophy of Time: A Contemporary Introduction.Sean Enda Power - 2021 - Routledge.
    As a growing area of research, the philosophy of time is increasingly relevant to different areas of philosophy and even other disciplines. This book describes and evaluates the most important debates in philosophy of time, under several subject areas: metaphysics, epistemology, physics, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, cognitive science, rationality, and art. -/- Questions this book investigates include: Can we know what time really is? Is time possible, especially given modern physics? Must there be time because we cannot think (...)
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  32. Tense Logic and Ontology of Time.Avril Styrman - 2021 - Emilio M. Sanfilippo Et Al, Eds., Proceedings of FOUST 2021: 5th Workshop on Foundational Ontology, Held at JOWO 2021: Episode VII The Bolzano Summer of Knowledge, September 11–18, 2021, Bolzano, Italy, CEURWS, Vol. 2969, 2021.
    This work aims to make tense logic a more robust tool for ontologists, philosophers, knowledge engineers and programmers by outlining a fusion of tense logic and ontology of time. In order to make tense logic better understandable, the central formal primitives of standard tense logic are derived as theorems from an informal and intuitive ontology of time. In order to make formulation of temporal propositions easier, temporal operators that were introduced by Georg Henrik von Wright are developed, and mapped to (...)
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  33. The Open Future: Why Future Contingents Are All False.Patrick Todd - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This book launches a sustained defense of a radical interpretation of the doctrine of the open future. Patrick Todd argues that all claims about undetermined aspects of the future are simply false.
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  34. Future Contingents and the Logic of Temporal Omniscience.Patrick Todd & Brian Rabern - 2021 - Noûs 55 (1):102-127.
    At least since Aristotle’s famous 'sea-battle' passages in On Interpretation 9, some substantial minority of philosophers has been attracted to the doctrine of the open future--the doctrine that future contingent statements are not true. But, prima facie, such views seem inconsistent with the following intuition: if something has happened, then (looking back) it was the case that it would happen. How can it be that, looking forwards, it isn’t true that there will be a sea battle, while also being true (...)
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  35. On the relation between modality and tense.Fabrice Correia & Sven Rosenkranz - 2020 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 63 (6):586-604.
    ABSTRACT We critically review two extant paradigms for understanding the systematic interaction between modality and tense, as well as their respective modifications designed to do justice to the contingency of time’s structure and composition. We show that on either type of theory, as well as their respective modifications, some principles prove logically valid whose truth might sensibly be questioned on metaphysical grounds. These considerations lead us to devise a more general logical framework that allows accommodation of those metaphysical views that (...)
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  36. The Formalities of Temporaryism without Presentness.Fabrice Correia & Sven Rosenkranz - 2020 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 61 (2):181-202.
    Temporaryism—the view that not always everything always exists—comes in two main versions: presentism and expansionism (aka the growing block theory of time). Both versions of the view are commonly formulated using the notion of being present, which we, among others, find problematic. Expansionism is also sometimes accused of requiring extraordinary conceptual tools for its formulation. In this paper, we put forward systematic characterizations of presentism and expansionism which involve neither the notion of being present nor unfamiliar conceptual tools. These characterizations (...)
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  37. Temporal location of events in language and (non) persistence of the past.Fabio Del Prete - 2020 - Critical Hermeneutics 4 (II):25-68.
    The article reviews some analyses of temporal language in logical approaches to natural language semantics. It considers some asymmetries between past and future, manifested in language, which motivate the “standard view” of the non-reversibility of time and the persistence of the past. It concludes with a puzzle about the changing past which challenges the standard view.
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  38. Diamonds are Forever.Cian Dorr & Jeremy Goodman - 2020 - Noûs 54 (3):632-665.
    We defend the thesis that every necessarily true proposition is always true. Since not every proposition that is always true is necessarily true, our thesis is at odds with theories of modality and time, such as those of Kit Fine and David Kaplan, which posit a fundamental symmetry between modal and tense operators. According to such theories, just as it is a contingent matter what is true at a given time, it is likewise a temporary matter what is true at (...)
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  39. The Invisible Thin Red Line.Giuliano Torrengo & Samuele Iaquinto - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101:354-382.
    The aim of this paper is to argue that the adoption of an unrestricted principle of bivalence is compatible with a metaphysics that (i) denies that the future is real, (ii) adopts nomological indeterminism, and (iii) exploits a branching structure to provide a semantics for future contingent claims. To this end, we elaborate what we call Flow Fragmentalism, a view inspired by Kit Fine (2005)’s non-standard tense realism, according to which reality is divided up into maximally coherent collections of tensed (...)
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  40. A Formal Framework for Future Contingents.Tero Tulenheimo - 2020 - Filosofiska Notiser 7 (1):79-136.
    In this article, I present a formal semantic framework that renders explicit how to reconcile the condition that a proposition about a contingent future event is true at a moment t0 with the idea that at t0, this proposition is ‘truth-maker indeterminate’: a state of affairs making it true will obtain later on, though no such state of affairs obtains at t0. The semantics I formulate employs ‘open temporal models’. They represent the passage of time by a specific component termed (...)
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  41. The Truth of Future Contingents: An Analysis of Truth-Maker Indeterminacy.Tero Tulenheimo - 2020 - Filosofiska Notiser 7 (1):53-77.
    I argue that the semantics of sentences expressing future contingent propositions is best viewed as being based on a clear distinction between a time at which a proposition is true and a time at which a state of affairs that makes it true gets actualized. That a prediction is true here and now means that its truth-maker gets actualized later. This is not to say that if a contingent proposition p concerning the future is true at t, it acquires the (...)
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  42. Back to the actual future.Jacek Wawer & Alex Malpass - 2020 - Synthese 197 (5):2193-2213.
    The purpose of the paper is to rethink the role of actuality in the branching model of possibilities. We investigate the idea that the model should be enriched with an additional factor—the so-called Thin Red Line—which is supposed to represent the single possible course of events that gets actualized in time. We believe that this idea was often misconceived which prompted some unfortunate reactions. On the one hand, it suggested problematic semantic models of future tense and and on the other, (...)
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  43. Proof vs Provability: On Brouwer’s Time Problem.Palle Yourgrau - 2020 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (2):140-153.
    Is a mathematical theorem proved because provable, or provable because proved? If Brouwer’s intuitionism is accepted, we’re committed, it seems, to the latter, which is highly problematic. Or so I will argue. This and other consequences of Brouwer’s attempt to found mathematics on the intuition of a move of time have heretofore been insufficiently appreciated. Whereas the mathematical anomalies of intuitionism have received enormous attention, too little time, I’ll try to show, has been devoted to some of the temporal anomalies (...)
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  44. Fatalism and Future Contingents.Giacomo Andreoletti - 2019 - Analytic Philosophy 60 (3):1-14.
    In this paper I address issues related to the problem of future contingents and the metaphysical doctrine of fatalism. Two classical responses to the problem of future contingents are the third truth value view and the all-false view. According to the former, future contingents take a third truth value which goes beyond truth and falsity. According to the latter, they are all false. I here illustrate and discuss two ways to respectively argue for those two views. Both ways are similar (...)
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  45. Complete additivity and modal incompleteness.Wesley H. Holliday & Tadeusz Litak - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic 12 (3):487-535.
    In this article, we tell a story about incompleteness in modal logic. The story weaves together an article of van Benthem, “Syntactic aspects of modal incompleteness theorems,” and a longstanding open question: whether every normal modal logic can be characterized by a class of completely additive modal algebras, or as we call them, ${\cal V}$-baos. Using a first-order reformulation of the property of complete additivity, we prove that the modal logic that starred in van Benthem’s article resolves the open question (...)
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  46. Cut elimination in hypersequent calculus for some logics of linear time.Andrzej Indrzejczak - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic 12 (4):806-822.
    This is a sequel article to [10] where a hypersequent calculus for some temporal logics of linear frames includingKt4.3and its extensions for dense and serial flow of time was investigated in detail. A distinctive feature of this approach is that hypersequents are noncommutative, i.e., they are finite lists of sequents in contrast to other hypersequent approaches using sets or multisets. Such a system in [10] was proved to be cut-free HC formalization of respective logics by means of semantical argument. In (...)
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  47. Fibring Epistemic and Temporal Logics.Krzysztof Aleksander Krawczyk - 2019 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 29 (1):195.
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  48. The Mereotopology of Time.Claudio Mazzola - 2019 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 60 (2):215-252.
    Mereotopology is the discipline obtained from combining topology with the formal study of parts and their relation to wholes, or mereology. This article develops a mereotopological theory of time, illustrating how different temporal topologies can be effectively discriminated on this basis. Specifically, we demonstrate how the three principal types of temporal models—namely, the linear ones, the forking ones, and the circular ones—can be characterized by differently combining two sole mereotopological constraints: one to denote the absence of closed loops, and the (...)
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  49. First-Order Definability of Transition Structures.Antje Rumberg & Alberto Zanardo - 2019 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 28 (3):459-488.
    The transition semantics presented in Rumberg (J Log Lang Inf 25(1):77–108, 2016a) constitutes a fine-grained framework for modeling the interrelation of modality and time in branching time structures. In that framework, sentences of the transition language L_t are evaluated on transition structures at pairs consisting of a moment and a set of transitions. In this paper, we provide a class of first-order definable Kripke structures that preserves L_t-validity w.r.t. transition structures. As a consequence, for a certain fragment of L_t, validity (...)
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  50. Now there will be trouble.Giuseppe Spolaore & Fabio Del Prete - 2019 - In Patrick Blackburn, Peter Ohrstrom & Per Hasle (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Time: Further Themes from Prior. Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag.
    The paper considers sentences in which “now” occurs in initial position and shows that the meaning they convey differs from the meaning of sentences that are otherwise identical except for “now” occurring in final position. We argue that the occurrence of “now” in initial position triggers a particular kind of modal reading for the sentence to which the adverb is prefixed. A general notion of modal forcing is proposed to provide a uniform account of this kind of reading. Armed with (...)
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