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  1. Spinoza on Conatus, Inertia and the Impossibility of Self-Destruction.F. Buyse - manuscript
    Suicide or self-destruction means in ordinary language “the act of killing oneself deliberately” (intentionally or on purpose). Indeed, that’s what we read in the Oxford dictionary and the Oxford dictionary of philosophy , which seems to be confirmed by the etymology of the term “suicide”, a term introduced around mid-17th century deduced from the modern Latin suicidium, ‘act of suicide’. Traditionally, suicide was regarded as immoral, irreligious and illegal in Western culture. However, during the 17th century this Christian view started (...)
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  2. Striving (Conatus).Valtteri Viljanen - manuscript
    The entry on striving (conatus) for the Cambridge Spinoza Lexicon, edited by Karolina Hübner and Justin Steinberg. This is the October 2021 draft; please do not quote, but comments are very welcome.
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  3. The Force of Existence. Looking for Spinoza in Heidegger.Kasper Lysemose - 2020 - Sophia 59 (1):139-172.
    In the perhaps most decisive reopening of philosophy in the twentieth century, Heidegger presented an existential analytic. This can be viewed as the highly complex analysis of one simple action: being-there. In the paper at hand, a Spinozist interpretation of this action is proposed. This implies a shift in the Aristotelian conceptuality, which, to a large extent, informs Heidegger’s analysis. The action of being-there is not a movement from potentiality to actuality. It is a force of existence. However, this force (...)
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  4. Nietzsches Wiederholung Spinozas. Ein problemgeschichtlicher Bezug der Konzepte des conatus und des Willens zur Macht.Timon Boehm - 2017 - Nietzsche Studien 46 (1):28-57.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Nietzsche-Studien Jahrgang: 46 Heft: 1 Seiten: 28-57.
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  5. Raison, passions et conatus chez Spinoza.Juan-Vicente Cortés-Cuadra - 2017 - Revue des Sciences Philosophiques Et Théologiques 101 (3):405.
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  6. A Spinozistic Model of Moral Education.Johan Dahlbeck - 2017 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 36 (5):533-550.
    Spinoza’s claim that self-preservation is the foundation of virtue makes for the point of departure of this philosophical investigation into what a Spinozistic model of moral education might look like. It is argued that Spinoza’s metaphysics places constraints on moral education insofar as an educational account would be affected by Spinoza’s denial of the objectivity of moral knowledge, his denial of the existence of free will, and of moral responsibility. This article discusses these challenges in some detail, seeking to construe (...)
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  7. Reply to Nadler: Spinoza and the Metaphysics of Suicide.John Grey - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (2):380-388.
    Steven Nadler has argued that Spinoza can, should, and does allow for the possibility of suicide committed as a free and rational action. Given that the conatus is a striving for perfection, Nadler argues, there are cases in which reason guides a person to end her life based on the principle of preferring the lesser evil. If so, Spinoza’s disparaging statements about suicide are intended to apply only to some cases, whereas in others he would grant that suicide is dictated (...)
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  8. Spinoza and the Power of Reason.Michael LeBuffe - 2017 - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Cambridge Critical Guide to Spinoza’s Ethics. Cambridge: pp. 304 - 319.
  9. Is Spinoza’s Theory of Finite Mind Coherent? – Death, Affectivity and Epistemology in the Ethics.Oliver Istvan Toth - 2017 - The Concept of Affectivity in Early Modern Philosophy.
    In this paper I examine the question whether Spinoza can account for the necessity of death. I argue that he cannot because within his ethical intellectualist system the subject cannot understand the cause of her death, since by understanding it renders it harmless. Then, I argue that Spinoza could not solve this difficulties because of deeper commitments of his system. At the end I draw a historical parallel to the problem from medieval philosophy.
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  10. Before the Conatus Doctrine: Spinoza’s Correspondence with Willem van Blijenbergh.Andrea Sangiacomo - 2016 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 98 (2):144-168.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie Jahrgang: 98 Heft: 2 Seiten: 144-168.
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  11. Affect, Desire, and Judgement in Spinoza's Account of Motivation.Justin Steinberg - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (1):67-87.
    Two priority problems frustrate our understanding of Spinoza on desire [cupiditas]. The first problem concerns the relationship between desire and the other two primary affects, joy [laetitia] and sadness [tristitia]. Desire seems to be the oddball of this troika, not only because, contrary to the very definition of an affect, desires do not themselves consist in changes in one's power of acting, but also because desire seems at once more and less basic than joy and sadness. The second problem concerns (...)
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  12. L’éthique narrative selon Paul Ricoeur : une passerelle entre l’éthique spinoziste et les éthiques du care.Éric Delassus - 2015 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 10 (3):149-167.
    Éric Delassus | : Selon Fabienne Brugère, un point de rencontre existe entre l’éthique spinoziste et les éthiques du care, le care pouvant être envisagé comme une réactualisation du conatus spinoziste. Cet article vise à démontrer que cette convergence peut s’établir à partir d’une éthique narrative inspirée de la pensée de Paul Ricoeur. Cela concerne principalement la perception que l’on peut avoir de soi en tant que corps et esprit, dans la mesure où l’esprit est défini par Baruch Spinoza comme (...)
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  13. Fixing Descartes: Ethical Intellectualism in Spinoza's Early Writings.Andrea Sangiacomo - 2015 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (3):338-361.
    This paper aims at reconstructing the ethical issues raised by Spinoza's early Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect. Specifically, I argue that Spinoza takes issue with Descartes’ epistemology in order to support a form of “ethical intellectualism” in which knowledge is envisaged as both necessary and sufficient to reach the supreme good. First, I reconstruct how Descartes exploits the distinction between truth and certainty in his Discourse on the Method. On the one hand, this distinction acts as the basis (...)
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  14. Theory of Conatus.Valtteri Viljanen - 2015 - In André Santos Campos (ed.), Spinoza: Basic Concepts. Exeter: Imprint Academic. pp. 95–105.
    In this essay, I will begin by delineating the context of the conatus principle, after which I will provide a reading of the two propositions (EIIIP6 and P7) that contain the very core of the theory. This in turn will enable me to explain how Spinoza’s theory of conatus is connected to his views on desire, activity, and teleology.
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  15. 2. Power, Affect, Knowledge: Nietzsche on Spinoza.David Wollenberg - 2015 - In Bartholomew Ryan, Maria Joao Mayer Branco & João Constancio (eds.), Nietzsche and the Problem of Subjectivity. De Gruyter. pp. 65-94.
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  16. Reason, Religion, and Natural Law: From Plato to Spinoza, Edited by Jonathan A. Jacobs.Alex Douglas - 2014 - Mind 123 (491):923-928.
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  17. Late-Scholastic and Cartesian Conatus.Rodolfo Garau - 2014 - Intellectual History Review 24 (4):479-494.
    Introduction Conatus is a specific concept within Descartes’s physics. In particular, it assumes a crucial importance in the purely mechanistic description of the nature of light – an issue that Des- cartes considered one of the most crucial challenges, and major achievements, of his natural phil- osophy. According to Descartes’s cosmology, the universe – understood as a material continuum in which there is no vacuum – is composed of a number of separate yet interconnected vortices. Each of these vortices consists (...)
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  18. Spinoza on the Ideality of Time.Geoffrey Gorham - 2013 - Idealistic Studies 43 (1-2):27-40.
    When McTaggart puts Spinoza on his short list of philosophers who considered time unreal, he is falling in line with a reading of Spinoza’s philosophy of time advanced by contemporaneous British Idealists and by Hegel. The idealists understood that there is much at stake concerning the ontological status of Spinozistic time. If time is essential to motion then temporal idealism entails that nearly everything—apart from God conceived sub specie aeternitatis—is imaginary. I argue that although time is indeed ‘imaginary’—in a sense (...)
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  19. Spinoza's Unorthodox Metaphysics of the Will.Karolina Hübner - 2013 - In Michael Della Rocca (ed.), The Oxford Handbook to Spinoza.
  20. Desiring Productivity: Nary a Wasted Moment, Never a Missed Step!Trudy Rudge - 2013 - Nursing Philosophy 14 (3):201-211.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore how nurses are enrolled into and take part in programmes of efficiency and effectiveness. Using the philosophical theorizing about desire as a force or power, I focus specifically on what is understood as relations between desire and productivity in current Westernized health‐care systems. Use is made of the idea from Spinoza that human emotions consist only of pleasure, pain, and desire as these act as a motive force. This is then linked with (...)
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  21. Spinoza and German Idealism.Eckart Förster & Yitzhak Y. Melamed (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    There can be little doubt that without Spinoza, German Idealism would have been just as impossible as it would have been without Kant. Yet the precise nature of Spinoza's influence on the German Idealists has hardly been studied in detail. This volume of essays by leading scholars sheds light on how the appropriation of Spinoza by Fichte, Schelling and Hegel grew out of the reception of his philosophy by, among others, Lessing, Mendelssohn, Jacobi, Herder, Goethe, Schleiermacher, Maimon and, of course, (...)
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  22. Spinoza on Human Freedom: Reason, Autonomy, and the Good Life.Michael LeBuffe - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (1):195 - 198.
    British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Volume 20, Issue 1, Page 195-198, January 2012.
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  23. Spinoza on Human Freedom, by Matthew Kisner. [REVIEW]Eugene Marshall - 2012 - Mind 121 (484):1085-1088.
  24. Spinoza on Conatus and Persistence Through Time.Jason Waller - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Research 37:51-72.
    This paper concerns Spinoza’s theory of conatus and an important consequence of this theory concerning how bodies persist through time. I first argue that a conatus is the self-maintaining activity of a mode and not a tendency toward self-preservation or some kind of force. I then argue that it follows from this theory of conatus that bodies persist through time by having temporal parts. I conclude the paper by arguing that attributing a temporal parts metaphysic to Spinoza is not as (...)
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  25. Spinoza on Conatus and Persistence Through Time.Jason Waller - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Research 37:51-72.
    This paper concerns Spinoza’s theory of conatus and an important consequence of this theory concerning how bodies persist through time. I first argue that a conatus is the self-maintaining activity of a mode and not a tendency toward self-preservation or some kind of force. I then argue that it follows from this theory of conatus that bodies persist through time by having temporal parts. I conclude the paper by arguing that attributing a temporal parts metaphysic to Spinoza is not as (...)
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  26. Deseo, voluntad y dolor en Spinoza, Schopenhauer y Nietzsche.Ruperto Arrocha González - 2011 - Apuntes Filosóficos 20 (39).
    Al intentar clarificar lo que Spinoza, Schopenhauer y Nietzsche entienden por deseo encontramos que este concepto está asociado en ellos a una particular acepción de la idea de voluntad. En Spinoza y en Schopenhauer se encuentra presente esta identificación. En Nietzsche el deseo se encuentra oculto, disimulado y encerrado en las figuras metafóricas de lo dionisíaco y lo melódico. Desire, Will and Pain in Spinoza, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche In attempting to clarify what Spinoza, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche understand by desire, we (...)
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  27. Conatus and Perfection in Spinoza.John Carriero - 2011 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 35 (1):69-92.
  28. From Bondage to Freedom: Spinoza on Human Excellence. By Michael LeBuffe.Patrick Madigan - 2011 - Heythrop Journal 52 (1):142-143.
  29. Affectus: Laetitia, Tristitia, and Cupiditas.Tammy Nyden - 2011 - In W. van Bunge, H. Krop, J. M. M. van den Ven & P. Steenbakkers (eds.), Continuum Companion to Spinoza. Continuum.
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  30. The Reemergence of Spinoza’s Conatus in the Political Sphere.Evan Roane - 2011 - Southwest Philosophical Studies 33.
    Spinoza’s metaphysical concept of striving (conatus) entails that all particular things without exception partake in the similar goal of self-preservation. From this position, he derives psychological principles for humans that account for social behavior in terms of one’s effort to preserve one’s community. His position stands in opposition to common sense descriptions of ‘unselfish’ behaviors such as altruism and Michael Della Rocca’s formulation of “other directed striving.” Spinoza accounts for humans acting in the interest of others via community, without compromising (...)
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  31. Spinoza's Conatus as an Essence Preserving, Attribute-Neutral Immanent Cause: Toward a New Interpretation of Attributes and Modes.Eric Schliesser - 2011 - In Keith Allen & Tom Stoneham (eds.), Causation and Modern Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 3--65.
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  32. Spinoza's Geometry of Power.Valtteri Viljanen - 2011 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This work examines the unique way in which Benedict de Spinoza combines two significant philosophical principles: that real existence requires causal power and that geometrical objects display exceptionally clearly how things have properties in virtue of their essences. Valtteri Viljanen argues that underlying Spinoza's psychology and ethics is a compelling metaphysical theory according to which each and every genuine thing is an entity of power endowed with an internal structure akin to that of geometrical objects. This allows Spinoza to offer (...)
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  33. Perfection and Desire: Spinoza on the Good.Matthew J. Kisner - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (1):97-117.
    While Spinoza claims that our good is both what increases our essential power and what helps us to satisfy our desires, he admits that people desire things that do not increase their power. This paper addresses this problem by arguing that Spinoza conceives of desires as expressions of our conatus , so that satisfying our desires necessarily increases our power and vice versa. This reading holds, in opposition to recent work, that Spinoza upholds a desire-satisfaction theory of the good, though (...)
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  34. Change and the Eternal Part of the Mind in Spinoza.Michael Lebuffe - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (3):369-384.
    Spinoza insists that we can during the course of our lives increase that part of the mind that is constituted by knowledge, but he also calls that part of the mind its eternal part. How can what is eternal increase? I defend an interpretation on which there is a sense in which the eternal part of the mind can become greater without changing intrinsically at all.
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  35. From Bondage to Freedom: Spinoza on Human Excellence.Michael LeBuffe - 2010 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Spinoza rejects fundamental tenets of received morality, including the notions of Providence and free will. Yet he retains rich theories of good and evil, virtue, perfection, and freedom. Building interconnected readings of Spinoza's accounts of imagination, error, and desire, Michael LeBuffe defends a comprehensive interpretation of Spinoza's enlightened vision of human excellence. Spinoza holds that what is fundamental to human morality is the fact that we find things to be good or evil, not what we take those designations to mean. (...)
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  36. Review of Michael LeBuffe, From Bondage to Freedom: Spinoza on Human Excellence[REVIEW]Eugene Marshall - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (3).
  37. Spinoza on the Problem of Akrasia.Eugene Marshall - 2010 - European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):41-59.
    : Two common ways of explaining akrasia will be presented, one which focuses on strength of desire and the other which focuses on action issuing from practical judgment. Though each is intuitive in a certain way, they both fail as explanations of the most interesting cases of akrasia. Spinoza 's own thoughts on bondage and the affects follow, from which a Spinozist explanation of akrasia is constructed. This account is based in Spinoza 's mechanistic psychology of cognitive affects. Because Spinoza (...)
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  38. From Bondage to Freedom: Spinoza on Human Excellence.Steven Nadler - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (5):947-950.
  39. Arturo Andrés Roig, lector de Spinoza.: Arturo Andrés Roig, Spinoza Reader.Gerardo Oviedo - 2010 - Estudios de Filosofía Práctica E Historia de Las Ideas 12 (1):51-65.
    La categoría spinoziana de conatus ocupa un puesto central en la arquitectónica discursiva de la filosofía práctica de Arturo Andrés Roig. Se trata de un fundamento previo del saber práctico-moral que oficia de figura explicativa originaria, pues el conatus concierne a una dimensión primaria de los entes. Su status teórico no se reduce por tanto a reconocer un aspecto antropológico entre otros, sino que adquiere un carácter vertebrador en el conjunto de las estrategias de fundamentación de la idea de "moral (...)
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  40. Spinoza on the Essence of the Human Body and the Part of the Mind That is Eternal.Don Garrett - 2009 - In Olli Koistinen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza's Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  41. Spinoza on the Essence of the Human Body.Don Garrett - 2009 - In The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza’s Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 284--302.
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  42. On Bayle’s Interpretation of Spinoza’s Substance and Modes.A. Guilherme - 2009 - Conatus 3 (6):11-16.
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  43. Protobiological" Spinoza"? Conatus and Organism Theory.Francesca Michelini - 2009 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 38 (1-4):1-23.
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  44. Spinoza" protobiologo"?:" conatus" e teoria dell'organismo.Francesca Michelini - 2009 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 38 (1):1-23.
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  45. Spinoza as Educator: From Eudaimonistic Ethics to an Empowering and Liberating Pedagogy.Nimrod Aloni - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (4):531-544.
    Although Spinoza's formative influence on the cultural ideals of the West is widely recognized, especially with reference to liberal democracy, secular humanism, and naturalistic ethics, little has been written about the educational implications of his philosophy. This article explores the pedagogical tenets that are implicit in Spinoza's writings. I argue that Spinoza's ethics is eudaimonistic, aiming at self‐affirmation, full humanity and wellbeing; that the flourishing of individuals depends on their personal resources, namely, their conatus, power, vitality or capacity to act (...)
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  46. Spinoza's Psychological Theory.Michael LeBuffe - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  47. On the Derivation and Meaning of Spinoza's Conatus Doctrine.Valtteri Viljanen - 2008 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 4:89-112.
    Spinoza’s conatus doctrine, the main proposition of which claims, “[e]ach thing, to the extent it is in itself, strives [conatur] to persevere in its being” (E3p6), has been the subject of growing interest. This is understandable, for Spinoza’s psychology and ethics are based on this doctrine. In my paper I shall examine the way Spinoza argues for E3p6 in its demonstration which runs as follows: "For singular things are modes by which God’s attributes are expressed in a certain and determinate (...)
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  48. Spinoza's Dynamics of Being: The Concept of Power and Its Role in Spinoza's Metaphysics.Valtteri Viljanen - 2007 - Dissertation, University of Turku
  49. Spinoza's Theory of Motivation.Andrew Youpa - 2007 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 88 (3):375–390.
    On the basis of 3p9s and 3p39s of the Ethics, it might seem that, for Spinoza, a judgment about something's goodness or badness is motivationally inert and, moreover, that value judgments essentially reflect an individual's pre-existing motivational states. However, in this paper I show that Spinoza holds that under certain conditions a motivational state results from a value judgment. Spinoza's theory of motivation consists of two accounts of the psychological order of value judgments and motivational states: an account of their (...)
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  50. We Do Not Yet Know What the Law Can Do.Alexandre Lefebvre - 2006 - Contemporary Political Theory 5 (1):52-67.
    A recurrent problem in Spinoza's ethical and political philosophy is what beings can do, what their affects are, and how these affects may be diminished or enhanced. This paper focuses on Spinoza's Theological-Political Treatise to examine how natural and positive law engages a constitutive relationship with our affective capacity or, in Spinoza's language, our modal power and conatus. This paper begins with a critique of interpretations of Spinoza as a precursor of liberal political and juridical philosophies, and proceeds to argue (...)
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