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  1. External Conditions, Internal Rationality: Spinoza on the Rationality of Suicide.Ian MacLean-Evans - 2023 - Journal of Spinoza Studies 2 (1):40-63.
    I argue alongside some other scholars that there is a plausible reading of Spinoza’s philosophy of suicide which holds both of the following tenets: first, that suicides occur because of external conditions, and second, that there are at least some suicides which are rational. These two tenets require special attention because they seem to be the source of significant tension. For Spinoza, if one’s cognitions are to be the most adequate, they must be “disposed internally” (E2p29s/G II 114), or determined (...)
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  2. Spinoza on the Ontology of Justice: The Role of ‘Beings of Reason’ (Entia Rationis).Michael A. Rosenthal - 2023 - In Jenny Pelletier & Christian Rode (eds.), The Reality of the Social World: Medieval, Early Modern, and Contemporary Perspectives on Social Ontology. Springer Verlag. pp. 117-135.
    In this paper I make four claims. First, there is an apparent contradiction in Spinoza’s theory of justice. On the one hand, in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670), he argues that justice is entirely conventional and depends on the ruler’s decision. On the other hand, in the later and unpublished Tractatus Politicus (1677), he claims that man really is a social animal and that we can articulate ideal forms of justice on that basis. Second, to address this apparent inconsistency, we need (...)
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  3. Reply to Nadler: Spinoza’s Free Person and Wise Person Reconsidered.Sanem Soyarslan - 2023 - Journal of Spinoza Studies 2 (2):60-76.
    This article addresses Steven Nadler’s response to my objections to his reading of Spinoza’s free person (homo liber). Nadler argues that there are no clear and significant differences between the free person and the wise person (vir sapiens) in their character or in the role theyplay in Spinoza’s moral philosophy; in fact, they are one and the same. I begin by critically examining three inferences which Nadler’s reading in part relies on. I then address the differences between the contexts in (...)
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  4. Spinoza's Epistemology through a Geometrical Lens.Michael LeBuffe - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (3):859-861.
    This book concerns Spinoza's theory of knowledge and closely related issues: Spinoza's conceptions of geometrical figure or shape, number, and observational sci.
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  5. Spinoza and Counterpossible Inferences.Galen Barry - 2021 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 102 (1):27-50.
    Spinoza reasons about impossibilities on a regular basis. But he also says they're unthinkable and that reasoning is a mental process. How can he do this? The paper defends a linguistic account of counterpossible inferences in Spinoza's geometrical method.
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  6. Spinoza’s Ode to Reason.Ollie Koistinen - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):265-279.
    In this paper, the main features of Spinoza’s conception of Reason are laid out. First, how Reason differs on the one hand from opinion and imagination and on the other hand from intuitive knowledge. After that the validation of Reason is considered. As I interpret Benedict de Spinoza, even finite subjects enjoy freedom of Reason. I will give the reasons for this doctrine which seems to be inconsistent with Spinoza’s universal determinism. One of the most fascinating aspects of Spinoza’s rationalism (...)
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  7. Che ne sarà dei corpi?: Spinoza e i misteri della cognizione incarnata.Antonino Pennisi - 2021 - Bologna: Il mulino.
  8. "It is of the nature of reason to regard things as necessary, not as contingent": A Defense of Spinoza's Necessitarianism.Brandon Rdzak - 2021 - Dissertation, Purdue University
    There is longstanding interpretive dispute between commentators over Spinoza’s commitment to necessitarianism, the doctrine that all things are metaphysically necessary and none are contingent. Those who affirm Spinoza’s commitment to the doctrine adhere to the necessitarian interpretation whereas those who deny it adhere to what I call the semi-necessitarian interpretation. As things stand, the disagreement between commentators appears to have reached an impasse. Notwithstanding, there seems to be no disagreement among commentators on the question of necessitarianism’s philosophical plausibility as a (...)
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  9. Knowing mind through knowing body : Spinoza on causal knowledge of the self and the external world.Daniel Garber - 2020 - In Dominik Perler & Sebastian Bender (eds.), Causation and Cognition in Early Modern Philosophy. London: Routledge.
  10. Reconsidering Spinoza’s ‘Rationalism’.Genevieve Lloyd - 2020 - Australasian Philosophical Review 4 (3):196-215.
    ABSTRACT Spinoza has often been cited as a classic example of the philosophical category of ‘rationalism’; and there is indeed much about his philosophy that can seem to warrant that classification. This essay will argue that it is nonetheless a simplification, which can cloud some of the most important and interesting insights that can be gained from reading Spinoza now. Although it is true that his treatment of human knowledge emphasized the exercise of reason, his crucial—and frequently misunderstood—concept of ratio (...)
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  11. Spinoza’s Reason Revisited.Genevieve Lloyd - 2020 - Australasian Philosophical Review 4 (3):271-287.
    Sandra Field has rightly pointed out the incompleteness of my treatment of Spinoza’s version of Reason. My essay was concerned primarily with the treatment of human reason in Spinoza’s Ethics, addr...
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  12. Interrogating Understanding in Conatus: A Commentary on Genevieve Lloyd’s ‘Reconsidering Spinoza’s “Rationalism”’.Steph Marston - 2020 - Australasian Philosophical Review 4 (3):266-270.
    ABSTRACT According to Genevieve Lloyd, conatus is manifested in body as a fixed ratio of motion and rest and in mind as increasing adequate understanding. The commentary provides textual analysis to resolve the apparent paradox that bodily stability corresponds to intellectual growth. The activity of adequate ideas and passivity of inadequate ideas are identified as analogues of motion and rest in Spinoza’s philosophy of mind and these are put to work in exploring what is required for increasing one’s adequate understanding: (...)
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  13. Spinoza on Composition, Monism, and Beings of Reason.Róbert Mátyási - 2020 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 2 (1):1-16.
    In this paper, I argue that Spinoza holds a perspectivalist view of mereological composition, a form of anti-realism. The paper has two parts: In the first half of the paper, I introduce interpretive puzzles for the standard realist reading of Spinoza’s mereology. In the second half of the paper, I discuss Spinoza’s positive view on mereological composition and present a perspectivalist reading that avoids the interpretive puzzles.
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  14. Knowledge Beyond Reason in Spinoza’s Epistemology: Scientia Intuitiva and Amor Dei Intellectualis in Spinoza’s Epistemology.Anne Newstead - 2020 - Australasian Philosophical Review 4 (Revisiting Spinoza's Rationalism).
    Genevieve Lloyd’s Spinoza is quite a different thinker from the arch rationalist caricature of some undergraduate philosophy courses devoted to “The Continental Rationalists”. Lloyd’s Spinoza does not see reason as a complete source of knowledge, nor is deductive rational thought productive of the highest grade of knowledge. Instead, that honour goes to a third kind of knowledge—intuitive knowledge (scientia intuitiva), which provides an immediate, non-discursive knowledge of its singular object. To the embarrassment of some hard-nosed philosophers, intellectual intuition has an (...)
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  15. Sin and Sensibility: A Response to Genevieve Lloyd’s Reconsideration of Spinoza’s Rationalism.Knox Peden - 2020 - Australasian Philosophical Review 4 (3):236-242.
    ABSTRACT Genevieve Lloyd’s assessment of Spinoza’s rationalism shows how imagination and sensibility are integrated with reason in his metaphysics and equally makes clear how his philosophy illuminates a number of aesthetic works and political situations. This response considers the limitations of the aesthetic analogy she draws from Flaubert and also queries the contrast she sees between Spinoza’s account of reason and finitude and Pascal’s account of the same. Turning from Pascal, it concludes with a consideration of Spinoza’s response to Augustine’s (...)
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  16. Spinoza on Reason by Michael LeBuffe. [REVIEW]John R. T. Grey - 2019 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1:1.
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  17. Analogia and ens rationis.Jacqueline Lagrée - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  18. Spinoza on beings of reason [entia rationis] and the analogical imagination.Michael A. Rosenthal - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  19. Spinoza on Reason, Passions, and the Supreme Good.Andrea Sangiacomo - 2019 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Andrea Sangiacomo offers a new understanding of Spinoza's moral philosophy, how his views significantly evolved over time, and how he himself struggled during his career to develop a theory that could speak to human beings as they actually are--imperfect, passionate, and often not very rational.
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  20. The knowledge of good and bad.Lorenzo Vinciguerra - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  21. Necessity and Nature in Spinoza's Philosophy.Don Garrett - 2018 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  22. Spinoza and the Cunning of Imagination.Eugene Garver - 2018 - London: University of Chicago Press.
    Spinoza’s Ethics, and its project of proving ethical truths through the geometric method, have attracted and challenged readers for more than three hundred years. In Spinoza and the Cunning of Imagination, Eugene Garver uses the imagination as a guiding thread to this work. Other readers have looked at the imagination to account for Spinoza’s understanding of politics and religion, but this is the first inquiry to see it as central to the Ethics as a whole—imagination as a quality to be (...)
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  23. Reason and body in Spinoza's Metaphysics.Michael LeBuffe - 2018 - In Beth Lord (ed.), Spinoza’s Philosophy of Ratio. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 19-32.
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  24. Nulla accommodatio: la razón y la fe en la hermenéutica de Spinoza.Mario Narváez - 2018 - Tópicos 36:55-70.
    En su famoso Tratado Teológico-Político, Spinoza ofrece un método de interpretación de las Escrituras con la finalidad de que, a través de su aplicación, el lector pueda capturar objetivamente el sentido de los textos y de ese modo no incurrir en el mismo error que los teólogos y filósofos cristianos o judíos que confunden el ámbito de la fe con el ámbito de la razón. Ahora bien, en la medida en que leemos los textos sagrados y los interpretamos utilizando el (...)
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  25. [SK] Rozumnosť ako prirodzenosť: ideál humanity v dielach Barucha Spinozu.Michaela Petrufova Joppova - 2017 - In Vasil Gluchman (ed.), Etické myslenie minulosti a súčasnosti. Etika v minulosti - minulosť v etike / Ethical Thinking Past & Present. Ethics in the Past - the Past in Ethics. pp. 93-104.
    Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) is considered to be one of the most prominent representatives of traditional European humanism and liberalism. In the next breath, however, we might add that his humanism was a form of modern humanism, which often uncritically overestimated human capacities and capabilities, leading to many ideological, but also practical failures of humanity. This paper aims to reevaluate Spinoza's rationalist model of human nature in the context of the "shared" rational nature of humans, which is characterized by a broadly (...)
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  26. Spinoza on Reason.Michael LeBuffe - 2017 - Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Michael LeBuffe explains claims about reason in Spinoza's metaphysics, theory of mind, ethics, and politics. He emphasizes the extent to which different claims build upon one another so contribute to the systematic coherence of Spinoza's philosophy.
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  27. A fresh look on the role of the second kind of knowledge in Spinoza’s Ethics.Oliver Istvan Toth - 2017 - Hungarian Philosophical Review (2):37-56.
    In this paper, through a close reading of Spinoza's use of common notions I argue for the role of experiential and experimental knowledge in Spinoza's epistemology.
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  28. Spinoza Must Reject Primitive Necessity and Deny that Reason Can Set Ends.Omri Boehm - 2016 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 37 (1):173-186.
  29. Reason and Knowledge in Spinoza.John R. T. Grey - 2015 - In Andre Santos Campos (ed.), Spinoza: Basic Concepts. Imprint Academic. pp. 71-83.
    This chapter investigates Spinoza's conception of reason, focusing on (i) the difference between reason and the imagination, and (ii) the difference between reason and intuitive knowledge. The central interpretive debate this chapter considers is about the scope of rational cognition. Some commentators have argued that it is only possible to have rational cognition of properties that are universally shared, whereas intuitive knowledge may grasp the essences of particular individuals. Another prominent interpretation is that reason differs from intuition only in virtue (...)
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  30. Spinoza on Essences, Universals, and Beings of Reason.Karolina Hübner - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (2):58-88.
    The article proposes a new solution to the long-standing problem of the universality of essences in Spinoza's ontology. It argues that, according to Spinoza, particular things in nature possess unique essences, but that these essences coexist with more general, mind-dependent species-essences, constructed by finite minds on the basis of similarities that obtain among the properties of formally-real particulars. This account provides the best fit both with the textual evidence and with Spinoza's other metaphysical and epistemological commitments. The article offers new (...)
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  31. Spinoza on Essences, Universals, and Beings of Reason.Karolina Hübner - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 97 (1):58-88.
    The article proposes a new solution to the long-standing problem of the universality of essences in Spinoza's ontology. It argues that, according to Spinoza, particular things in nature possess unique essences, but that these essences coexist with more general, mind-dependent species-essences, constructed by finite minds on the basis of similarities that obtain among the properties of formally-real particulars. This account provides the best fit both with the textual evidence and with Spinoza's other metaphysical and epistemological commitments. The article offers new (...)
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  32. Back to Metaphysics in Spinoza’s Ethics: Spinoza’s Theory of Reading.Ryan J. Johnson - 2015 - Pli 27:23-56.
    This paper begins with a pressing question for contemporary philosophy: What does it mean to read Spinoza’s Ethics today? Before we can address this particular question, we pose another, one possibly prior, question. The question is situated within Spinozism itself. It asks, ‘What does it mean to read, for Spinoza?’ Given Spinoza’s commitment to the theory of parallelism, reading affects both the body and the mind. We first show how an explicit formulation of the three kinds of material bodies allows (...)
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  33. Reason in the Short Treatise.Colin Marshall - 2015 - In Yitzhak Y. Melamed (ed.), The Young Spinoza: A Metaphysician in the Making. Oxford University Press USA. pp. 133-143.
    Spinoza’s account of reason in the Short Treatise has been largely neglected. That account, I argue, has at least four features which distinguish it from that of the Ethics: in the Short Treatise, (1) reason is more sharply distinguished from the faculty of intuitive knowledge, (2) reason deals with things as though they were ‘outside’ us, (3) reason lacks clarity and distinctness, and (4) reason has no power over many types of passions. I argue that these differences have a unified (...)
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  34. Adequate and Inadequate Ideas in Spinoza.Blake McAllister - 2014 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 31 (2):119-136.
    Adequate and inadequate ideas play a central role in Spinoza’s system. A number of recent commentators have suggested that the internality or externality of an idea’s immediate cause is a necessary and sufficient condition of the idea’s adequacy or inadequacy, respectively. I show that this thesis is subject to counterexample and briefly explore the significance of this critique for recent interpretations. I offer an alternative interpretation on which adequate and inadequate ideas are characterized by the manner in which they grasp (...)
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  35. Spinoza's PSR as a Principle of Clear and Distinct Representation.Daniel Schneider - 2014 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):109-129.
    It is argued first, that Spinoza's Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) is best seen as an auxiliary premise and not as an axiom of the Ethics; second, that Spinoza held the PSR to be a self-evident truth that indicates a necessary condition for clearly and distinctly representing the existence or non-existence of a thing; and third, that this interpretation of Spinoza's PSR explains the near absence of the PSR within the demonstrations of the Ethics as well as the importance of (...)
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  36. Spinoza: la raison à l'épreuve de la pratique.Juan Vicente Cortés & Sophie Laveran (eds.) - 2013 - Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne.
    "Spinoza", à quoi ça sert? Et comment s'en servir? En particulier, comment penser la mise à l'épreuve du rationalisme spécifique dont il est le nom? L'objectif de ce travail est de contribuer à une réévaluation non seulement du rôle de la pratique dans la pensée de Spinoza, mais encore du système lui-même, de sa capacité à s'adapter et à communiquer avec des domaines tels que les sciences expérimentales, l'histoire, la politique ou la médecine. A travers les concepts et problèmes, tels (...)
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  37. Nota sul ruolo dell’"essentia corporis" nell’Etica di Spinoza.Andrea Sangiacomo - 2013 - Isonomia: Online Philosophical Journal of the University of Urbino:1-19.
    This paper outlines the role of the bodily essence in Spinoza’s epistemology. Spinoza maintains in the Ethics that the power of the imagination depends on bodily affections and it explains the inadequateness of imaginative ideas. However, Spinoza also exploits the capabilities of the human body to work out his account of common notions, which grounds the adequate knowledge provided by reason. Moreover, the essentia corporis plays a crucial role in the fifth part of the Ethics. Indeed, the “eternal part” of (...)
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  38. The Distinction between Reason and Intuitive Knowledge in Spinoza's Ethics.Sanem Soyarslan - 2013 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):27-54.
    While both intuitive knowledge and reason are adequate ways of knowing for Spinoza, they are not equal. Intuitive knowledge, which Spinoza describes as the ‘greatest virtue of mind’, is superior to reason. The nature of this superiority has been the subject of some controversy due to Spinoza's notoriously parsimonious treatment of the distinction between reason and intuitive knowledge in the Ethics. In this paper, I argue that intuitive knowledge differs from reason not only in terms of its method of cognition—but (...)
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  39. Continuare Spinoza: un'esercitazione filosofica.Massimo Adinolfi - 2012 - [Rome, Italy]: Editori internazionali riuniti.
  40. I—Susan James: Creating Rational Understanding: Spinoza as a Social Epistemologist.Susan James - 2011 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 85 (1):181-199.
    Does Spinoza present philosophy as the preserve of an elite, while condemning the uneducated to a false though palliative form of ‘true religion’? Some commentators have thought so, but this contribution aims to show that they are mistaken. The form of religious life that Spinoza recommends creates the political and epistemological conditions for a gradual transition to philosophical understanding, so that true religion and philosophy are in practice inseparable.
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  41. Reason and Intuitive Knowledge in Spinoza’s Ethics: Two Ways of Knowing, Two Ways of Living.Sanem Soyarslan - 2011 - Dissertation, Duke University
    In this dissertation, I explore the distinction between reason (ratio) and intuitive knowledge (scientia intuitiva) in Spinoza’s Ethics in order to explain the superior affective power of the latter over the former. In addressing this fundamental but relatively unexplored issue in Spinoza scholarship, I suggest that these two kinds of adequate knowledge differ not only in terms of their method, but also with respect to their content. I hold that unlike reason, which is a universal knowledge, intuitive knowledge descends to (...)
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  42. Why Can’t We All Just Get Along: The Reasonable vs. the Rational According to Spinoza.Eugene Garver - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (6):838-858.
    Spinoza presents a picture of the good human life in which being rational and being reasonable or sociable are mutually supporting: the philosopher makes the best citizen, and citizenship is the best route to philosophy and adequate ideas. Crucial to this mutual implication are the roles of religion and politics in promoting obedience. It is through obedience that people can become "of one mind and one body" in the absence of adequate ideas, through the presence of shared empowering imaginations and (...)
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  43. Intellectus Fabrica.Cristiano Novaes de Rezende - 2009 - Dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo
  44. Epistemic autonomy in Spinoza.Charlie Huenemann - 2008 - In Charles Huenemann (ed.), Interpreting Spinoza: Critical Essays. Cambridge University Press.
  45. Spinoza and the stoics: power, politics, and the passions.Firmin DeBrabander - 2007 - London: Continuum.
    This important book examines Spinoza's moral and political philosophy. Specifically it considers Spinoza's engagement with the themes of Stoicism and his significant contribution to the origins of the European Enlightenment. Firmin DeBrabander explores the problematic view of the relationship between ethics and politics that Spinoza apparently inherited from the Stoics and in so doing asks some important questions that contribute to a crucial contemporary debate. Does ethics provide any foundation for political theory and if so in what way? Likewise, does (...)
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  46. Spinoza: Logic, Knowledge and Religion.Richard Mason - 2007 - Routledge.
    Approaching the central themes of Spinoza's thought from both a historical and analytical perspective, this book examines the logical-metaphysical core of Spinoza's philosophy, its epistemology and its ramifications for his much disputed attitude towards religion. Opening with a discussion of Spinoza's historical and philosophical location as the appropriate context for the interpretation of his work, the book goes on to present a non-'logical' reading of Spinoza's metaphysics, a consideration of Spinoza's radical repudiation of Cartesian subjectivism and an examination of how (...)
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  47. Spinoza’s Response to Maimonides.Steven Frankel - 2005 - International Philosophical Quarterly 45 (3):309-325.
    Spinoza resolves the tension between reason and revelation by granting reason complete authority and autonomy in all philosophical and natural matters, and by denying revelation any claims to knowledge. Despite this dramatic partisanship, he attempts to make this solution attractive to believers by creating a hermeneutic that allows a limited claim to knowledge for revelation. This article attempts to explain how he arrived at this strategy and why he believed it would succeed.
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  48. Spinoza's Revolution: Religion, Democracy, and Reason. By Nancy K. Levene.G. Havers - 2005 - The European Legacy 10 (7):757.
  49. Intuitus and ratio in Spinoza's ethical thought.Ronald Sandler - 2005 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 13 (1):73 – 90.
    (2005). Intuitus and Ratio in Spinoza's Ethical Thought. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 73-90. doi: 10.1080/0960878042000317591.
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  50. The Circle of Adequate Knowledge: Notes on Reason and Intuition in Spinoza.Syliane Malinowski-Charles - 2004 - In Daniel Garber & Steven Nadler (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume 1. Oxford University Press.
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