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  1. Spinoza and Scholastic Philosophy.Emanuele Costa - forthcoming - In Yitzhak Y. Melamed (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Spinoza.
    In the first section of this chapter, I offer an overview of a selected list of Scholastic debates intersecting Spinoza's Cogitata Metaphysica. I highlight how Spinoza consciously intervenes in them, showing a certain awareness of the intricacies of Scholastic discourse. In this first section, I emphasize Spinoza’s interest in three specific problems: the issue of the division of being into “real being” and “being of reason”; the eternity of God and its distinction from duration; and, finally, God’s omnipresence. My aim (...)
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  2. Spinoza’s Metaphysics of Freedom and Its Essential Paradox.Emanuele Costa - forthcoming - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica.
    One of the most peculiar features of Spinoza’s philosophy is his radical interpretation of the notion of freedom. Even though it plays a significant role in his metaethics and political philosophy, freedom is, for Spinoza, a deeply metaphysical notion, rooted in the most fundamental features of his ontology. In this paper, I analyze the internal structure that identifies a being as “free” within Spinoza’s metaphysics. I argue that this structure leads to an internal paradox, entailing that the very component that (...)
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  3. Spinoza’s Monism I: Ruling Out Eternal-Durational Causation.Kristin Primus - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    In this essay, I suggest that Spinoza acknowledges a distinction between formal reality that is infinite and timelessly eternal and formal reality that is non-infinite (i. e., finite or indefinite) and non-eternal (i. e., enduring). I also argue that if, in Spinoza’s system, only intelligible causation is genuine causation, then infinite, timelessly eternal formal reality cannot cause non-infinite, non-eternal formal reality. A denial of eternal-durational causation generates a puzzle, however: if no enduring thing – not even the sempiternal, indefinite individual (...)
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  4. Spinoza’s Monism II: A Proposal.Kristin Primus - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    An old question in Spinoza scholarship is how finite, non-eternal things transitively caused by other finite, non-eternal things (i. e., the entities described in propositions like E1p28) are caused by the infinite, eternal substance, given that what follows either directly or indirectly from the divine nature is infinite and eternal (E1p21–23). In “Spinoza’s Monism I,” I pointed out that most commentators answer this question by invoking entities that are indefinite and sempiternal, but argued that perhaps we should not be so (...)
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  5. Spinoza on the Metaphysics of Thought and Extension.Martin Lin - 2021 - In Don Garrett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. Cambridge: Cambridge. pp. 113-140.
  6. Spinoza on Causa Sui.Yitzhak Melamed - 2021 - In Blackwell Companion to Spinoza. Blackwell. pp. 116-125.
    The very first line of Spinoza’s magnum opus, the Ethics, states the following surprising definition: By cause of itself I understand that whose essence involves existence, or that whose nature cannot be conceived except as existing [Per causam sui intelligo id, cujus essentia involvit existentiam, sive id, cujus natura non potest concipi, nisi existens]. As we shall shortly see, for many of Spinoza’s contemporaries and predecessors the very notion of causa sui was utterly absurd, akin to a Baron Munchausen attempting (...)
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  7. Why Big Protests Aren't a Good Measure of Popular Power.Sandra Leonie Field - 2020 - OUPBlog.
    In this article I provide a Spinozist perspective on popular power. It is written as a blog post for a popular audience, and draws on my book, Potentia: Hobbes and Spinoza on Power and Popular Politics (OUP: 2020).
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  8. Spinoza on Action and Immanent Causation.Stephen Zylstra - 2020 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 102 (1):29-55.
    I address an apparent conflict between Spinoza’s concepts of immanent causation and acting/doing [agere]. Spinoza apparently holds that an immanent cause undergoes [patitur] whatever it does. Yet according to his stated definition of acting and undergoing in the Ethics, this is impossible; to act is to be an adequate cause, while to undergo is to be merely a partial cause. Spinoza also seems committed to God’s being the adequate cause of all things, and, in a well-known passage, appears to deny (...)
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  9. Teoria da definição e princípio de causalidade na dedução do conatus.Paula Bettani Mendes de Jesus - 2019 - Dois Pontos 16 (3):1-11.
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  10. Metaphysical Rationalism.Martin Lin - 2019 - In Charles Ramond & Jack Stetter (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London, UK: pp. 121-143.
    Material from this paper appears in Chap. 7 of my book Reason and Being, but there is also stuff here that isn't in the book. In particular, it discusses the claims that, for Spinoza, conceiving implies explaining and that existence is identical to or reducible to conceivability. So, if you're interested in those issues, this paper might be worth a read.
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  11. The Many Faces of Spinoza's Causal Axiom.Martin Lin - 2019 - In Dominik Perler & Sebastian Bender (eds.), Causation and Cognition: Perspectives on Early Modern Philosophy. New York: Routledge.
  12. Spinoza’s ‘Infinite Modes’ Reconsidered.Kristin Primus - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):1-29.
    My two principal aims in this essay are interconnected. One aim is to provide a new interpretation of the ‘infinite modes’ in Spinoza’s Ethics. I argue that for Spinoza, God, conceived as the one infinite and eternal substance, is not to be understood as causing two kinds of modes, some infinite and eternal and the rest finite and non-eternal. That there cannot be such a bifurcation of divine effects is what I take the ‘infinite mode’ propositions, E1p21–23, to establish; E1p21–23 (...)
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  13. Do antifinalismo providencialista ao finalismo na natureza no pensamento de Espinosa.Andrelino Ferreira dos Santos Filho - 2018 - Dissertation, UFMG, Brazil
  14. Leges Sive Natura: Bacon, Spinoza, and a Forgotten Concept of Law.Walter Ott - 2018 - In Walter Ott & Lydia Patton (eds.), Laws of Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 62-79.
    The way of laws is as much a defining feature of the modern period as the way of ideas; but the way of laws is hardly without its forks. Both before and after Descartes, there are philosophers using the concept to carve out a very different position from his, one that is entirely disconnected from God or God’s will. I argue that Francis Bacon and Baruch Spinoza treat laws as dispositions that derive from a thing’s nature. This reading upends the (...)
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  15. Education and the Free Will Problem: A Spinozist Contribution.Johan Dahlbeck - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 51 (4):725-743.
    In this Spinozist defence of the educational promotion of students’ autonomy I argue for a deterministic position where freedom of will is deemed unrealistic in the metaphysical sense, but important in the sense that it is an undeniable psychological fact. The paper is structured in three parts. The first part investigates the concept of autonomy from different philosophical points of view, looking especially at how education and autonomy intersect. The second part focuses on explicating the philosophical position of causal determinism (...)
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  16. Spinoza, La Forge und das Problem der Modi.Andreas Hüttemann - 2016 - Methodus 8:33-55.
    The paper argues that it is essential for modes in Spinoza's metaphyics to both, to inhere in and to be caused by the substance.
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  17. Backing Into Spinozism.Samuel Newlands - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (3):511-537.
    One vexing strand of Spinozism asserts that God's nature is more expansive than traditionally conceived and includes properties like being extended. In this paper, I argue that prominent early moderns embrace metaphysical principles about causation, mental representation, and modality that pressure their advocates towards such an expansive account of God's nature in similar ways. I further argue that the main early modern escape route, captured in notions like “eminent containment,” fails to adequately relieve the metaphysical pressures towards Spinozism. The upshot (...)
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  18. Aristotle, Heereboord, and the Polemical Target of Spinoza's Critique of Final Causes.Andrea Sangiacomo - 2016 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 54 (3):395-420.
    Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgiastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that’s no matter—tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther.... And one fine morning—So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past. in the appendix to the first part of the Ethics, Spinoza famously claims that “all final causes are nothing but human fictions”. From the very beginning of its reception until the (...)
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  19. Eriúgena y Spinoza Frente a la Dialéctica de la Causalidad.María Jesús Soto–Bruna - 2016 - Disputatio. Philosophical Research Bulletin 5 (6):37--76.
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  20. Restricting Spinoza's Causal Axiom.John Morrison - 2015 - Philosophical Quarterly 65 (258):40-63.
    Spinoza's causal axiom is at the foundation of the Ethics. I motivate, develop and defend a new interpretation that I call the ‘causally restricted interpretation’. This interpretation solves several longstanding puzzles and helps us better understand Spinoza's arguments for some of his most famous doctrines, including his parallelism doctrine and his theory of sense perception. It also undermines a widespread view about the relationship between the three fundamental, undefined notions in Spinoza's metaphysics: causation, conception and inherence.
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  21. Theory of Conatus.Valtteri Viljanen - 2015 - In André Santos Campos (ed.), Spinoza: Basic Concepts. Exeter: Imprint Academic. pp. 95–105.
    In this essay, I will begin by delineating the context of the conatus principle, after which I will provide a reading of the two propositions (EIIIP6 and P7) that contain the very core of the theory. This in turn will enable me to explain how Spinoza’s theory of conatus is connected to his views on desire, activity, and teleology.
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  22. Efficient Causation in Spinoza and Leibniz.Martin Lin - 2014 - In Tad Scmaltz (ed.), Efficient Causation: A History. pp. 165-191.
  23. Clarke Against Spinoza on the Manifest Diversity of the World.Timothy Yenter - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (2):260-280.
    Samuel Clarke was one of Spinoza's earliest and fiercest opponents in England. I uncover three related Clarkean arguments against Spinoza's metaphysic that deserve more attention from readers today. Collectively, these arguments draw out a tension at the very heart of Spinoza's rationalist system. From the conjunction of a necessary being who acts necessarily and the principle of sufficient reason, Clarke reasons that there could be none of the diversity we find in the universe. In doing so, Clarke potentially reveals an (...)
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  24. Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance and Thought by Yitzhak Y. Melamed.Martin Lin - 2013 - The Leibniz Review 23:195-205.
  25. Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance and Thought, by Yitzhak Melamed. [REVIEW]Colin Marshall - 2013 - The Leibniz Review 23:187-194.
  26. Inherence, Causation, and Conceivability in Spinoza.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy.
    In this paper I suggest a new interpretation of the relations of inherence, causation and conception in Spinoza. I discuss the views of Don Garrett on this issue and argue against Della Rocca's recent suggestion that a strict endorsement of the PSR leads necessarily to the identification of the relations of inherence, causation and conception. I argue that Spinoza never endorsed this identity, and that Della Rocca's suggestion could not be considered as a legitimate reconstruction or friendly amendment to Spinoza (...)
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  27. Spinoza on Inherence, Causation, and Conception.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (3):365-386.
    Spinoza’s philosophy is bold and rich in challenges to our “common-sense intuitions”, and insofar as it provides powerful arguments to motivate these challenges, I believe that we cannot ask for more. Bold and well-argued philosophy has the indispensable virtue of being able to unsettle and try us, to move us to reconsider what seems natural and obvious, and possibly even to change our most basic beliefs. Indeed, for those who seek to test – rather than confirm - their old and (...)
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  28. Spinoza's Geometry of Power.Valtteri Viljanen - 2011 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This work examines the unique way in which Benedict de Spinoza combines two significant philosophical principles: that real existence requires causal power and that geometrical objects display exceptionally clearly how things have properties in virtue of their essences. Valtteri Viljanen argues that underlying Spinoza's psychology and ethics is a compelling metaphysical theory according to which each and every genuine thing is an entity of power endowed with an internal structure akin to that of geometrical objects. This allows Spinoza to offer (...)
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  29. Spinoza's Causal Axiom: A Defense.Torin Doppelt - 2010 - Dissertation,
    Thesis (Master, Philosophy) -- Queen's University, 2010-09-04 13:22:27.876.
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  30. Spinoza on Action.Olli Koistinen - 2009 - In The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza's Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
  31. Causality of Reason and Freedom in Spinoza's Works.Emanuela Scribano - 2009 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 107 (4):567-582.
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  32. Spinoza.Michael Della Rocca - 2008 - New York: Routledge.
    Spinoza ' s understanding and understanding Spinoza -- Spinoza ' s understanding -- Understanding Spinoza -- The metaphysics of substance -- Descartes and substance -- Spinoza contra Descartes on substance -- Modes -- Necessitarianism -- The purpose of it all -- The human mind -- Parallelism and representation -- Essence and representation -- Parallelism and mind - body identity -- The idea of the human body -- The pancreas problem, the pan problem, and panpsychism -- Nothing but representation -- Representation, (...)
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  33. Spinoza's Essentialist Model of Causation.Valtteri Viljanen - 2008 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 51 (4):412 – 437.
    Spinoza is most often seen as a stern advocate of mechanistic efficient causation, but examining his philosophy in relation to the Aristotelian tradition reveals this view to be misleading: some key passages of the Ethics resemble so much what Surez writes about emanation that it is most natural to situate Spinoza's theory of causation not in the context of the mechanical sciences but in that of a late scholastic doctrine of the emanative causality of the formal cause; as taking a (...)
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  34. On the Derivation and Meaning of Spinoza's Conatus Doctrine.Valtteri Viljanen - 2008 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 4:89-112.
    Spinoza’s conatus doctrine, the main proposition of which claims, “[e]ach thing, to the extent it is in itself, strives [conatur] to persevere in its being” (E3p6), has been the subject of growing interest. This is understandable, for Spinoza’s psychology and ethics are based on this doctrine. In my paper I shall examine the way Spinoza argues for E3p6 in its demonstration which runs as follows: "For singular things are modes by which God’s attributes are expressed in a certain and determinate (...)
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  35. Spinoza's Dynamics of Being: The Concept of Power and Its Role in Spinoza's Metaphysics.Valtteri Viljanen - 2007 - Dissertation, University of Turku
  36. Spinoza and Gödel: Causa Sui and Undecidable Truth.Martin Zwick - 2007 - North American Spinoza Society Monograph 13:46-52.
    Spinoza distinguishes between causation that is external, as in A causing B where A is external to B, and causation that is internal, where C causes itself (causa sui), without any involvement of anything external to C. External causation is easy to understand, but self causation is not. This note explores an approach to self-causation based upon Gödelian undecidability and draws upon ideas from an earlier study of Gödel’s proof and the quantum measurement problem (Zwick, 1978).
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  37. Teleology and Human Action in Spinoza.Martin Lin - 2006 - Philosophical Review 115 (3):317-354.
    Cover Date: July 2006.Source Info: 115(3), 317-354. Language: English. Journal Announcement: 41-2. Subject: ACTION; CAUSATION; METAPHYSICS; REPRESENTATION; TELEOLOGY. Subject Person: SPINOZA, BENEDICT DE (BARUCH). Update Code: 20130315.
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  38. Inherence and the Immanent Cause in Spinoza.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2006 - The Leibniz Review 16:43-52.
    The article explains the nature of the immanent cause in Spinoza. It shows that immanent causation is a distinct genus of efficient causation, i.e., an efficient cause whose effect inheres in the cause.
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  39. Error: On Our Predicament When Things Go Wrong.Nicholas Rescher - 2006 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    In _Error,_ Nicholas Rescher presents a fresh analysis of the occurrence, causality, and consequences of error in human thought, action, and evaluation. Rescher maintains that error-avoidance and truth-achievement are distinct but equally important factors for rational inquiry, and that error is inherent in the human cognitive process. He defines three main categories of error: cognitive ; practical ; and axiological, and articulates the factors that contribute to each. His discussion also provides a historical perspective on the treatment of error in (...)
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  40. The Evolution of the Category of Causality in the Works of Spinoza.V. Morfino - 1999 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 54 (2):239-254.
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  41. Causality, Intensionality and Identity: Mind Body Interaction in Spinoza.Olli Koistinen - 1996 - Ratio 9 (1):23-38.
  42. How the Finite Follows From the Infinite in Spinoza's Metaphysical System.Joel Friedman - 1986 - Synthese 69 (3):371 - 407.
  43. Spinoza on the Causality of Individuals.Richard Mason - 1986 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 24 (2):197-210.
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  44. The Causality of Finite Modes in Spinoza's "Ethics".James G. Lennox - 1976 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6 (3):479 - 500.
    A central difficulty in the way of understanding Spinoza's metaphysical system is that of reconciling two apparently contradictory theories of the causation of finite modes found in his Ethics. The easiest way to present the problem is to place these two accounts side by side.A. All things which follow from the absolute nature of any attribute of God must forever exist, and must be infinite; that is to say, through that attribute they are eternal and infinite. A thing which has (...)
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  45. [The Causality of God in Spinoza's Philosophy] Comment.Errol E. Harris - 1972 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):191 - 197.
    The interesting and suggestive interpretation offered by A. J, Watt in this journal of Spinoza’s account of God’s causality to some extent anticipates the discussion of the topic which I am undertaking in a forthcoming book on Spinoza’s philosophy. To a greater extent it is, of course, anticipated by Stuart Hampshire in his study of Spinoza. I agree with Mr. Watt’s objections to some of the traditional interpretations of Spinoza’s doctrine and I think it is in fact immune from the (...)
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  46. Spinoza. Tome I. Dieu . Par M. Guéroult. Paris, Aubier-Montaigne. 1968. 671 Pages. [REVIEW]J. -P. Brodeur - 1971 - Dialogue 10 (1):162-164.
  47. Spinoza's Doctrine of God in Relation to His Conception of Causality.T. M. Forsyth - 1948 - Philosophy 23 (87):291 - 301.
    In a previous article I considered Aristotle's view of God as final cause and its relation to the philosophy of Plato; and at the end of the article I remarked on the affinity of both doctrines with that of Spinoza. The present paper is concerned with Spinoza's doctrine of God as it is related to his conception of causality and seeks, inter alia , to show that his explicit rejection of final causes does not prevent his philosophy from having in (...)
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  48. Causation and the Geometric Method in the Philosophy of Spinoza (I).Richard McKeon - 1930 - Philosophical Review 39 (2):178-189.
  49. Causation and the Geometric Method in the Philosophy of Spinoza (II).Richard McKeon - 1930 - Philosophical Review 39 (3):275-296.