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Subcategories:History/traditions: Reproductive Ethics

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  1. David Benatarʼs Argument from Asymmetry: A Qualified Defence.Oliver Hallich - 2022 - Journal of Value Inquiry 56 (1):5-19.
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  2. Misconceived: Why These Further Criticisms of Anti-natalism Fail.David Benatar - 2022 - Journal of Value Inquiry 56 (1):119-151.
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  3. The Indefensible Self-Defense Argument.Howard Hewitt - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 21 (2).
    The self-defense argument maintains that, even if a fetus is a person, abortion on demand is morally permissible on the grounds that the fetus is using his mother’s body in an intimate way, and, in an unwanted pregnancy, without her ongoing consent. According to the argument, this sort of use justifies lethal self-defense on the part of the mother against her unwanted fetus. I produce a counterexample to one of the premises of this argument and show that it cannot be (...)
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  4. Reproductive Embryo Editing: Attending to Justice.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
    The use of genome embryo editing tools in reproduction is often touted as a way to ensure the birth of healthy and genetically related children. Many would agree that this is a worthy goal. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, if we are concerned with justice, accepting such goal as morally appropriate commits one to rejecting the development of embryo editing for reproductive purposes. This is so because safer and more effective means exist that can allow many (...)
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  5. The Rhetoric of Sexual Difference in French Reproductive Politics.Jill Drouillard - 2021 - Culture and Dialogue 2 (9):225-242.
    What kind of rhetoric frames French reproductive policy debate? Who does such policies exclude? Through an examination of the “American import” of gender studies, along with an analysis of France’s Catholic heritage and secular politics, I argue that an unwavering belief in sexual difference as the foundation of French society defines the productive reproductive citizen. Sylviane Agacinski is perhaps the most vocal public philosopher who has framed the terms of reproductive policy debate in France, building an oppositional platform to reproductive (...)
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  6. Heavenly Procreation.Blake Hereth - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy.
    Kenneth Einar Himma (2009, 2016) argues that the existence of Hell renders procreation impermissible. Jason Marsh (2015) contends that problems of evil motivate anti-natalism. Anti-natalism is principally rejected for its perceived conflict with reproductive rights. I propose a theistic solution to the latter problem. Universalism says that all persons will, postmortem, eventually be eternally housed in Heaven, a superbly good place wherein harm is fully absent. The acceptance of universalism is now widespread, but I offer further reason to embrace one (...)
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  7. Why iBlastoids (Embryo-Like Structures) Do Not Raise Significant Ethical Issues.Alberto Molina-Pérez & Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (1):59-61.
    Most technology is used properly for their intended purpose, but certain technological breakthroughs have a dual-use nature, pose risks or lead to unintended consequences when applied in some areas...
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  8. Human Embryo Genetic Editing: Hope or Pipe Dream?Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Zev Rosenwaks - 2021 - Fertility and Sterility 116 (1):25-26.
    Ethically sound analyses of embryo genetic editing require more than simple assessments of safety considerations. After all, we as humans care deeply not only about our health, but also care profoundly about the kinds of societies we construct, the injustices that our actions produce, the responsibilities that we have toward others and ourselves, our self-understanding, the characters that we develop, our family relationships, and the world that we leave to our children and grandchildren.
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  9. Infant Feeding and the Energy Transition: A Comparison Between Decarbonising Breastmilk Substitutes with Renewable Gas and Achieving the Global Nutrition Target for Breastfeeding.Aoife Long, Kian Mintz-Woo, Hannah Daly, Maeve O'Connell, Beatrice Smyth & Jerry D. Murphy - 2021 - Journal of Cleaner Production 324:129280.
    Highlights: -/- • Breastfeeding and breastfeeding support can contribute to mitigating climate change. • Achieving global nutrition targets will save more emissions than fuel-switching. • Breastfeeding support programmes support a just transition. • This work can support the expansion of mitigation options in energy system models. -/- Abstract: -/- Renewable gas has been proposed as a solution to decarbonise industrial processes, specifically heat demand. As part of this effort, the breast-milk substitutes industry is proposing to use renewable gas as a (...)
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  10. The Defective Character Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Ben Bramble - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy 118 (9):504-520.
    The non-identity problem is that some actions seem morally wrong even though, by affecting future people’s identities, they are worse for nobody. In this paper, I further develop and defend a lesser-known solution to the problem, one according to which when such actions are wrong, it is not because of what they do or produce, but rather just because of why they were performed. In particular, I argue that the actions in non-identity cases are wrong just when and because they (...)
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  11. The Right to Reproduce.Carolyn McLeod - forthcoming - In Wendy A. Rogers, Catherine Mills & Jackie Leach Scully (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Feminist Bioethics. New York, NY, USA:
    The reproductive rights of women have been a central topic in feminist bioethics. The focus has been predominantly on the right not to reproduce, and so not to be subject to pronatalist social forces that make motherhood compulsory for women. That is the case despite many women and other members of marginalized groups experiencing anti-natalism, or in other words, social pressure to avoid biological reproduction. For these groups, the right to reproduce is as important, if not more important, than the (...)
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  12. Meaning and Medicine: An Underexplored Bioethical Value.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Ethik in der Medizin 33 (4):439-453.
    In this article, part of a special issue on meaning in life and medical ethics, I argue that several issues encountered in a bioethical context are not adequately addressed only with values such as morality and welfare. I maintain, more specifically, that the value of what makes a life meaningful is essential to being able to provide conclusive judgements about which decisions to make. After briefly indicating how meaningfulness differs from rightness and happiness, I point out how it is plausibly (...)
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  13. Reproductive Ethics and Family.Oskar Neyra - 2021 - Voices in Bioethics 7.
    Photo by Christian Bowen on Unsplash ABSTRACT Assisted Reproductive Technology can be a beneficial tool for couples unable to reproduce independently; however, it has historically discriminated against the LGBTQ+ community members. Given the evolution and acceptance of LGBTQ rights in recent years, discrimination and barriers to access reproductive technology and health care should be readdressed as they still exist within this community. INTRODUCTION In recent years, the LGBTQ+ community has made great strides toward attaining equal rights. This fight dates back (...)
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  14. Whose Ethics? Making Reproductive Ethics More Inclusive and Just.Sonya Charles - 2019 - Janus Head 17 (1):93-122.
    As the field of assisted-reproductive technology progresses, bioethicists continue to debate whether and how the availability of this technology creates new moral duties for parents-to-be. It is rare for these debates to seriously engage with questions related to race and class. Camisha Russell asks us to move race from the margins to the center of our discussions of reproductive ethics. She argues that this shift can work as a kind of corrective that will lead to better theory. In this paper, (...)
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  15. Detached From Humanity: Artificial Gestation and the Christian Dilemma.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - forthcoming - Christian Bioethics.
    The development of artificial womb technology is proceeding rapidly and will present important ethical and theological challenges for Christians. While there has been extensive secular discourse on artificial wombs in recent years, there has been little Christian engagement with this topic. There are broadly two primary uses of artificial womb technology—ectogestation as a form of enhanced neonatal care, where some of the gestation period takes place in an artificial womb, and ectogenesis, where the entire gestation period is within an artificial (...)
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  16. Justified Asymmetries: Positive and Negative Claims to Conscience in Reproductive Health Care.Carolyn McLeod - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (8):60-62.
    A peer commentary on an AJOB article by Kyle Fritz called "Unjustified Asymmetry: Positive Claims of Conscience and Heartbeat Bills.".
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  17. Contraception in Research: A Policy Suggestion.Toby L. Schonfeld & Bruce G. Gordon - 2005 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 27 (2):15.
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  18. Misunderstanding in Clinical Research: Distinguishing Therapeutic Misconception, Therapeutic Misestimation, & Therapeutic Optimism.Sam Horng & Christine Grady - 2003 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 25 (1):11.
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  19. Abortion and Fetal Tissue Transplantation.Douglas K. Martin - 1993 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 15 (3):1.
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  20. Bill to Resume Federal Funding of Fetal Tissue Transplantation Is Damaging to Women.Dorothy E. Vawter, Karen G. Gervais & Warren Kearney - 1991 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 13 (5):11.
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  21. The Use of Aborted Fetal Tissue in Research: A Rebuttal.James Tunstead Burtchaell - 1989 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 11 (2):9.
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  22. A Response to Burtchaell: I: The Ethics of Using Human Fetal Tissue.Benjamin Freedman - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (6):1.
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  23. University Policy on Experimental Use of Aborted Fetal Tissue.James Tunstead Burtchaell - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (4):7.
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  24. University Policy on Experimental Use of Aborted Fetal Tissue.Burtchaell James Tunstead - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (4):7.
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  25. Choice in Fertility Preservation in Girls and Adolescent Women with Cancer.Jeff Nisker, Françoise Baylis & Carolyn McLeod - 2006 - Cancer 107 (S7):1686-1689.
    With the cure rate for many pediatric malignancies now between 70% and 90%, infertility becomes an increasingly important issue. Strategies for preserving fertility in girls and adolescent women occur in two distinct phases. The first phase includes oophorectomy and cryopreservation of ovarian cortex slices or individual oocytes; ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of oocytes, with or without in vitro maturation, followed by cryopreservation; and ovarian autografting to a distant site. The second phase occurs if the woman chooses to pursue pregnancy, and includes (...)
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  26. Affecting Future Individuals: Why and When Germline Genome Editing Entails a Greater Moral Obligation Towards Progeny.Davide Battisti - 2021 - Bioethics:1-9.
    Assisted reproductive technologies have greatly increased our control over reproductive choices, leading some bioethicists to argue that we face unprecedented moral obligations towards progeny. Several models attempting to balance the principle of procreative autonomy with these obligations have been proposed. The least demanding is the minimal threshold model (MTM), according to which every reproductive choice is permissible, except creating children whose lives will not be worth living. Hence, as long as the future child is likely to have a life worth (...)
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  27. If Fetuses Are Persons, Abortion is a Public Health Crisis.Bruce Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (5):465-472.
    Pro-life advocates commonly argue that fetuses have the moral status of persons, and an accompanying right to life, a view most pro-choice advocates deny. A difficulty for this pro-life position has been Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, in which she argues that even if the fetus is a person, abortion is often permissible because a pregnant woman is not obliged to continue to offer her body as life support. Here, we outline the moral theories underlying public health ethics, and examine (...)
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  28. Conscientious Refusals to Provide Reproductive Health Care: Carolyn McLeod: Conscience in Reproductive Health Care: Prioritizing Patient Interests. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, 224 Pp, £40.00 HB.Carolyn Mason - 2020 - Metascience 30 (1):131-134.
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  29. Gamete Donation, the Responsibility Objection, and Procreative Responsibilities.Reuven Brandt - 2021 - Wiley: Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (1):88-103.
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  30. Legal and Ethical Analysis of Advertising for Elective Egg Freezing.Michelle J. Bayefsky - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (4):748-764.
    This paper reviews common advertising claims by egg freezing companies and evaluates the medical evidence behind those claims. It then surveys legal standards for truth in advertising, including FTC and FDA regulations and the First Amendment right to free speech. Professional standards for medical advertising, such as guidelines published by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Medical Association, are also summarized. A number of claims, many of which relate to the (...)
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  31. The Environmental Impact of Overpopulation: The Ethics of Procreation.Trevor Hedberg - 2020 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book examines the link between population growth and environmental impact and explores the implications of this connection for the ethics of procreation. In light of climate change, species extinctions, and other looming environmental crises, Trevor Hedberg argues that we have a collective moral duty to halt population growth to prevent environmental harms from escalating. This book assesses a variety of policies that could help us meet this moral duty, confronts the conflict between protecting the welfare of future people and (...)
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  32. Is Pregnancy Really a Good Samaritan Act?Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2021 - Christian Bioethics 27 (2):158–168.
    One of the most influential philosophical arguments in favour of the permissibility of abortion is Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, presented in ‘A Defense of Abortion’. Its appeal for pro-choice advocates lies in Thomson’s granting that the fetus is a person with equivalent moral status to any other human being, and yet demonstrating—to those who accept her reasoning—that abortion is still permissible. In her argument, Thomson draws heavily on the parable of the Good Samaritan, arguing that gestating a fetus in (...)
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  33. Bacterial Baptism: Scientific, Medical, and Regulatory Issues Raised by Vaginal Seeding of C-Section-Born Babies.Noel T. Mueller, Suchitra K. Hourigan, Diane E. Hoffmann, Lauren Levy, Erik C. von Rosenvinge, Betty Chou & Maria-Gloria Dominguez-Bello - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (4):568-578.
    Several lines of evidence suggest that children born via Cesarean section are at greater risk for adverse health outcomes including allergies, asthma and obesity. Vaginal seeding is a medical procedure in which infants born by C-section are swabbed immediately after birth with vaginal secretions from the mother. This procedure has been proposed as a way to transfer the mother's vaginal microbiome to the child, thereby restoring the natural exposure that occurs during vaginal birth that is interrupted in the case of (...)
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  34. New Zealand Policy on Frozen Embryo Disputes.Carolyn Mason - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):121-131.
    Disputes between separated couples over whether frozen embryos can be used in an attempt to create a child create a moral dilemma for public policy. When a couple create embryos intending to parent any resulting children, New Zealand’s current policy requires the consent of both people at every stage of the ART process. New Zealand’s Advisory Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology has proposed a policy change that would give ex-partners involved in an embryo dispute twelve months to come to an (...)
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  35. Do Mothers of Extremely Preterm Babies Have a Duty to Express Breastmilk?Fiona Woollard - 2020 - Acta Paediatrica 110 (1):22-24.
    Infant feeding decisions are highly emotionally charged. I argue elsewhere that many problems surrounding infant feeding decisions result from a moralized context created by mistakes in our assumptions about maternal duties including the mistaken assumption that mothers have a defeasible moral duty to breastfeed. Mothers have a reason, but not a moral duty to breastfeed. Even those who are convinced by my argument in the case of full-term babies, might find it harder to accept in the case of premature babies. (...)
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  36. Genetic Selective Abortion: Still a Matter of Choice.Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (2):445-455.
    Jeremy Williams has argued that if we are committed to a liberal pro-choice stance with regard to selective abortion for disability, we will be unable to justify the prohibition of sex selective abortion. Here, I apply his reasoning to selective abortion based on other traits pregnant women may decide are undesirable. These include susceptibility to disease, level of intelligence, physical appearance, sexual orientation, religious belief and criminality—in fact any traits attributable to some degree to a genetic component. Firstly, I review (...)
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  37. Legal But Rare.Andrew Fiala - 2019 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):203-220.
    This paper argues that it is not incoherent to think that abortion should be “legal but rare.” The argument draws upon virtue ethics, feminism, critical theory, and the theory of biopolitics to argue that the idea that abortion should be legal but rare is best understood as aiming at the elimination of unwanted pregnancies. Some pro-choice defenders of abortion rights worry that the “legal but rare” idea stigmatizes women who choose abortion. But when this idea is unpacked using the tools (...)
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  38. Rethinking Incest Avoidance: Beyond the Disciplinary Groove of Culture-First Views.Robert A. Wilson - 2021 - Biological Theory 16 (3):162-175.
    The Westermarck Effect posits that intimate association during childhood promotes human incest avoidance. In previous work, I articulated and defended a version of the Westermarck Effect by developing a phylogenetic argument that has purchase within primatology but that has had more limited appeal for cultural anthropologists due to their commitment to conventionalist or culture-first accounts of incest avoidance. Here I look to advance the discussion of incest and incest avoidance beyond culture-first accounts in two ways. First, I shall dig deeper (...)
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  39. Legal Punishment, Abortion and the Substance View.Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2019 - The New Bioethics (3):1-3.
    A response to Henrik Friberg-Fernros' commentary on ‘The Ethics of Killing: Strengthening the Substance View with Time-relative Interests’.
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  40. From Dusk Till Dawn: Bioethical Insights Into the Beginning and the End of Life.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2019 - Berlin, Germany: Logos Verlag.
    From Dawn till Dusk embraces the conceptual challenges often associated with Bioethics by taking the reader on a journey that embodies the circle of life and what it means to be human. The beginning and the end of life have always been an impossible riddle to humans. Bioethics does not aspire to unveil utter truths regarding the purpose of our existence; on the contrary, its task is to settle controversial issues that arise within this finite, very fragile and vulnerable life, (...)
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  41. Double Effect & Ectopic Pregnancy – Some Problems.Michal Pruski - 2019 - Catholic Medical Quarterly 69 (2):17-20.
    This paper looks at the Catholic justification of medical interventions in ectopic pregnancies. The paper first shows that the way how Double Effect Reasoning is often applied to ectopic pregnancies is not consistent with the way Aquinas introduces this mode of reasoning. The paper then shows certain problems in common defences of the use of salpingectomies. The paper then re-evaluates the medical interventions used in the management of ectopic pregnancies, with both a focus on the aim of the treatment and (...)
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  42. The Relationship of Gametes to Those Who Procreate and Its Impact on Artificially Generated Gamete Technologies.Michal Pruski - 2017 - Ethics and Medicine 33 (1):27-41.
    Current developments in reproductive technology forecast that in the foreseeable future artificially generated gametes might be presented as a possible fertility treatment for infertile couples and for homosexual couples desiring to have children genetically originating from both partners. It is important to evaluate the ethical issues connected to this technology before its emergence. This article first reviews the meaning that gametes (sperm and eggs) might have to those who procreate, as well as their ontology. From this, suggestions are made as (...)
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  43. Genetic Parenthood and Causation: An Objection to Douglas and Devolder’s Modified Direct Proportionate Genetic Descent Account.César Palacios-González - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (9):1085-1090.
    In a recent publication Tom Douglas and Katrien Devolder have proposed a new account of genetic parenthood, building on the work of Heidi Mertes. Douglas and Devolder’s account aims to solve, among other things, the question of who are the genetic parents of an individual created through somatic cell nuclear transfer (i.e. cloning): (a) the nuclear DNA provider or (b) the progenitors of the nuclear DNA provider. Such a question cannot be answered by simply appealing to the folk account of (...)
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  44. Obscene Division: Feminist Liberal Assessments of Prostitution Versus Feminist Liberal Defenses of Pornography.Jessica Spector - 2006 - In Prostitution and Pornograph. Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University Press. pp. 419-444.
    In assessing ethical issues concerning the sex-industry, feminist liberalism ought to combine the concern for the worker that is central to its treatment of prostitution, with sensitivity to the social and cultural embeddedness of self that is central to its treatment of pornography. That would enable us to then look at live-actor pornography as a form of prostitution that raises additional questions about third party consumption — and analysis both more theoretically coherent and practically useful.
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  45. Conscience in Reproductive Health Care: Prioritizing Patient Interests.Carolyn McLeod - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Conscience in Reproductive Health Care responds to the growing worldwide trend of health care professionals conscientiously refusing to provide abortions and similar reproductive health services in countries where these services are legal and professionally accepted. Carolyn McLeod argues that conscientious objectors in health care should prioritize the interests of patients in receiving care over their own interest in acting on their conscience. She defends this "prioritizing approach" to conscientious objection over the more popular "compromise approach" without downplaying the importance of (...)
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  46. Prenatal Care for Undocumented Immigrants: Professional Norms, Ethical Tensions, and Practical Workarounds.Rachel E. Fabi & Holly A. Taylor - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (3):398-408.
    This paper examines the practice implications of various state policies that provide publicly funded prenatal care to undocumented immigrants for health care workers who see undocumented patients. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with purposively sampled health care workers at safety net clinics in California, Maryland, Nebraska, and New York. Health care workers were asked about the process through which undocumented patients receive prenatal care in their health center and the ethical tensions and frustrations they encounter when providing or facilitating (...)
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  47. Is It Ever Morally Permissible to Select for Deafness in One’s Child?Jacqueline Mae Wallis - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):3-15.
    As reproductive genetic technologies advance, families have more options to choose what sort of child they want to have. Using preimplantation genetic diagnosis, for example, allows parents to evaluate several existing embryos before selecting which to implant via in vitro fertilization. One of the traits PGD can identify is genetic deafness, and hearing embryos are now preferentially selected around the globe using this method. Importantly, some Deaf families desire a deaf child, and PGD–IVF is also an option for them. Selection (...)
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  48. Meeting the Epicurean Challenge: A Reply to Christensen.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):478-479.
    In ’Abortion and deprivation: a reply to Marquis’, Anna Christensen contends that Don Marquis’ influential ’future like ours’ argument for the immorality of abortion faces a significant challenge from the Epicurean claim that human beings cannot be harmed by their death. If deprivation requires a subject, then abortion cannot deprive a fetus of a future of value, as no individual exists to be deprived once death has occurred. However, the Epicurean account also implies that the wrongness of murder is also (...)
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  49. Nobody Puts Baby in the Container: The Foetal Container Model at Work in Medicine and Commercial Surrogacy.Teresa Baron - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (3):491-505.
    This article argues that a particular metaphysical model permeates cultural practices surrounding pregnancy: the foetal container model. Widespread uncritical reliance on this view of pregnancy has been highly detrimental to women's liberty and reproductive autonomy. In this article, I extend existing critiques of the medical treatment of pregnant women to the context of the burgeoning commercial surrogacy industry. In doing so, I aim to show that our philosophical analysis in both spheres is constrained by the presupposition that the foetus and (...)
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  50. The Subjects of Ectogenesis: Are “Gestatelings” Fetuses, Newborns, or Neither?Nick Colgrove - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (11):723-726.
    Subjects of ectogenesis—human beings that are developing in artificial wombs (AWs)—share the same moral status as newborns. To demonstrate this, I defend two claims. First, subjects of partial ectogenesis—those that develop in utero for a time before being transferred to AWs—are newborns (in the full sense of the word). Second, subjects of complete ectogenesis—those who develop in AWs entirely—share the same moral status as newborns. To defend the first claim, I rely on Elizabeth Chloe Romanis’s distinctions between fetuses, newborns and (...)
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