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  1. The Cyclical Return of the IQ Controversy: Revisiting the Lessons of the Resolution on Genetics, Race and Intelligence.Davide Serpico - 2021 - Journal of the History of Biology 54 (2):199-228.
    In 1976, the Genetics Society of America published a document entitled “Resolution of Genetics, Race, and Intelligence.” This document laid out the Society’s position in the IQ controversy, particularly that on scientific and ethical questions involving the genetics of intellectual differences between human populations. Since the GSA was the largest scientific society of geneticists in the world, many expected the document to be of central importance in settling the controversy. Unfortunately, the Resolution had surprisingly little influence on the discussion. In (...)
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  2. Research on group differences in intelligence: A defense of free inquiry.Nathan Cofnas - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (1):125-147.
    In a very short time, it is likely that we will identify many of the genetic variants underlying individual differences in intelligence. We should be prepared for the possibility that these variants are not distributed identically among all geographic populations, and that this explains some of the phenotypic differences in measured intelligence among groups. However, some philosophers and scientists believe that we should refrain from conducting research that might demonstrate the (partly) genetic origin of group differences in IQ. Many scholars (...)
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  3. How Reliably Can We Measure a Child’s True IQ? Socio-Economic Status Can Explain Most of the Inter-Ethnic Differences in General Non-verbal Abilities.Dacian Dolean & Alexandra Cãlugãr - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  4. More than provocative, less than scientific: A commentary on the editorial decision to publish Cofnas.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen, Helen De Cruz, Jonathan Kaplan, Agustín Fuentes, Jonathan Marks, Massimo Pigliucci, Mark Alfano, David Livingstone Smith & Lauren Schroeder - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (7):893-898.
    This letter addresses the editorial decision to publish the article, “Research on group differences in intelligence: A defense of free inquiry” (Cofnas, 2020). Our letter points out several critical problems with Cofnas's article, which we believe should have either disqualified the manuscript upon submission or been addressed during the review process and resulted in substantial revisions.
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  5. Implications for virtue epistemology from psychological science: Intelligence as an interactionist virtue.Mark Alfano & Joshua August Skorburg - 2018 - In Heather Battaly (ed.), Handbook of Virtue Epistemology. Routledge. pp. 433-445.
    This chapter aims to expand the body of empirical literature considered relevant to virtue theory beyond the burned-over districts that are the situationist challenges to virtue ethics and epistemology. We thus raise a rather simple-sounding question: why doesn’t virtue epistemology have an account of intelligence? In the first section, we sketch the history and present state of the person-situation debate to argue for the importance of an interactionist framework in bringing psychological research in general, and intelligence research in particular, to (...)
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  6. Intelligence, race, and psychological testing.Mark Alfano, Latasha Holden & Andrew Conway - 2016 - In Naomi Zack (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Race.
    This chapter has two main goals: to update philosophers on the state of the art in the scientific psychology of intelligence, and to explain and evaluate challenges to the measurement invariance of intelligence tests. First, we provide a brief history of the scientific psychology of intelligence. Next, we discuss the metaphysics of intelligence in light of scientific studies in psychology and neuroimaging. Finally, we turn to recent skeptical developments related to measurement invariance. These have largely focused on attributability: Where do (...)
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  7. Science is not always “self-correcting” : fact–value conflation and the study of intelligence.Nathan Cofnas - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (3):477-492.
    Some prominent scientists and philosophers have stated openly that moral and political considerations should influence whether we accept or promulgate scientific theories. This widespread view has significantly influenced the development, and public perception, of intelligence research. Theories related to group differences in intelligence are often rejected a priori on explicitly moral grounds. Thus the idea, frequently expressed by commentators on science, that science is “self-correcting”—that hypotheses are simply abandoned when they are undermined by empirical evidence—may not be correct in all (...)
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  8. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests.Heiner Rindermann, David Becker & Thomas R. Coyle - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    Following Snyderman and Rothman, we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education, wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim (...)
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  9. Race, IQ, and the search for statistical signals associated with so-called “X”-factors: environments, racism, and the “hereditarian hypothesis”.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):1-17.
    Some authors defending the “hereditarian” hypothesis with respect to differences in average IQ scores between populations have argued that the sorts of environmental variation hypothesized by some researchers rejecting the hereditarian position should leave discoverable statistical traces, namely changes in the overall variance of scores or in variance–covariance matrices relating scores to other variables. In this paper, I argue that the claims regarding the discoverability of such statistical signals are broadly mistaken—there is no good reason to suspect that the hypothesized (...)
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  10. Stereotype threat and intellectual virtue.Mark Alfano - 2014 - In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155-74.
    For decades, intelligence and achievement tests have registered significant differences between people of different races, ethnicities, classes, and genders. We argue that most of these differences are explained not as reflections of differences in the distribution of intellectual virtues but as evidence for the metacognitive mediation of the intellectual virtues. For example, in the United States, blacks typically score worse than whites on tests of mathematics. This might lead one to think that fewer blacks possess the relevant intellectual virtues, or (...)
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  11. Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism about Race.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1039-1052.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of "race": bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards' 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  12. IQ, inteligencia y heredabilidad: la influencia del darwinismo para explicar las capacidades humanas.Yuriditzi Pascacio Montijo - 2010 - Revista de Filosofía (México) 42 (128):97-117.
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  13. Nature, Nurture, and Politics.Neven Sesardic - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):433-436.
    Political imputations in science are notoriously a tricky business. I addressed this issue in the context of the nature–nurture debate in the penultimate chapter of my book Making Sense of Heritability (Cambridge U. P. 2005). Although the book mainly dealt with the logic of how one should think about heritability of psychological differences, it also discussed the role of politics in our efforts to understand the dynamics of that controversy. I first argued that if a scholar publicly defends a certain (...)
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  14. The entanglement of race and cognitive dis/ability.Anna Stubblefield - 2009 - Metaphilosophy 40 (3-4):531-551.
    To consider blackness and cognitive disability together is paradoxical. On one hand, supposed black intellectual deficit has been used by white elites as a justification for antiblack oppression. On the other, both black children who are struggling in school and black adults labeled with developmental disabilities are less likely than their white counterparts to access the best support services available. These problems cut across a commonly drawn—but, I argue, erroneous—divide between the “judgment” categories of mild cognitive impairment into which black (...)
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  15. Biology and intelligence: the race/IQ controversy.Mike Anderson - 2007 - In Sergio Della Sala (ed.), Tall Tales About the Mind and Brain: Separating Fact From Fiction. Oxford University Press. pp. 123.
  16. IQ and the Wealth of Nations. By Richard Lynn & Tatu Vanhanen. Pp. 298. (Praeger, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2002.) £53.95, ISBN 0-275-97510-X, hardback. [REVIEW]Elena Godina - 2005 - Journal of Biosocial Science 37 (6):783-785.
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  17. Ethnic and racial differences on the standard progressive matrices in mexico.Richard Lynn, Eduardo Backhoff & L. A. Contreras - 2005 - Journal of Biosocial Science 37 (1):107-113.
    Raven10 years in Mexico. The mean IQs in relation to a British mean of 100 obtained from the 1979 British standardization sample and adjusted for the estimated subsequent increase were: 98·0 for whites, 94·3 for Mestizos and 83·3 for Native Mexican Indians.
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  18. The growth of iq among estonian schoolchildren from ages 7 to 19.Helle Pullmann, Jüri Allik & Richard Lynn - 2004 - Journal of Biosocial Science 36 (6):735-740.
    The Standard Progressive Matrices test was standardized in Estonia on a representative sample of 4874 schoolchildren aged from 7 to 19 years. When the IQ of Estonian children was expressed in relation to British and Icelandic norms, both demonstrated a similar sigmoid relationship. The youngest Estonian group scored higher than the British and Icelandic norms: after first grade, the score fell below 100 and remained lower until age 12, and after that age it increased above the mean level of these (...)
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  19. Race, brain size, and IQ: The case for consilience.J. Philippe Rushton - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):648-649.
    Data from magnetic resonance imaging, autopsy, endocranial measurements, and other techniques show that: brain size correlates 0.40 with cognitive ability; average brain size varies by race; and average cognitive ability varies by race. These results are as replicable as one will find in the social and behavioral sciences. They pose serious problems for Rose 's claim that reductionistic science is inadequate, inefficient, and/or unproductive.
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  20. Philosophy of Science that Ignores Science: Race, IQ and Heritability.Neven Sesardic - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (4):580-602.
    Philosophers of science widely believe that the hereditarian theory about racial differences in IQ is based on methodological mistakes and confusions involving the concept of heritability. I argue that this "received view" is wrong: methodological criticisms popular among philosophers are seriously misconceived, and the discussion in philosophy of science about these matters is largely disconnected from the real, empirically complex issues debated in science.
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  21. Philosophy of science that ignores science: race, IQ and heritability.Neven Sesardictt - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (4):580-602.
  22. The bell curve case for heredity.Max Hocutt & Michael Levin - 1999 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (3):389-415.
    City College of New York The hereditarian theory of race differences in IQ was briefly revived with the appearance of The Bell Curve but then quickly dismissed. The authors attempt a defense of it here, with an eye to conceptual and logical issues of special interests to philosophers, such as alleged infirmities in the heritability concept. At the same time, some relevant post-Bell Curve empirical data are introduced.
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  23. Race and Iq.Ashley Montagu (ed.) - 1999 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Ashley Montagu, who first attacked the term "race" as a usable concept in his acclaimed work, Man's Most Dangerous Myth, offers here a devastating rebuttal to those who would claim any link between race and intelligence. In now classic essays, this thought-provoking volume critically examines the terms "race" and "IQ" and their applications in scientific discourse. The twenty-four contributors--including such eminent thinkers as Stephen Jay Gould, Richard Lewontin, Urie Bronfenbrenner, W.F. Bodmer, and Jerome Kagan--draw on fields that range from biology (...)
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  24. What went wrong? Reflections on science by observation and the bell curve.Clark Glymour - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):1-32.
    The Bell Curve aims to establish a set of causal claims. I argue that the methodology of The Bell Curve is typical of much of contemporary social science and is intrinsically defective. I claim better methods are available for causal inference from observational data, but that those methods would yield no causal conclusions from the data used in the formal analyses in The Bell Curve. Against the laissez-faire social policies advocated in the book, I claim that when combined with common (...)
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  25. Smart Jews: The Construction of the Image of Jewish Superior Intelligence by Sander L. Gilman. [REVIEW]Samuel Haber - 1998 - Isis 89:523-524.
  26. How heritability misleads about race.Ned Block - 1996 - In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Boston Review. Oxford University Press. pp. 99-128.
    According to The Bell Curve, Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, have (...)
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  27. The "Racial" Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future.Sandra G. Harding (ed.) - 1993 - Indiana University Press.
    "The classic and recent essays gathered here will challenge scholars in the natural sciences, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and women’s studies to examine the role of racism in the construction and application of the sciences. Harding... has also created a useful text for diverse classroom settings." —Library Journal "A rich lode of readily accessible thought on the nature and practice of science in society. Highly recommended." —Choice "This is an excellent collection of essays that should prove useful in a wide range (...)
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  28. James R. Flynn, Race, IQ and Jensen Reviewed by.Marvin Glass - 1982 - Philosophy in Review 2 (6):274-276.
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  29. Race, IQ and Jensen. [REVIEW]James P. Chamberlain - 1981 - Philosophical Studies (Dublin) 28:416-418.
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  30. Race, IQ and Jensen. [REVIEW]James P. Chamberlain - 1981 - Philosophical Studies (Dublin) 28:416-418.
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  31. Ought Research to be Unrestricted?Michael Dummett - 1981 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 12 (1):281-298.
    Freedom of scientific enquiry must be distinguished from freedom to communicate scientific results. The former demands freedom for scientists to communicate among one another, without which progress is hampered, but not, in itself, freedom to communicate conclusions to the public. The latter freedom may be taken as resting on a general principle of free speech, or, more specifically, on the right of all members of society to knowledge gained by that society, especially by means of public expenditure: it is not (...)
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  32. Race, the heritability of IQ, and the intellectual scale of nature.Douglas Wahlsten - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):358-359.
  33. IQ and race: A discussion of some confusions.Paul Gomberg - 1975 - Ethics 85 (3):258-266.
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  34. On the Science and Politics of the IQ.Franz Samelson - 1975 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 42.
  35. IQ, Heritability and Inequality, Part 2.N. J. Block & Gerald Dworkin - 1974 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 4 (1):40-99.
  36. IQ, Heritability, and Human Nature.Norman Daniels - 1974 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:143 - 180.
  37. The IQ Controversy and the Philosophy of Education.Kenneth Kaye - 1974 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:181 - 188.
  38. The iq controversy: A reply to Layzer.Arthur R. Jensen - 1972 - Cognition 1 (4):427-452.
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  39. Special Review.J. Philippe Rushton - unknown
    The first edition of The Mismeasure of Man appeared in 1981 and was quickly praised in the popular press as a definitive refutation of 100 years of scientific work on race, brain-size and intelligence. It sold 125,000 copies, was translated into 10 languages, and became required reading for undergraduate and even graduate classes in anthropology, psychology, and sociology. The second edition is not truly revised, but rather only expanded, as the author claims the book needed no updating as any new (...)
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  40. More Than Provocative, Less Than Scientific: A Commentary on the Editorial Decision to Publish Cofnas (2020).Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen, Helen De Cruz, Jonathan Kaplan, Agustín Fuentes, Massimo Pigliucci, Jonathan Marks, Mark Alfano, David Smith & Lauren Schroeder - manuscript
    We are addressing this letter to the editors of Philosophical Psychology after reading an article they decided to publish in the recent vol. 33, issue 1. The article is by Nathan Cofnas and is entitled “Research on group differences in intelligence: A defense of free inquiry” (2020). The purpose of our letter is not to invite Cofnas’s contribution into a broader dialogue, but to respectfully voice our concerns about the decision to publish the manuscript, which, in our opinion, fails to (...)
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