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  1. Time Remains.Sean Gryb & Karim P. Y. Thébault - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):663-705.
    On one popular view, the general covariance of gravity implies that change is relational in a strong sense, such that all it is for a physical degree of freedom to change is for it to vary with regard to a second physical degree of freedom. At a quantum level, this view of change as relative variation leads to a fundamentally timeless formalism for quantum gravity. Here, we will show how one may avoid this acute ‘problem of time’. Under our view, (...)
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  2. Physics meets philosophy at the planck scale.Craig Callender & Nicholas Huggett - manuscript
    This is the table of contents and first chapter of Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale (Cambridge University Press, 2001), edited by Craig Callender and Nick Huggett. The chapter discusses the question of why there should be a theory of quantum gravity. We tackle arguments that purport to show that the gravitational field *must* be quantized. We then introduce various programs in quantum gravity and discuss areas where quantum gravity and philosophy seem to have something to say to each (...)
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  3. Quantum Gravity: Time is the Red Herring and Classical Mathematics is the Elephant in the Room.D. A. Ford - manuscript
  4. A Structuralist Proposal for the Foundations of the Natural Numbers.Desmond Alan Ford - manuscript
    This paper introduces a novel object that has less structure than, and is ontologically prior to the natural numbers. As such it is a candidate model of the foundation that lies beneath the natural numbers. The implications for the construction of mathematical objects built upon that foundation are discussed.
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  5. Quantum Gravity in a Laboratory?Nick Huggett, Niels S. Linnemann & Mike D. Schneider - manuscript
    It has long been thought that observing distinctive traces of quantum gravity in a laboratory setting is effectively impossible, since gravity is so much weaker than all the other familiar forces in particle physics. But the quantum gravity phenomenology community today seeks to do the (effectively) impossible, using a challenging novel class of `tabletop' Gravitationally Induced Entanglement (GIE) experiments, surveyed here. The hypothesized outcomes of the GIE experiments are claimed by some (but disputed by others) to provide a `witness' of (...)
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  6. Out of Nowhere: the 'emergence' of spacetime in string theory.Nick Huggett & Christian Wüthrich - manuscript
    This is a chapter of the planned monograph "Out of Nowhere: The Emergence of Spacetime in Quantum Theories of Gravity", co-authored by Nick Huggett and Christian Wüthrich and under contract with Oxford University Press. This chapter analyses the nature and derivation of spacetime topology and geometry according to string theory.
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  7. Out of Nowhere: duality.Nick Huggett & Christian Wüthrich - manuscript
    This is a chapter of the planned monograph "Out of Nowhere: The Emergence of Spacetime in Quantum Theories of Gravity", co-authored by Nick Huggett and Christian Wüthrich and under contract with Oxford University Press. (More information at www<dot>beyondspacetime<dot>net.) This chapter investigates the meaning and significance of string theoretic dualities, arguing they reveal a surprising physical indeterminateness to spacetime.
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  8. Matters of Time Directionality in Classical and Quantum Physics.J. C. Lindner - manuscript
    This report offers a modern perspective on the question of time directionality as it arises in a classical and quantum-mechanical context, based on key developments in the field of gravitational physics. Important clarifications are achieved regarding, in particular, the concepts of time reversal, negative energy, and time-symmetric causality. From this analysis emerges an improved understanding of the general-relativistic concept of stress-energy of matter as being a manifestation of local variations in the energy density of zero-point vacuum fluctuations. Based on those (...)
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  9. Russell's 1927 The Analysis of Matter as the First Book on Quantum Gravity.Said Mikki - manuscript
    The goal of this note is to bring into wider attention the often neglected important work by Bertrand Russell on the foundations of physics published in the late 1920s. In particular, we emphasize how the book The Analysis of Matter can be considered the earliest systematic attempt to unify the modern quantum theory, just emerging by that time, with general relativity. More importantly, it is argued that the idea of what I call Russell space, introduced in Part III of that (...)
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  10. Approches de l'interprétation de la gravité quantique.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    L'interprétation de Copenhague peut être comprise non seulement comme une interprétation statistique minimale du formalisme quantique pour la fréquence des résultats de mesure, mais aussi comme mettant l'accent sur un domaine classique du système quantique, avec une séparation ferme de celui-ci et une description quantique de la première interprétation. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28288.87049.
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  11. Épistémologie de la gravité quantique.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    La gravité quantique a nécessité la prise en compte des questions épistémologiques fondamentales, qui peuvent être identifiées en philosophie avec le problème corps-esprit et le problème du libre arbitre . Ces questions ont influencé l'épistémologie de la mécanique quantique sous la forme du « parallélisme psycho-physique » de von Neumann et l'analyse ultérieure de la thèse de Wigner selon laquelle « l'effondrement du paquet d'ondes » se produit dans l'esprit de « l'observateur ». La gravité quantique en cosmologie pose le (...)
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  12. Épistemologie de la gravité quantique canonique - Gravité quantique à boucles.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Dans l'interprétation de la gravité quantique canonique, la gravité apparaît comme une pseudoforce géométrique, elle est réduite à la géométrie espace-temps et devient un simple effet de la courbure de l'espace-temps . Le formalisme canonique ne confirme pas cette interprétation. La relativité générale associe la gravité à l'espace-temps, mais le type d'association n'est pas fixé. La gravité quantique à boucles tente d'unifier la gravité avec les trois autres forces fondamentales en commençant par la relativité et en ajoutant des traits quantiques. (...)
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  13. Tests gravitationnels en champ fort.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Lorsque la densité du corps devient suffisamment importante, la relativité générale prédit la formation d'un trou noir. Les étoiles à neutrons d'environ 1,4 masses solaires et les trous noirs sont l'état final de l'évolution des étoiles massives . Habituellement, un trou noir dans une galaxie a joué un rôle important dans sa formation et les structures cosmiques associées. De tels corps fournissent un mécanisme efficace pour l'émission de rayonnement électromagnétique et la formation de microquasars . L'accrétion peut conduire à des (...)
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  14. Quantum mechanics foundations.Bakytzhan Oralbekov - manuscript
    Gravity remains the most elusive field. Its relationship with the electromagnetic field is poorly understood. Relativity and quantum mechanics describe the aforementioned fields, respectively. Bosons and fermions are often credited with responsibility for the interactions of force and matter. It is shown here that fermions factually determine the gravitational structure of the universe, while bosons are responsible for the three established and described forces. Underlying the relationships of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields is a symmetrical probability distribution of fermions and (...)
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  15. Epistemology of Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Quantum gravity has required the consideration of fundamental epistemological questions, which can be identified in philosophy with the mind-body problem and the problem of free will. These questions influenced the epistemology of quantum mechanics in the form of von Neumann's "psycho-physical parallelism" and the subsequent analysis of the thesis by Wigner that "the collapse of the wave packet" occurs in the mind of the "observer". Quantum gravity in cosmology involves the problem of the experimenter's freedom to change local physical conditions, (...)
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  16. Extensions of quantum gravity theories - Final theory and cosmology.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The fields of application of general relativity (GR) and quantum field theory (QFT) are different, so most situations require the use of only one of the two theories. The overlaps occur in regions of extremely small size and high mass, such as the black hole or the early universe (immediately after the Big Bang). This conflict is supposed to be solved only by unifying gravity with the other three interactions, to integrate GR and QFT into one theory. At the cosmological (...)
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  17. Epistemology of String Theory in Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In quantum field theory, the main obstacle is the occurrence of the untreatable infinities in the interactions of the particles due to the possibility of arbitrary distances between the point particles. Strings, as extended objects, provide a better framework, which allows finite calculations. String theory is part of a research program in which point particles in particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with one another. The purpose of (...)
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  18. Epistemologia gravitației cuantice.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Din punct de vedere metodologic, atât Newton cât și Einstein, și ulterior Dirac, au susținut fără rezerve principiul simplității matematice în descoperirea noilor legi fizice ale naturii. Lor li s-au alăturat și Poincaré și Weyl. Eduard Prugovecki afirmă că gravitația cuantică a impus luarea în considerare a unor întrebări epistemologice fundamentale, care pot fi identificate în filosofie cu problema minții-corp și cu problema liberului arbitru. Aceste întrebări au influențat epistemologia mecanicii cuantice sub forma "paralelismului psiho-fizic" al lui von Neumann și (...)
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  19. Gravitația cuantică – Euristica și teste gravitaționale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În încercarea de dezvoltare a unei teorii solide a gravitației cuantice, au existat mai multe programe de cercetare, dintre care unele au căzut în timp în desuetitudine datorită puterii euristice mai mari a altor programe. Testul primordial al oricărei teorii cuantice a gravitației este reproducerea succeselor relativității generale. Aceasta implică reconstrucția geometriei locale din observabilele nelocale. În plus, gravitația cuantică ar trebui să prezică probabilistic topologia la scară largă a Universului, care în curând poate fi măsurabilă, și fenomene la scala (...)
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  20. Epistemologia gravitației cuantice canonice – Gravitația cuantică în bucle.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În interpretarea gravitației cuantice canonice, gravitația apare ca o pseudoforță geometrică, este redusă la geometria spațio-temporală și devine un simplu efect al curburii spațiu-timpului. Relativitatea generală asociază gravitația cu spațiu-timpul, dar tipul de asociere nu este fixat. În locul interpretării geometrice se poate folosi interpretarea câmpului (geometria spațiu-timp este redusă la un câmp gravitațional, respectiv metrica, considerată drept "doar un alt câmp") sau interpretarea egalitară (o identificare conceptuală a gravitației și spațiu-timpului în relativitatea generală. ). Aceste interpretări alternative reduc diferențele (...)
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  21. Heuristics and Tests of Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    For the attempt to create a gravitational quantum theory, there are several research programs, some of which became obsolete over time due to the higher heuristic power of other programs. The primordial test of any quantum theory of gravity is the reproduction of the successes of general relativity. This involves reconstructing the local geometry from the non-local observables. In addition, quantum gravity should probabilistically predict the large-scale topology of the Universe, which may soon be measurable, and phenomena at the Planck (...)
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  22. Epistemology of Canonical Quantum Gravity - Loop Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In the interpretation of canonical quantum gravity (CQG), gravity appears as a geometric pseudoforce, is reduced to spacetime geometry and becomes a simple effect of spacetime curvature. The scale at which quantum gravitational effects occur is determined by the different physical constants of fundamental physics: h, c and G, which characterize quantum, relativistic and gravitational phenomena. By combining these constants, we obtain the Planck constants at which the effects of quantum gravity must manifest. Loop quantum gravity attempts to unify gravity (...)
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  23. Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The evolution of gravitational tests from an epistemological perspective framed in the concept of rational reconstruction of Imre Lakatos, based on his methodology of research programmes. Unlike other works on the same subject, the evaluated period is very extensive, starting with Newton's natural philosophy and up to the quantum gravity theories of today. In order to explain in a more rational way the complex evolution of the gravity concept of the last century, I propose a natural extension of the methodology (...)
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  24. A Gravitized Standard Model Is Found as the Solution to the Problem of Maximizing the Entropy of All Geometric Measurements.Alexandre Harvey Tremblay - manuscript
    In modern theoretical physics, the laws of physics are directly represented with axioms (e.g., the Dirac--Von Neumann axioms, the Wightman axioms, Newton's laws of motion). Although in logic axioms are held to be true merely by definition, in physics the laws are entailed by laboratory measurements. This difference is sufficient to warrant a more appropriate logical structure than axioms to represent the laws of physics. This paper first presents this logical structure and then demonstrates its supremacy. Specifically, an optimization problem (...)
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  25. Out of Nowhere: Spacetime from causality: causal set theory.Christian Wüthrich & Nick Huggett - manuscript
    This is a chapter of the planned monograph "Out of Nowhere: The Emergence of Spacetime in Quantum Theories of Gravity", co-authored by Nick Huggett and Christian Wüthrich and under contract with Oxford University Press. (More information at www<dot>beyondspacetime<dot>net.) This chapter introduces causal set theory and identifies and articulates a 'problem of space' in this theory.
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  26. Out of Nowhere: The emergence of spacetime from causal sets.Christian Wüthrich & Nick Huggett - manuscript
    This is a chapter of the planned monograph "Out of Nowhere: The Emergence of Spacetime in Quantum Theories of Gravity", co-authored by Nick Huggett and Christian Wüthrich and under contract with Oxford University Press. (More information at www<dot>beyondspacetime<dot>net.) This chapter sketches how spacetime emerges in causal set theory and demonstrates how this question is deeply entangled with genuinely philosophical concerns.
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  27. Out of Nowhere: Introduction: the emergence of spacetime.Nick Huggett & Christian Wuthrich - 2021
    This is a chapter of the planned monograph "Out of Nowhere: The Emergence of Spacetime in Quantum Theories of Gravity", co-authored by Nick Huggett and Christian Wüthrich and under contract with Oxford University Press. (More information at www<dot>beyondspacetime<dot>net.) This chapter introduces the problem of emergence of spacetime in quantum gravity. It introduces the main philosophical challenge to spacetime emergence and sketches our preferred solution to it.
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  28. What Can We Learn from Stringy Black Holes?Nick Huggett - 2018
    This paper aims to address conceptual issues concerning black holes in the context of string theory, with the aim of illuminating the ontological unification of gravity and matter, and the interpretation of cosmological models. §1 describes the central concepts of the theory: the fungibility of matter and geometry, and the reduction of gravity and supergravity. The ‘standard’ interpretation presented draws on that implicit in the thinking of many (but not all) string theorists, though made more explicit and systematic than usual. (...)
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  29. A Philosopher Looks at Non-Commutative Geometry.Nick Huggett - 2018
    This paper introduces some basic ideas and formalism of physics in non-commutative geometry. My goals are three-fold: first to introduce the basic formal and conceptual ideas of non-commutative geometry, and second to raise and address some philosophical questions about it. Third, more generally to illuminate the point that deriving spacetime from a more fundamental theory requires discovering new modes of `physically salient' derivation.
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  30. New Quantum Spin Perspective of Quantum Gravity and Space-Time of Mind-Stuff.Rakshit Vyas & Mihir Joshi -
    The fundamental building block of the loop quantum gravity (LQG) is the spin network which is used to quantize the physical space-time in the LQG. Recently, the novel quantum spin is proposed using the basic concepts of the spin network. This perspective redefines the notion of the quantum spin and also introduces the novel definition of the reduced Planck constant. The implication of this perspective is not only limited to the quantum gravity; but also found in the quantum mechanics. Using (...)
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  31. Causal Theories of Spacetime.Sam Baron & Baptiste Le Bihan - forthcoming - Noûs.
    We develop a new version of the causal theory of spacetime. Whereas traditional versions of the theory seek to identify spatiotemporal relations with causal relations, the version we develop takes causal relations to be the grounds for spatiotemporal relations. Causation is thus distinct from, and more basic than, spacetime. We argue that this non-identity theory, suitably developed, avoids the challenges facing the traditional identity theory.
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  32. Humeanism in light of quantum gravity.Enrico Cinti & Marco Sanchioni - forthcoming - Synthese 199 (3):10839-10863.
    Quantum Theory and Humeanism have long been thought to be incompatible due to the irreducibility of the correlations involved in entangled states. In this paper, we reconstruct the tension between Humeanism and entanglement via the concept of causal structure, and provide a philosophical introduction to the ER=EPR conjecture. With these tools, we then show how the concept of causal structure and the ER=EPR conjecture allow us to resolve the conflict between Humeanism and entanglement.
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  33. Tabletop Experiments for Quantum Gravity Are Also Tests of the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Emily Adlam - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (5):1-43.
    Recently there has been a great deal of interest in tabletop experiments intended to exhibit the quantum nature of gravity by demonstrating that it can induce entanglement. In order to evaluate these experiments, we must determine if there is any interesting class of possibilities that will be convincingly ruled out if it turns out that gravity can indeed induce entanglement. In particular, since one argument for the significance of these experiments rests on the claim that they demonstrate the existence of (...)
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  34. Quantum Gravity and Mereology: Not So Simple.Sam Baron & Baptiste Le Bihan - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (1):19-40.
    A number of philosophers have argued in favour of extended simples on the grounds that they are needed by fundamental physics. The arguments typically appeal to theories of quantum gravity. To date, the argument in favour of extended simples has ignored the fact that the very existence of spacetime is put under pressure by quantum gravity. We thus consider the case for extended simples in the context of different views on the existence of spacetime. We show that the case for (...)
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  35. Spacetime Quietism in Quantum Gravity.Sam Baron & Baptiste Le Bihan - 2022 - In Antonio Vassallo (ed.), The Foundations of Spacetime Physics: Philosophical Perspectives. New York: Routledge. pp. 155-175.
    The existence and fundamentality of spacetime has been questioned in quantum gravity where spacetime is frequently described as emerging from a more fundamental non-spatiotemporal ontology. This is supposed to lead to various philosophical issues such as the problem of empirical coherence. Yet those issues assume beforehand that we actually understand and agree on the nature of spacetime. Reviewing popular conceptions of spacetime, we find that there is substantial disagreement on this matter, and little hope of resolving it. However, we argue (...)
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  36. Composing Spacetime.Sam Baron & Baptiste Le Bihan - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy 119 (1):33-54.
    According to a number of approaches in theoretical physics, spacetime does not exist fundamentally. Rather, spacetime exists by depending on another, more fundamental, non-spatiotemporal structure. A prevalent opinion in the literature is that this dependence should not be analyzed in terms of composition. We should not say, that is, that spacetime depends on an ontology of non-spatiotemporal entities in virtue of having them as parts. But is that really right? On the contrary, we argue that a mereological approach to dependent (...)
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  37. Jácome (Jay) Armas (ed.): Review of “Conversations on Quantum Gravity”: Cambridge University Press, 2021. [REVIEW]Alexander S. Blum - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-4.
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  38. Towards ψ-epistemic quantum gravity.Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet - 2022 - In And now for something completely different: the Elementary Process Theory. Revised, updated and extended 2nd edition of the dissertation with almost the same title. Utrecht: Eburon Academic Publishers. pp. 288-311.
    This self-contained letter shows how ψ-epistemic quantum gravity (QG), that is, QG with a ψ-epistemic interpretation of quantum theory, in principle obtains from a deterministic model of the Elementary Process Theory (EPT) that describes an individual process at supersmall (Planck) scale by which a predominantly gravitational interaction takes place. While both ψ-epistemic QG and the model of the EPT remain to be formulated rigorously, this shows how the probabilistic nature of our knowledge of the physical world emerges in a strictly (...)
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  39. Four Attitudes Towards Singularities in the Search for a Theory of Quantum Gravity.Karen Crowther & Sebastian De Haro - 2022 - In Antonio Vassallo (ed.), The Foundations of Spacetime Physics: Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge. pp. 223-250.
    Singularities in general relativity and quantum field theory are often taken not only to motivate the search for a more-fundamental theory (quantum gravity, QG), but also to characterise this new theory and shape expectations of what it is to achieve. Here, we first evaluate how particular types of singularities may suggest an incompleteness of current theories. We then classify four different 'attitudes' towards singularities in the search for QG, and show, through examples in the physics literature, that these lead to (...)
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  40. Quantum metaphysics and the foundations of spacetime.Vincent Lam, Laurie Letertre & Cristian Mariani - 2022 - In Antonio Vassallo (ed.), The Foundations of Spacetime Physics: Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge.
    The main research programs in quantum gravity tend to suggest in one way or another that most spacetime structures are not fundamental. At the same time, work in quantum foundations highlights fundamental features that are in tension with any straightforward space- time understanding. This paper aims to explore the little investigated but potentially fruitful links between these two fields.
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  41. TGFT condensate cosmology as an example of spacetime emergence in quantum gravity.Daniele Oriti - 2022 - In Antonio Vassallo (ed.), The Foundations of Spacetime Physics: Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge.
  42. On momentum operators given by Killing vectors whose integral curves are geodesics.Thomas Schürmann - 2022 - Physics 4 (4): 1440-1452.
    We consider momentum operators on intrinsically curved manifolds. Given that the momentum operators are Killing vector fields whose integral curves are geodesics, it is shown that the corresponding manifold is either flat, or otherwise of compact type with positive constant sectional curvature and dimension equal to 1, 3 or 7. Explicit representations of momentum operators and the associated Casimir element will be discussed for the 3-sphere. It will be verified that the structure constants of the underlying Lie algebra are proportional (...)
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  43. The Common Logic of Quantum Universe—Part II: The Case of Quantum Gravity.Massimo Tessarotto & Claudio Cremaschini - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-37.
    The logical structure of quantum gravity is addressed in the framework of the so-called manifestly covariant approach. This permits to display its close analogy with the logics of quantum mechanics. More precisely, in QG the conventional 2-way principle of non-contradiction holding in Classical Mechanics is shown to be replaced by a 3-way principle. The third state of logical truth corresponds to quantum indeterminacy/undecidability, i.e., the occurrence of quantum observables with infinite standard deviation. The same principle coincides, incidentally, with the earlier (...)
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  44. Beyond the Born Rule in Quantum Gravity.Antony Valentini - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 53 (1):1-36.
    We have recently developed a new understanding of probability in quantum gravity. In this paper we provide an overview of this new approach and its implications. Adopting the de Broglie–Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum physics, we argue that there is no Born rule at the fundamental level of quantum gravity with a non-normalisable Wheeler–DeWitt wave functional \(\Psi\). Instead the universe is in a perpetual state of quantum nonequilibrium with a probability density \(P\ne \left| \Psi \right| ^{2}\). Dynamical relaxation to the (...)
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  45. Quantum gravity at low energies.David Wallace - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 94 (C):31-46.
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  46. General Relativity.Ilexa Yardley - 2022 - Intelligent Design Center.
    Space joins (and separates) any X and-or Y. X and-or Y is, necessarily, 0 and-or 1. 0 and-or 1 is, necessarily, circumference and-or diameter. Explaining (what humans think of as) gravity (general relativity) (the 'self' in all systems). Thereby, and, therein, explaining the relationship between mind and matter. Integrating philosophy and physics (abstract and concrete reality) (where you need both in order to have either). Thereby, and, therein, explaining everything in psychology (a completely tokenized ‘reality’). You can think of this (...)
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  47. Missing Entities: Has Panpsychism Lost the Physical World?Damian Aleksiev - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (9-10):194-211.
    Panpsychists aspire to explain human consciousness, but can they also account for the physical world? In this paper, I argue that proponents of a popular form of panpsychism cannot. I pose a new challenge against this form of panpsychism: it faces an explanatory gap between the fundamental experiences it posits and some physical entities. I call the problem of explaining the existence of these physical entities within the panpsychist framework “the missing entities problem.” Spacetime, the quantum state, and quantum gravitational (...)
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  48. Eliminating Spacetime.Sam Baron - 2021 - Erkenntnis:1-20.
    A number of approaches to quantum gravity (QG) seem to imply that spacetime does not exist. Philosophers are quick to point out, however, that the loss of spacetime should not be regarded as total. Rather, we should interpret these approaches as ones that threaten the fundamentality but not the existence of spacetime. In this paper, I argue for two claims. First, I argue that spacetime realism is not forced by QG; spacetime eliminativism remains an option. Second, I argue that eliminativism (...)
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  49. Parts of spacetime.Sam Baron - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (4):387-398.
    Consider the following pair of theses: all fundamental physical objects are spatiotemporal and all non-fundamental physical objects are ultimately composed of fundamental objects. Work on the physics of quantum gravity suggests that spacetime is a non-fundamental, emergent phenomenon and thus that thesis is false. The fundamentals are non-spatiotemporal in nature. This paper will argue against on the grounds that non-fundamental spatiotemporal objects cannot be composed of fundamental non-spatiotemporal objects. So, assuming that spacetime is emergent, new metaphysical resources are needed to (...)
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  50. No Time for Time from No-Time.Eugene Y. S. Chua & Craig Callender - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (5):1172-1184.
    Programs in quantum gravity often claim that time emerges from fundamentally timeless physics. In the semiclassical time program time arises only after approximations are taken. Here we ask what justifies taking these approximations and show that time seems to sneak in when answering this question. This raises the worry that the approach is either unjustified or circular in deriving time from no–time.
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