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  1. Do Anthropologists Use Rational Actor Models? The Case of Marilyn Strathern.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    Economics uses rational actor models, but what about anthropology? I present an interpretation of the influential anthropologist Marilyn Strathern according to which she engages in a kind of rational actor modelling, but a kind that is different from economic modelling.
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  2. Psychological Operationisms at Harvard: Skinner, Boring, and Stevens.Sander Verhaegh - forthcoming - Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences.
    Contemporary discussions about operational definition often hark back to Stanley Smith Stevens’ classic papers on psychological operationism (1935ab). Still, he was far from the only psychologist to call for conceptual hygiene. Some of Stevens’ direct colleagues at Harvard---most notably B. F. Skinner and E. G. Boring---were also actively applying Bridgman’s conceptual strictures to the study of mind and behavior. In this paper, I shed new light on the history of operationism by reconstructing the Harvard debates about operational definition in the (...)
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  3. Moral Hazard, the Savage Framework, and State-Dependent Utility.Jean Baccelli - 2021 - Erkenntnis 86 (2):367-387.
    In this paper, I investigate the betting behavior of a decision-maker who can influence the likelihood of the events upon which she is betting. In decision theory, this is best known as a situation of moral hazard. Focusing on a particularly simple case, I sketch the first systematic analysis of moral hazard in the canonical Savage framework. From the results of this analysis, I draw two philosophical conclusions. First, from an observational and a descriptive point of view, there need to (...)
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  4. The Problem of State-Dependent Utility: A Reappraisal.Jean Baccelli - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (2):617-634.
    State-dependent utility is a problem for the behavioural branch of decision theory under uncertainty. It questions the very possibility that beliefs be revealed by choice data. According to the current literature, all models of beliefs are equally exposed to the problem. Moreover, the problem is solvable only when the decision-maker can influence the resolution of uncertainty. This article gives grounds to reject these two views. The various models of beliefs can be shown to be unequally exposed to the problem of (...)
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  5. Cold War Pavlov: Homosexual Aversion Therapy in the 1960s.Kate Davison - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):89-119.
    Homosexual aversion therapy enjoyed two brief but intense periods of clinical experimentation: between 1950 and 1962 in Czechoslovakia, and between 1962 and 1975 in the British Commonwealth. The specific context of its emergence was the geopolitical polarization of the Cold War and a parallel polarization within psychological medicine between Pavlovian and Freudian paradigms. In 1949, the Pavlovian paradigm became the guiding doctrine in the Communist bloc, characterized by a psychophysiological or materialist understanding of mental illness. It was taken up by (...)
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  6. Epistemological Solipsism as a Route to External World Skepticism.Grace Helton - 2021 - Philosophical Perspectives 35 (1):229-250.
    I show that some of the most initially attractive routes of refuting epistemological solipsism face serious obstacles. I also argue that for creatures like ourselves, solipsism is a genuine form of external world skepticism. I suggest that together these claims suggest the following morals: No proposed solution to external world skepticism can succeed which does not also solve the problem of epistemological solipsism. And, more tentatively: In assessing proposed solutions to external world skepticism, epistemologists should explicitly consider whether those solutions (...)
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  7. The Rise and Fall of Behaviorism: The Narrative and the Numbers.Michiel Braat, Jan Engelen, Ties van Gemert & Sander Verhaegh - 2020 - History of Psychology 23 (3):1-29.
    The history of twentieth-century American psychology is often depicted as a history of the rise and fall of behaviorism. Although historians disagree about the theoretical and social factors that have contributed to the development of experimental psychology, there is widespread consensus about the growing and declining influence of behaviorism between approximately 1920 and 1970. Since such wide-scope claims about the development of American psychology are typically based on small and unrepresentative samples of historical data, however, the question rises to what (...)
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  8. ‘Ghastly Marionettes’ and the Political Metaphysics of Cognitive Liberalism: Anti-Behaviourism, Language, and the Origins of Totalitarianism.Danielle Judith Zola Carr - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):147-174.
    While behaviourist psychology had proven its worth to the US military during the Second World War, the 1950s saw behaviourism increasingly associated with a Cold War discourse of ‘totalitarianism’. This article considers the argument made in Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism on totalitarianism as a form of behaviourist control. By connecting Arendt’s Cold War anti-behaviourism both to its discursive antecedents in a Progressive-era critique of industrial labour, and to contemporaneous attacks on behaviourism, this paper aims to answer two interlocking (...)
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  9. Psychological Mechanisms.Ulrich Koch & Kelso Cratsley - 2020 - In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences.
  10. El engaño del altruismo: la aptitud inclusiva y el colapso de la civilización.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    La predisposición genética a ayudar a nuestros parientes cercanos ("altruismo"), que era vital para la supervivencia en nuestros antepasados en las llanuras de Africa de cenas de miles a decenas de millones de años atrás, es un defecto fatal en un mundo superpoblado donde nuestros vecinos ya no están estrechamente relacionados y están involucrados en una lucha de vida o muerte por la supervivencia. Me he referido a esto como "El gran delirio de la familia feliz" y es fundamental para (...)
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  11. Ein weiteres Cartoon-Porträt des Geistes von den reduktionistischen Metaphysikern -eine Rezension von Peter Carruthers "Die Opazität des Geistes" (The Opacity of Mind) (2011)( Rezension überarbeitet 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Willkommen in der Hölle auf Erden: Babys, Klimawandel, Bitcoin, Kartelle, China, Demokratie, Vielfalt, Dysgenie, Gleichheit, Hacker, Menschenrechte, Islam, Liberalismus, Wohlstand, Internet, Chaos, Hunger, Krankheit, Gewalt, Künstliche Intelligenz, Krieg. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 130-157.
    Materialismus, Reduktionismus, Verhaltenismus, Funktionalismus, Dynamische Systemtheorie und Computeralismus sind populäre Ansichten, aber sie wurden von Wittgenstein als inkohärent gezeigt. Das Studium des Verhaltens umfasst das gesamte menschlicheLeben, aber Verhalten ist weitgehend automatisch und unbewusst und selbst der bewusste Teil, der meist in Sprache ausgedrückt wird (was Wittgenstein mit dem Geist gleichsetzt), ist nicht auffällig, daher ist es entscheidend, einen Rahmen zu haben, den Searle die Logische Struktur der Rationalität (LSR) nennt und ich nenne die Deskriptive Psychologie des Höheren Ordnungsdenkens (DPHOT). (...)
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  12. 에 의해 사회 세계를 만드는 검토 (Making the Social World) John Searle (2010).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 지구상의 지옥에 오신 것을 환영합니다 : 아기, 기후 변화, 비트 코인, 카르텔, 중국, 민주주의, 다양성, 역학, 평등, 해커, 인권, 이슬람, 자유주의, 번영, 웹, 혼돈, 기아, 질병, 폭력, 인공 지능, 전쟁. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 10-34.
    사회 세계 (MSW)를 만들기 에 자세히 언급하기 전에 m나는 먼저 철학 (설명 심리학)과 Searle (S)와 비트 겐슈타인 (W)의 작품에서 예시로 현대 심리학 연구와의 관계에 대한 몇 가지 의견을 제공 할 것입니다, 나는 이것이 행동에 Searle 또는 어떤 해설자를 배치하는 가장 좋은 방법이라고 생각하기 때문에, 적절한 관점에서. 그것은 크게 설명 심리학의이 두 천재에 의해 PNC, TLP, PI, OC, TARW 및 기타 책의 내 리뷰를 볼 도움이 될 것입니다. S는 TLP의 메커니즘으로 W의 선견지명 진술과 그의 후기 작업에서 그의 파괴에 대한 언급을하지 않습니다. (...)
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  13. Design as Aesthetic Education: On the Politics and Aesthetics of Learning Environments.Christina Vagt - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):175-187.
    The article, speaking from the double perspective of media history and political aesthetics, discusses the impact of behaviourism and early computer technology on the design of learning environments in the United States after the Second World War. By revisiting B. F. Skinner’s approaches to behavioural techniques and cultural engineering, and by showing how these principles were applied first at US design departments, and later to prison education, it argues that cybernetic and behavioural techniques merged in the common field of design (...)
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  14. Revaluing the Behaviorist Ghost in Enactivism and Embodied Cognition.Nikolai Alksnis & Jack Alan Reynolds - 2019 - Synthese 198 (6):5785-5807.
    Despite its short historical moment in the sun, behaviorism has become something akin to a theoria non grata, a position that dare not be explicitly endorsed. The reasons for this are complex, of course, and they include sociological factors which we cannot consider here, but to put it briefly: many have doubted the ambition to establish law-like relationships between mental states and behavior that dispense with any sort of mentalistic or intentional idiom, judging that explanations of intelligent behavior require reference (...)
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  15. Mental States Are Like Diseases.Sander Verhaegh - 2019 - In Robert Sinclair (ed.), Science and Sensibilia by W. V. Quine: The 1980 Immanuel Kant Lectures. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    While Quine’s linguistic behaviorism is well-known, his Kant Lectures contain one of his most detailed discussions of behaviorism in psychology and the philosophy of mind. Quine clarifies the nature of his psychological commitments by arguing for a modest view that is against ‘excessively restrictive’ variants of behaviorism while maintaining ‘a good measure of behaviorist discipline…to keep [our mental] terms under control’. In this paper, I use Quine’s Kant Lectures to reconstruct his position. I distinguish three types of behaviorism in psychology (...)
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  16. The Varieties and Origins of Wilfrid Sellars's Behaviorism.Peter Olen - 2018 - In Luca Corti & Antonio Nunziante (eds.), Sellars and the History of Modern Philosophy. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 178-196.
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  17. Do Bets Reveal Beliefs?Jean Baccelli - 2017 - Synthese 194 (9):3393-3419.
    This paper examines the preference-based approach to the identification of beliefs. It focuses on the main problem to which this approach is exposed, namely that of state-dependent utility. First, the problem is illustrated in full detail. Four types of state-dependent utility issues are distinguished. Second, a comprehensive strategy for identifying beliefs under state-dependent utility is presented and discussed. For the problem to be solved following this strategy, however, preferences need to extend beyond choices. We claim that this a necessary feature (...)
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  18. ‘The Line Between Intervention and Abuse’ – Autism and Applied Behaviour Analysis.Patrick Kirkham - 2017 - History of the Human Sciences 30 (2):107-126.
    This article outlines the emergence of ABA in the mid-20th century, and the current popularity of ABA in the anglophone world. I draw on the work of earlier historians to highlight the role of Ole Ivar Lovaas, the most influential practitioner of ABA. I argue that reception of his initial work was mainly positive, despite concerns regarding its efficacy and use of physical aversives. Lovaas’ work, however, was only cautiously accepted by medical practitioners until he published results in 1987. Many (...)
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  19. The Liberating Dimension of Human Habit in Addiction Context.F. Güell - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  20. The Escape of the Mind.Howard Rachlin - 2014 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The Escape of the Mind is part of a current movement in psychology and philosophy of mind that calls into question what is perhaps our most basic, most cherished, and universally accepted belief--that our minds are inside of our bodies. Howard Rachlin adopts the counterintuitive position that our minds, conscious and unconscious, lie not where our firmest introspections tell us they are, but in how we actually behave over the long run. Perhaps paradoxically, the book argues that our introspections, no (...)
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  21. Le comportement et le concept de choix.Jean Baccelli - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (1):43-60.
    This note considers the conceptual part of Sen’s «Internal Consistency of Choice». Amongst the various claims this paper features, two are singled out. A first, negative, claim is that no formal condition of choice consistency is normatively compelling without exception. A second, positive, claim, is that a formal condition of choice consistency is normatively compelling only under some assumptions involving preference. Here, the puzzling choices Sen puts forward are scrutinized and it is argued that such a scrutiny leads to question (...)
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  22. REVIEW: Alexandra Rutherford, Beyond the Box: B.F. Skinner’s Technology of Behaviour From Laboratory to Life, 1950s-1970s. [REVIEW]Jennifer Fraser - 2013 - Spontaneous Generations 7 (1):100-102.
    In 2009 Alexandra Rutherford presented readers with a much-needed post-revisionist interpretation of the the behaviorist movement by elucidating the ways in which social context affected popular acceptance of, and resistance to, the central tenants of B.F. Skinner’s psychological theories. By outlining the ways in which American culture both facilitated and hindered behaviorism success, Rutherford's "Beyond the Box: B.F. Skinnner's technology of behavior from laboratory to life, 1950s-1970s" provides an alternative to strictly intellectual histories of behaviorism by examining how technological approaches (...)
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  23. On the Personal, the One and the Many.Panagiotis Oulis - 2013 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (2):137-140.
    Gloria Ayob Begins her commentary with the main metaphysical and ethical motivations for including the personal perspective in psychopathological assessments. The metaphysical motivation: human actions are performed for a reason. Thus, from the personal perspective, explaining human actions amounts to justifying them by appeal to individual’s reasons. However, does it follow from this peculiarity that “explanations of human behavior that appeal to empirical generalizations and those that consist in justifying an action by appeal to reasons are of entirely different logical (...)
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  24. Beyond the Box: B. F. Skinner's Technology of Behavior From Laboratory to Life, 1950s–1970s. [REVIEW]Jill Moawski - 2010 - Isis 101:683-684.
  25. Changing Psychologies in the Transition From Industrial Society to Consumer Society.Svend Brinkmann - 2008 - History of the Human Sciences 21 (2):85-110.
    Psychologists have traditionally been reluctant to investigate not just the historical nature of their subject matter — humans as acting, thinking and feeling beings — but even more so the historical nature of their discipline, its theories and practices. In this article, I will try to take seriously the historical transformation in the West from industrial society to consumer society. After having introduced these socio-economic designations, I shall try to illustrate how the transformation relates to changes in significant societal practices (...)
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  26. Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism.Jay Moore - 2008 - Sloan.
    Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism is intended for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in courses within behavior analytic curricula dealing with conceptual foundations and radical behaviorism as a philosophy. Each chapter of the text presents what radical behaviorism says about an important topic in a science of behavior, and then contrasts the radical behaviorist perspective with that of other forms of behaviorism, as well as other forms of psychology.
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  27. Pavlov’s Physiology Factory: Experiment, Interpretation, Laboratory Enterprise. [REVIEW]David Robinson - 2005 - Isis 96:138-139.
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  28. Understanding Behaviorism: Behavior, Culture, and Evolution.William M. Baum - 2004 - Blackwell.
    Understanding Behaviorism explains the basis of behavior analysis and its application to human problems in a scholarly but accessible manner. Behaviorism is defined as the proposition that a science of behavior is possible, and the book begins by exploring the question of whether behavior is free or determined, relating behaviorism to pragmatism, and showing how feelings and thoughts can be treated scientifically. Baum then discusses ancient concepts such as purpose, knowledge, and thought, as well as social problems such as freedom, (...)
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  29. Behaviourism and Psychology.Gary Hatfield - 2003 - In Thomas Baldwin (ed.), Cambridge History of Philosophy, 1870–1945. Cambridge University Press. pp. 640-48.
    Behaviorism was a peculiarly American phenomenon. As a school of psychology it was founded by John B. Watson (1878-1958) and grew into the neobehaviorisms of the 1920s, 30s and 40s. Philosophers were involved from the start, prefiguring the movement and endeavoring to define or redefine its tenets. Behaviorism expressed the naturalistic bent in American thought, which came in response to the prevailing philosophical idealism and was inspired by developments in natural science itself. There were several versions of naturalism in American (...)
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  30. Behavior Theory and Philosophy.Kennon A. Lattal (ed.) - 2003 - Springer.
    This volume has three goals with respect to the interplay between philosophy and behavioral psychology's experimental, applied, and interpretive levels of knowing. It aims to examine core principles in the philosophy of science, as they are interpreted by and relate to behavioral psychology; how these core principles interact with different problem areas in the study of human behavior; and how experimental, applied, and interpretive analyses complement one another to advance the understanding of behavior and, in so doing, also the philosophy (...)
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  31. Breakdown of Will.Ainslie George - 2001 - New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    Ainslie argues that our responses to the threat of our own inconsistency determine the basic fabric of human culture. He suggests that individuals are more like populations of bargaining agents than like the hierarchical command structures envisaged by cognitive psychologists. The forces that create and constrain these populations help us understand so much that is puzzling in human action and interaction: from addictions and other self-defeating behaviors to the experience of willfulness, from pathological over-control and self-deception to subtler forms of (...)
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  32. Control: A History of Behavioral Psychology by John A. Mills. [REVIEW]Martha Casas - 2000 - Isis 91:424-424.
  33. The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism.Bruce A. Thyer (ed.) - 1999 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism is the first book to describe the unique contributions of a behavioral perspective to the major issues of philosophy. Leading behavioral philosophers and psychologists have contributed chapters on: the origins of behaviorism as a philosophy of science; the basic principles of behaviorism; ontology; epistemology; values and ethics; free will, determinism and self-control; and language and verbal behavior. A concluding chapter provides an overview of some scholarly criticisms of behavioral philosophy. Far from espousing a `black box' (...)
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  34. Review of Behavior and Personality: Psychological Behaviorism. [REVIEW]Stephen C. Yanchar - 1998 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 18 (1):61-69.
    Reviews the book, Behavior and personality: Psychological behaviorism by Arthur W. Staats . Staats' latest book provides a brief introduction to his philosophy of science known as unified positivism and a comprehensive review of his specific theory known as psychological behaviorism . Readers unfamiliar with Staats' work can, through this book, become acquainted with his earnest, if not somewhat totalitarian, strategy for uniting psychology under a single theoretical framework. Although Staats' earlier publications provide a more clear and accessible exposition of (...)
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  35. Metaphor and Monophony in the 20th-Century Psychology of Emotions.Kenneth J. Gergen - 1995 - History of the Human Sciences 8 (2):1-23.
  36. The Roots of Behaviourism by Robert H. Wozniak; Conwy Lloyd Morgan; Jacques Loeb; Max Meyer; John B. Watson. [REVIEW]Nadine Weldman - 1995 - Isis 86:513-514.
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  37. Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science.Mecca Chiesa - 1994 - Authors Cooperative.
    To a greater extent than any other behavioral formulation, Radical Behaviorism has abandoned mechanistic explanation. Like Darwin, B.F. Skinner adopted selection as a causal mode. He applied that mode himself to the behavior of the individual, pointing out but leaving it to others to unravel the causal role of selection in the behavior of a social culture. Also, Radical Behaviorism parts company with traditional behaviorists who pronounce private experience and thinking to be outside the domain of science. Misconceptions, misinterpretations, and (...)
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  38. Behavior and Mind: The Roots of Modern Psychology.Howard Rachlin - 1994 - Oxford University Press.
    This book attempts to synthesize two apparently contradictory views of psychology: as the science of internal mental mechanisms and as the science of complex external behavior. Most books in the psychology and philosophy of mind reject one approach while championing the other, but Rachlin argues that the two approaches are complementary rather than contradictory. Rejection of either involves disregarding vast sources of information vital to solving pressing human problems--in the areas of addiction, mental illness, education, crime, and decision-making, to name (...)
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  39. B. F. Skinner: A Life By Daniel W. Bjork. [REVIEW]Jon Roberts - 1994 - Isis 85:733-734.
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  40. About Behaviorology: An Introduction to the Incompatible Paradigms and Historical and Philosophical Developments Among Disciplines Addressing the Behavior of Individuals.Stephen LeDoux - 1993 - Abcs.
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  41. Mechanical Man: John Broadus Watson and the Beginnings of Behaviorism by Kerry W. Buckley. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Hunt - 1990 - Isis 81:604-605.
  42. Brain Mechanisms in Classical Conditioning.A. Alexieva & N. A. Nicolov - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (1):137-137.
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  43. Beyond Behaviorism.Vicki L. Lee - 1988 - L. Erlbaum Associates.
    Beyond Behaviorism explores and contrasts means and ends psychology with conventional psychology -- that of stimuli and response. The author develops this comparison by exploring the general nature of psychological phenomena and clarifying many persistent doubts about psychology. Dr. Lee contrasts conventional psychology (stimuli and responses) involving reductionistic, organocentric, and mechanistic metatheory with alternative psychology (means and ends) that is autonomous, contextual, and evolutionary.
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  44. Behaviorism and Logical Positivism: A Reassessment of the Alliance by Laurence D. Smith. [REVIEW]Ernest Hilgard - 1987 - Isis 78:467-468.
  45. The Origins of Behaviorism: American Psychology, 1870-1920 by John M. O'Donnell. [REVIEW]John Burnham - 1986 - Isis 77:532-533.
  46. The Limits of Cognitive Liberalism.Dan Lloyd - 1986 - Behaviorism 14 (1):1-14.
    The central characteristic of cognitive explanations of behavior is the appeal to inner representations. I examine the grounds which justify representational explanations, seeking the minimum conditions which organisms must meet to be candidates for such explanations. I first discuss Fodor's proposal that representationality be attributed to systems which respond to nonnomic properties, arguing that the distinction between the nomic and nonnomic in perception is fatally ambiguous. Then I turn to an illustrative review of the behavior and neurobiology of Hermissenda crassicornis, (...)
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  47. From Darwinism to Behaviourism: Psychology and the Minds of Animals by Robert Boakes. [REVIEW]Franz Samelson - 1986 - Isis 77:171-172.
  48. A Matter Of Consequences: Part Three Of An Autobiography By B. F. Skinner. [REVIEW]Michael Sokal - 1985 - Isis 76:131-132.
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  49. Behaviorism: A Conceptual Reconstruction.G. E. Zuriff - 1985 - Columbia University Press.
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  50. Behaviorism, and Realism, 233 Berkeley, 206 Bernoulli, 125, 126 Bias, its Role in Selection of Events, 32 Biological Approach to Development, 90, 91. [REVIEW]M. Ainsworth, St Augustine, F. Bacon, A. Bandura, D. Baumrind, E. G. Boring, J. Bowlby, T. Brake, S. Brent & O. G. Brim - 1983 - In Richard M. Lerner (ed.), Developmental Psychology: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives. L. Erlbaum Associates. pp. 267.
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