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  1. Drawing Scales Apart: The Origins of Wilson's Conception of Effective Field Theories.Sébastien Rivat - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 90:321-338.
  2. Evolvability as a Disposition: Philosophical Distinctions, Scientific Implications.Ingo Brigandt, Cristina Villegas, Alan C. Love & Laura Nuño de la Rosa - forthcoming - In Thomas Hansen, David Houle, Mihaela Pavličev & Christophe Pélabon (eds.), Evolvability. MIT Press.
    A disposition or dispositional property is a capacity, ability, or potential to display or exhibit some outcome. Evolvability refers to a disposition to evolve. This chapter discusses why the dispositional nature of evolvability matters—why philosophical distinctions about dispositions can have scientific implications. To that end, we build a conceptual toolkit with vocabulary from prior philosophical analyses using a different disposition: protein foldability. We then apply this toolkit to address several methodological questions related to evolvability. What entities are the bearers of (...)
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  3. Fragmental Presentism and Quantum Mechanics.Paul Merriam - 2021
    This paper develops a Fragmentalist theory of Presentism and shows how it can help to develop a interpretation of quantum mechanics. There are several fragmental interpretations of physics. In the interpretation of this paper, each quantum system forms a fragment, and fragment f1 makes a measurement on fragment f2 if and only if f2 makes a corresponding measurement on f1. The main idea is then that each fragment has its own present (or ‘now’) until a mutual quantum measurement—at which time (...)
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  4. Hacking, Ian (1936–).Samuli Reijula - 2021 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Ian Hacking (born in 1936, Vancouver, British Columbia) is most well-known for his work in the philosophy of the natural and social sciences, but his contributions to philosophy are broad, spanning many areas and traditions. In his detailed case studies of the development of probabilistic and statistical reasoning, Hacking pioneered the naturalistic approach in the philosophy of science. Hacking’s research on social constructionism, transient mental illnesses, and the looping effect of the human kinds make use of historical materials to shed (...)
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  5. A Validation of Knowledge: A New, Objective Theory of Axioms, Causality, Meaning, Propositions, Mathematics, and Induction.Ronald Pisaturo - 2020 - Norwalk, Connecticut: Prime Mover Press.
    This book seeks to offer original answers to all the major open questions in epistemology—as indicated by the book’s title. These questions and answers arise organically in the course of a validation of the entire corpus of human knowledge. The book explains how we know what we know, and how well we know it. The author presents a positive theory, motivated and directed at every step not by a need to reply to skeptics or subjectivists, but by the need of (...)
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  6. The Future of Science.Hossein Shirkhani - manuscript
    This article has been written about the explanation of the scientific affair. There are the philosophical circles that a philosopher must consider their approaches. Postmodern thinkers generally refuse the universality of the rational affair. They believe that the experience cannot reach general knowledge. They emphasize on the partial and plural knowledge. Any human being has his knowledge and interpretation. The world is always becoming. Diversity is an inclusive epistemological principle. Naturally, in such a state, the scientific activity is a non-sense (...)
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  7. Motivation and Synopsis of the New Theory of Time.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The motivation comes from the analogy (equivalence?) of the A-series to ontologically private qualia in Dualism. This leads to the proposal that two quantum systems, no matter how small, mutually observe each other when and only when they come to share the same A-series. McTaggart's A-series and B-series can be varied independently so they cannot be the same temporal variable.
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  8. The Quantum Revolution in Philosophy. [REVIEW]Eddy Keming Chen - 2020 - Philosophical Review 129 (2):302-308.
    In this thought-provoking book, Richard Healey proposes a new interpretation of quantum theory inspired by pragmatist philosophy. Healey puts forward the interpretation as an alternative to realist quantum theories on the one hand such as Bohmian mechanics, spontaneous collapse theories, and many-worlds interpretations, which are different proposals for describing what the quantum world is like and what the basic laws of physics are, and non-realist interpretations on the other hand such as quantum Bayesianism, which proposes to understand quantum theory as (...)
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  9. Do Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems of Arbitrary Finite Size Exist?Claudio Mazzola & Peter W. Evans - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (12):1543-1558.
    The principle of common cause asserts that positive correlations between causally unrelated events ought to be explained through the action of some shared causal factors. Reichenbachian common cause systems are probabilistic structures aimed at accounting for cases where correlations of the aforesaid sort cannot be explained through the action of a single common cause. The existence of Reichenbachian common cause systems of arbitrary finite size for each pair of non-causally correlated events was allegedly demonstrated by Hofer-Szabó and Rédei in 2006. (...)
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  10. Probability.Antony Eagle - 2016 - In Paul Humphreys (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 417-439.
    Rather than entailing that a particular outcome will occur, many scientific theories only entail that an outcome will occur with a certain probability. Because scientific evidence inevitably falls short of conclusive proof, when choosing between different theories it is standard to make reference to how probable the various options are in light of the evidence. A full understanding of probability in science needs to address both the role of probabilities in theories, or chances, as well as the role of probabilistic (...)
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  11. Weak Value, Quasiprobability and Bohmian Mechanics.Kazuki Fukuda, Jaeha Lee & Izumi Tsutsui - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):236-255.
    We clarify the significance of quasiprobability in quantum mechanics that is relevant in describing physical quantities associated with a transition process. Our basic quantity is Aharonov’s weak value, from which the QP can be defined up to a certain ambiguity parameterized by a complex number. Unlike the conventional probability, the QP allows us to treat two noncommuting observables consistently, and this is utilized to embed the QP in Bohmian mechanics such that its equivalence to quantum mechanics becomes more transparent. We (...)
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  12. On Noncontextual, Non-Kolmogorovian Hidden Variable Theories.Benjamin H. Feintzeig & Samuel C. Fletcher - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):294-315.
    One implication of Bell’s theorem is that there cannot in general be hidden variable models for quantum mechanics that both are noncontextual and retain the structure of a classical probability space. Thus, some hidden variable programs aim to retain noncontextuality at the cost of using a generalization of the Kolmogorov probability axioms. We generalize a theorem of Feintzeig to show that such programs are committed to the existence of a finite null cover for some quantum mechanical experiments, i.e., a finite (...)
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  13. GRW as an Ontology of Dispositions.Mauro Dorato & Michael Esfeld - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (1):41-49.
    The paper argues that the formulation of quantum mechanics proposed by Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber is a serious candidate for being a fundamental physical theory and explores its ontological commitments from this perspective. In particular, we propose to conceive of spatial superpositions of non-massless microsystems as dispositions or powers, more precisely propensities, to generate spontaneous localizations. We set out five reasons for this view, namely that it provides for a clear sense in which quantum systems in entangled states possess properties (...)
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  14. Decision Theory and Information Propagation in Quantum Physics.Alan Forrester - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (4):815-831.
    In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule pk=|ψk|2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 3129–3137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415–438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts (...)
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  15. Probability, Arrow of Time and Decoherence.Guido Bacciagaluppi - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (2):439-456.
    This paper relates both to the metaphysics of probability and to the physics of time asymmetry. Using the formalism of decoherent histories, it investigates whether intuitions about intrinsic time directedness that are often associated with probability can be justified in the context of no-collapse approaches to quantum mechanics. The standard approach to time symmetry in the decoherent histories literature is criticised, and an alternative approach is proposed, based on two decoherence conditions within the one-vector formalism. In turn, considerations of forwards (...)
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  16. Selected Papers on Epistemology and Physics. [REVIEW]M. M. E. - 1979 - Review of Metaphysics 32 (3):552-553.
    Though Béla von Juhos belonged to a Hungarian family, he was born in Vienna and, after his ninth year, lived there for the rest of his life. Though associated with the Vienna Circle, he did not assume a teaching position in Vienna until 1948. The present collection, ably translated by Paul Foulkes and introduced by Gerhard Frey, focuses on the type of epistemological analysis of scientific knowledge that remained Juhos’s abiding concern. By the mid-nineteen-thirties the pristine positivism of the early (...)
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  17. Many Simple Universes or Only a Very Complex One?Luis Girela - 1999 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 14 (2):331-337.
    Through the mental experiment that I suggest, it is possiblc to demonstrate that Hugh Everett’s quantum interpretation, known as of the “many universes”, is incongruent with the special theory of relativity.
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  18. Chance in the Everett Interpretation.Simon Saunders - 2010 - In Simon Saunders, Jonathan Barrett, Adrian Kent & David Wallace (eds.), Many Worlds?: Everett, Quantum Theory & Reality. Oxford University Press.
    According to the Everett interpretation, branching structure and ratios of norms of branch amplitudes are the objective correlates of chance events and chances; that is, 'chance' and 'chancing', like 'red' and 'colour', pick out objective features of reality, albeit not what they seemed. Once properly identified, questions about how and in what sense chances can be observed can be treated as straightforward dynamical questions. On that basis, given the unitary dynamics of quantum theory, it follows that relative and never absolute (...)
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  19. BaTiO3nanoparticles of Orthorhombic Structure Following a Polymer Precursor. Part II. A Thermodynamic Analysis.S. Ram, A. Jana & T. K. Kundu - 2007 - Philosophical Magazine 87 (35):5497-5504.
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  20. Science Studies Nevill Mott , The Beginnings of Solid State Physics. London: The Royal Society, 1980. Pp. Iv + 177. £9.75 /£10.25. [REVIEW]John Hendry - 1982 - British Journal for the History of Science 15 (3):309-310.
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  21. PAUL M. M. KLEP and IDA H. STAMHUIS , The Statistical Mind in a Pre-Statistical Era: The Netherlands 1750–1850. Askant: Amsterdam, 2002. Pp. 374. ISBN 90-5742-0341. No Price Given. [REVIEW]M. Magnello - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (3):449-451.
  22. Probabilistic Thinking, Thermodynamics, and the Interaction of the History and Philosophy of Science: Proceedings of the 1978 Pisa Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science, Volume IIJaakko Hintikka David Gruender Evandro Agazzi.Stephen G. Brush - 1982 - Isis 73 (2):286-287.
  23. Probability and Thermodynamics: The Reduction of the Second Law.Edward E. Daub - 1969 - Isis 60 (3):318-330.
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  24. Prediction and Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology.Feraz Azhar - unknown
    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning (...)
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  25. The Quantitative Content of Statistical Mechanics.David Wallace - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (Part B):285-293.
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  26. The Coarse-Graining Approach to Statistical Mechanics: How Blissful is Our Ignorance?Katinka Ridderbos - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (1):65-77.
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  27. On Quantum Conditional Probability.Isabel Guerra Bobo - 2013 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (1):115-137.
    We argue that quantum theory does not allow for a generalization of the notion of classical conditional probability by showing that the probability defined by the Lüders rule, standardly interpreted in the literature as the quantum-mechanical conditionalization rule, cannot be interpreted as such.Argumentamos que la teoría cuántica no admite una generalización de la noción clásica de probabilidad condicionada. Mostramos que la probabilidad definida por la regla de Lüders, interpretada generalmente como la regla de condicionalización mecánico-cuántica, no puede ser interpretada como (...)
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  28. Non-Monotonic Probability Theory and Photon Polarization.Fred Kronz - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (4):449-472.
    A non-monotonic theory of probability is put forward and shown to have applicability in the quantum domain. It is obtained simply by replacing Kolmogorov's positivity axiom, which places the lower bound for probabilities at zero, with an axiom that reduces that lower bound to minus one. Kolmogorov's theory of probability is monotonic, meaning that the probability of A is less then or equal to that of B whenever A entails B. The new theory violates monotonicity, as its name suggests; yet, (...)
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  29. What Fitness Can’T Be.André Ariew & Zachary Ernst - 2009 - Erkenntnis 71 (3):289-301.
    Recently advocates of the propensity interpretation of fitness have turned critics. To accommodate examples from the population genetics literature they conclude that fitness is better defined broadly as a family of propensities rather than the propensity to contribute descendants to some future generation. We argue that the propensity theorists have misunderstood the deeper ramifications of the examples they cite. These examples demonstrate why there are factors outside of propensities that determine fitness. We go on to argue for the more general (...)
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  30. The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and the Approach to Thermodynamic Equilibrium.David Z. Albert - 1994 - Erkenntnis 41 (2):191-206.
  31. The Place of Probability in Hilbert’s Axiomatization of Physics, Ca. 1900–1928.Lukas M. Verburgt - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 53:28-44.
    Although it has become a common place to refer to the ׳sixth problem׳ of Hilbert׳s (1900) Paris lecture as the starting point for modern axiomatized probability theory, his own views on probability have received comparatively little explicit attention. The central aim of this paper is to provide a detailed account of this topic in light of the central observation that the development of Hilbert׳s project of the axiomatization of physics went hand-in-hand with a redefinition of the status of probability theory (...)
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  32. Probability and Relative Frequency.Michael Drieschner - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (1):28-43.
    The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the ‘prediction interpretation’ of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The “ladder”-structure of the probability calculus (...)
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  33. Expert Judgment for Climate Change Adaptation.Erica Thompson, Roman Frigg & Casey Helgeson - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):1110-1121.
    Climate change adaptation is largely a local matter, and adaptation planning can benefit from local climate change projections. Such projections are typically generated by accepting climate model outputs in a relatively uncritical way. We argue, based on the IPCC’s treatment of model outputs from the CMIP5 ensemble, that this approach is unwarranted and that subjective expert judgment should play a central role in the provision of local climate change projections intended to support decision-making.
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  34. Quantum Probability From Subjective Likelihood: Improving on Deutsch's Proof of the Probability Rule.David Wallace - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (2):311-332.
    I present a proof of the quantum probability rule from decision-theoretic assumptions, in the context of the Everett interpretation. The basic ideas behind the proof are those presented in Deutsch's recent proof of the probability rule, but the proof is simpler and proceeds from weaker decision-theoretic assumptions. This makes it easier to discuss the conceptual ideas involved in the proof, and to show that they are defensible.
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  35. Subjective Probability and Quantum Certainty.Carlton M. Caves, Christopher A. Fuchs & Rüdiger Schack - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (2):255-274.
  36. Quantum Probability and Many Worlds.Meir Hemmo & Itamar Pitowsky - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (2):333-350.
  37. Einstein’s Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle.Carsten Held - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (9):1002-1018.
    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics, not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and (...)
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  38. Generalized Probabilities in Statistical Theories.Holik Federico, Massri Cesar, Plastino Angel & Sáenz Manuel - unknown
    In this review article we present different formal frameworks for the description of generalized probabilities in statistical theories. We discuss the particular cases of probabilities appearing in classical and quantum mechanics, possible generalizations of the approaches of A. N. Kolmogorov and R. T. Cox to non-commutative models, and the approach to generalized probabilities based on convex sets.
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  39. Probability in Physics: Stochastic, Statistical, Quantum.David Wallace - unknown
    I review the role of probability in contemporary physics and the origin of probabilistic time asymmetry, beginning with the pre-quantum case but concentrating on quantum theory. I argue that quantum mechanics radically changes the pre-quantum situation and that the philosophical nature of objective probability in physics, and of probabilistic asymmetry in time, is dependent on the correct resolution of the quantum measurement problem.
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  40. Is That a Fact? Revised Edition: A Field Guide to Statistical and Scientific Information.Mark Battersby - 2013 - Broadview Press.
    We are inundated by scientific and statistical information, but what should we believe? How much should we trust the polls on the latest electoral campaign? When a physician tells us that a diagnosis of cancer is 90% certain or a scientist informs us that recent studies support global warming, what should we conclude? How can we acquire reliable statistical information? Once we have it, how do we evaluate it? Despite the importance of these questions to our lives, many of us (...)
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  41. Why I Am Not a QBist.Louis Marchildon - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (7):754-761.
    Quantum Bayesianism, or QBism, is a recent development of the epistemic view of quantum states, according to which the state vector represents knowledge about a quantum system, rather than the true state of the system. QBism explicitly adopts the subjective view of probability, wherein probability assignments express an agent’s personal degrees of belief about an event. QBists claim that most if not all conceptual problems of quantum mechanics vanish if we simply take a proper epistemic and probabilistic perspective. Although this (...)
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  42. Experimental Bounds on Classical Random Field Theories.Joffrey K. Peters, Jingyun Fan, Alan L. Migdall & Sergey V. Polyakov - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (7):726-734.
    Alternative theories to quantum mechanics motivate important fundamental tests of our understanding and descriptions of the smallest physical systems. Here, using spontaneous parametric downconversion as a heralded single-photon source, we place experimental limits on a class of alternative theories, consisting of classical field theories which result in power-dependent normalized correlation functions. In addition, we compare our results with standard quantum mechanical interpretations of our spontaneous parametric downconversion source over an order of magnitude in intensity. Our data match the quantum mechanical (...)
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  43. Completion of the Causal Completability Problem.Michał Marczyk & Leszek Wroński - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):307-326.
    We give a few results concerning the notions of causal completability and causal closedness of classical probability spaces . We prove that any classical probability space has a causally closed extension; any finite classical probability space with positive rational probabilities on the atoms of the event algebra can be extended to a causally up-to-three-closed finite space; and any classical probability space can be extended to a space in which all correlations between events that are logically independent modulo measure zero event (...)
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  44. Dynamical Correspondence in a Generalized Quantum Theory.Gerd Niestegge - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (5):525-534.
    In order to figure out why quantum physics needs the complex Hilbert space, many attempts have been made to distinguish the C*-algebras and von Neumann algebras in more general classes of abstractly defined Jordan algebras . One particularly important distinguishing property was identified by Alfsen and Shultz and is the existence of a dynamical correspondence. It reproduces the dual role of the selfadjoint operators as observables and generators of dynamical groups in quantum mechanics. In the paper, this concept is extended (...)
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  45. Failure and Uses of Jaynes’ Principle of Transformation Groups.Alon Drory - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (4):439-460.
    Bertand’s paradox is a fundamental problem in probability that casts doubt on the applicability of the indifference principle by showing that it may yield contradictory results, depending on the meaning assigned to “randomness”. Jaynes claimed that symmetry requirements solve the paradox by selecting a unique solution to the problem. I show that this is not the case and that every variant obtained from the principle of indifference can also be obtained from Jaynes’ principle of transformation groups. This is because the (...)
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  46. Does It Make Sense to Speak of Self-Locating Uncertainty in the Universal Wave Function? Remarks on Sebens and Carroll.Adrian Kent - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (2):211-217.
    Following a proposal of Vaidman The Stanford encyclopaedia of philosophy, 2014) The probable and the improbable: understanding probability in physics, essays in memory of Itamar Pitowsky, 2011), Sebens and Carroll , have argued that in Everettian quantum theory, observers are uncertain, before they complete their observation, about which Everettian branch they are on. They argue further that this solves the problem of making sense of probabilities within Everettian quantum theory, even though the theory itself is deterministic. We note some problems (...)
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  47. Unificatory Power in the Old Quantum Theory: Informational Relevance of the Quantum Hypothesis.Molly Kao - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
  48. On Tracks in a Cloud Chamber.G. F. Dell’Antonio - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (1):11-21.
    It is an experimental fact that \ -decays produce in a cloud chamber at most one track and that this track points in a random direction. This seems to contradict the description of decay in Quantum Mechanics: according to Gamow a spherical wave is produced and moves radially according to Schrödinger’s equation. It is as if the interaction with the supersaturated vapor turned the wave into a particle. The aim of this note is to place this effect in the context (...)
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  49. Review of The Emergent Multiverse. [REVIEW]Guido Bacciagaluppi and Jenann Ismael - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):129-148,.
  50. Kolmogorovian Censorship Hypothesis For General Quantum Probability Theories.MiklÓs RÉdei - 2010 - Manuscrito 33 (1):365-380.
    It is shown that the Kolmogorovian Censorship Hypothesis, according to which quantum probabilities are interpretable as conditional probabilities in a classical probability measure space, holds not only for Hilbert space quantum mechanics but for general quantum probability theories based on the theory of von Neumann algebras.
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