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Summary Pre-Socratic philosophy is the period of Greek philosophy up to the time of Socrates. It conventionally begins with the work of Thales (sixth century BC). Many discussions of the early period also consider the pre-philosophical background (religion, myth, epic poetry, popular ethical thought) and investigate the origins of philosophy and possible causes for its emergence in Greece at this time, as well as the question "what is philosophy?" and "Did they think of themselves as doing philosophy, and if so what kind?". The distinction between philosophy and science is an issue. All the texts are fragmentary (preserved mainly as quotations in later writers). Much of the literature is concerned with the task of reconstructing the lost views of these obscure philosophers from the fragments and using the third person testimonies of later writers. The Sophists (active around the time of Socrates) are generally included as Pre-Socratic in that their work is not influenced by Socrates.
Key works The standard edition of the Greek texts is known as Diels Kranz (DK) which refers to the edition by Hermann Diels (revised by W. Kranz) Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (sixth edition 1951). Fragments are cited by their numbers in that collection (which includes a German translation). But many of the texts have been revised and corrected in later collections, and there have also been some further discoveries and revisions to which fragments are widely accepted as genuine. The best recent editions are usually collections of just one author (see the bibliographies for individual Presocratics). Handy recent collections with all the latest material included, but conservative editing and interpretation, are  Die Vorsokratiker edited by Jaap Mansfeld and Oliver Primavesi (Greek and facing German with brief introductions, one small pocket volume) and Graham 2010 (Greek and facing English, with brief introductions, two substantial volumes). Recommended editions in English include  Barnes 2001 (which helpfully integrates the texts into their quoting authorities to show context of the fragment), Waterfield 2000 and Richard McKirahan's philosophy before Socrates. General introductions to the Presocratics include Osborne 2004 and James Warren Presocratics.
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  1. Nietzsche on Greek and Indian Philosophy.Emma Syea - 2016 - In Universe and Inner Self in Early Indian and Early Greek Thought. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 265-278.
    Nietzsche was struck by the similarities between Greek and Indian philosophy. From the perspective elaborated in On the Genealogy of Morality - in which values are derived from the physiological, psychological, and social domains - we would expect the similarities of thought to derive from similarities in the conditions of the two cultures. A role is played here by the agonal spirit manifest in the Iliad, Hesiod, and Heraclitus as well as in Indian philosophy and in the Mahabharata and Ramayana. (...)
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  2. Heidegger's Antigone: The Ethos of Poetic Existence.Onur Karamercan - 2021 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):1063-1077.
    In this article, I elucidate Martin Heidegger’s interpretation of Soph-ocles’ tragedy Antigone from a topological point of view by focusing on the place-character of Antigone’s poetic ethos. Antigone’s decision to defy Creon’s order and bury her brother Polynices is discussed as a movement that underpins her poetic disposition as a demigod. Antigone’s situatedness between gods and hu-mans is identified as the place of poetic dwelling, and the significance of Antig-one’s relation to the polis is explained. The main argument of the (...)
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  3. Anassagora: Il miscuglio originario.Armando D'Ippolito (ed.) - 2015 - Milano: Albo Versorio.
  4. Esiodo: Sul Chaos.Armando D'Ippolito (ed.) - 2015 - Milano: Albo Versorio.
  5. The Discussion of Human Nature in the 5th and 4th Centuries BCE in the so-Called Sophistic Movement.Zbigniew Nerczuk - 2021 - Schole 2 (15):511-520.
    The paper discusses the debate on the human nature in the sophistic thought. Focusing on the "nature-culture" controversy it presents the evolution of the views of the sophists: from Protagoras' optimistic contention of the progress of mankind and his appraisal of culture to its criticism and the radical turn to nature in Antiphon, Hippias, Trasymachos, and Callicles. The paper aims at presenting the analysis of the ongoing discussion, with the stress laid on reconstruction of the arguments and concepts as well (...)
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  6. Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy.James Warren - 2021 - Phronesis 66 (2):215-225.
  7. Speech of Greek Philosophy. [REVIEW]Abduljaleel Alwali - 2018 - Arab Journal for the Humanities 36 (143):307-318.
    The book Speech of Greek Philosophy is worth reading for a number of reasons, including: It covers history of Greek philosophy from its early days, Thales and his natural school to the Hellenistic age. In addition, the modern world admits, whether in the East or the West, that it owes the Greek mentality the overwhelming majority of its philosophical, literary and artistic products. It is the special belief of European scholars that the Greeks are masters of the modern world in (...)
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  8. Heraclitus on the Nature of Goodness.Richard Neels - 2021 - Ancient Philosophy 41 (1):1-22.
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  9. Pan demos Alla ricerca di un nuovo pensiero.Donato Santarcangelo - 2020 - Dialoghi Mediterranei.
  10. Out of Thin Air? Diogenes on Causal Explanation.Bryan C. Reece - 2020 - In Hynek Bartoš & Colin King (eds.), Heat, Pneuma, and Soul in Ancient Philosophy and Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 106-120.
    Diogenes subscribes to a principle that, roughly, causal interaction and change require a certain sort of uniformity among the relata. Attending to this principle can help us understand Diogenes's relationship to the superficially similar Anaximenes without insisting, as some do, that Diogenes must be consciously responding to Parmenides. Diogenes is distinctive and philosophically interesting because his principle combines two senses of ‘archê’ (principle, starting-point), namely, the idea of source or origin and that of underlying (material) principle, and gives the rudiments (...)
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  11. Empedocles Democraticus: Hellenistic Biography at the Intersection of Philosophy and Politics.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2016 - In Mauro Bonazzi & Stefan Schorn (eds.), Bios Philosophos: Philosophy in Ancient Greek Biography. 2300 Turnhout, Belgium: pp. 37-71.
    Diogenes Laertius (8.63-6) preserves a fascinating account of the Presocratic philosopher Empedocles' life. There, drawing on evidence from Aristotle, Xanthus, and Timaeus of Tauromenium, the biographer provides several anecdotes which are meant to demonstrate how Empedocles had, contrary to expectation, been a democratic philosopher - a paradox of itself in Ancient Greece. This article unpacks the complex web woven by Diogenes and argues that there is no good reason to assume that Empedocles was indeed a democratic philosopher, and moreover, that (...)
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  12. Introduction, Traduction Et Commentaire.B. Farrington - 1952 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 72:133.
  13. Albert A. Bell Jr, Jr., James B. Allis: Resources in Ancient Philosophy: An Annotated Bibliography of Scholarship in English, 1965–1989. Pp. Xvii + 799. Metuchen, N.J./London: The Scarecrow Press/Shelwing, 1991. £59.65. [REVIEW]Jonathan Barnes - 1993 - The Classical Review 43 (1):189-189.
  14. Creationism - Sedley Creationism and its Critics in Antiquity. Pp. Xviii + 269. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2007. Cased, £17.95, US$29.95. ISBN: 978-0-520-25364-3. [REVIEW]Andrew Gregory - 2010 - The Classical Review 60 (2):364-366.
  15. PARMENIDES - J. Palmer Parmenides and Presocratic Philosophy. Pp. Xii +428. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Cased, £67.50, US$99 . ISBN: 978-0-19-956790-4. [REVIEW]Stavros Kouloumentas - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (1):18-19.
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  16. Philosophers and Poetry - Heath Ancient Philosophical Poetics. Pp. VIII + 195. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Paper, £18.99, Us$29.99 . Isbn: 978-0-521-16868-7. [REVIEW]Andrea Capra - 2014 - The Classical Review 64 (1):50-52.
  17. Neoplatonic Demons and Angels.Luc Brisson, Seamus O'Neill & Andrei Timotin - 2018 - Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
    Neoplatonic Demons and Angels is a collection of studies which examine the place reserved for angels and demons not only by the main Neoplatonic philosophers, but also in Gnosticism, the Chaldaean Oracles and Christian Neoplatonism.
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  18. Philosophy and Commentary: Evaluating Simplicius on the Presocratics.Bethany Parsons - 2018 - In John F. Finamore & Danielle A. Layne (eds.), Platonic Pathways: Selected Papers from the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the International Society for Neoplatonic Studies. Gloucestershire: The Prometheus Trust. pp. 227-242.
    No fully extant text of Presocratic philosophy has survived antiquity. Occasionally, there are significant new discoveries such as the Strasbourg papyrus of Empedocles, but, as Runia commented in 2008, “even the students of early Hellenistic philosophy are better off” when it comes to source material. The modern scholar of early Greek philosophy is reliant on source books published in the shadow of the Diels-Kranz that collect together fragments and testimonia from later sources. Much of what we know about the Presocratics (...)
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  19. Reasons for Relativism: Feyerabend on the ‘Rise of Rationalism’ in Ancient Greece.Helmut Heit - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 57:70-78.
  20. Anaximander’s Model and the Measures of the Sun and Moon.Philip Thibodeau - 2017 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 137:92-111.
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  21. The Wisdom of Love: A Reflection Upon Empedocles’ Fragment 35.W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz - 1990 - Dialectics and Humanism 17 (3):211-216.
    Empedocles sees both Love and Strife as forces active on many levels and scales. But they are the same forces throughout. Everywhere their activities are essentially the same. That of Love is not merely to bring together unlike things, but to strip them of their mutually opposed properties, to assimilate them to one another, to fuse them into a homogeneous compound. That of Strife, on the contrary is to break up such compounds, and to reduce them into mutually hostile ingredients. (...)
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  22. Love and Wisdom: Towards a New Philosophy of Life.W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz - 2011 - New Delhi: Shipra.
    In this collection of essays, the author develops a new philosophy of life, which has in fact a long tradition. It goes back to some ancient Western thinkers, such as the Milesians, Heraclitus, Empedocles and Plato, for whom philosophy presupposes an affective engagement with the world and not merely its theoretical description or explanation. This classical tradition has been challenged by ideas of modernity, particularly by the idea that modern scientific knowledge is the highest form of human knowledge. However, as (...)
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  23. Moving, Moved and Will Be Moving: Zeno and Nāgārjuna on Motion From Mahāmudrā, Koan and Mathematical Physics Perspectives.Robert Alan Paul - 2017 - Comparative Philosophy 8 (2):65-89.
    Zeno’s Arrow and Nāgārjuna’s Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way Chapter 2 contain paradoxical, dialectic arguments thought to indicate that there is no valid explanation of motion, hence there is no physical or generic motion. There are, however, diverse interpretations of the latter text, and I argue they apply to Zeno’s Arrow as well. I also find that many of the interpretations are dependent on a mathematical analysis of material motion through space and time. However, with modern philosophy and physics (...)
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  24. Stamatis Προσωκρατικοὶ Φιλόσοφοι. Athens: The Author. 1966. Pp. 143. Price Not Stated.John Ferguson - 1968 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 88:191-191.
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  25. Greek Philosophy Before Plato.B. A. G. Fuller - 1929 - Journal of Philosophy 26 (8):219-220.
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  26. ALFIERI, Atomisti.D' Hadzsits - 1940 - Classical Weekly 33 (18):209.
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  27. Review of Ancient Concepts of Philosophy, by William Jordan. [REVIEW]George Rudebusch - 1993 - Ancient Philosophy 13 (2):467.
  28. "A History of Ancient Philosophy, Vol. 1: From the Origins to Socrates", by Giovanni Reale. [REVIEW]Patricia Kenig Curd - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (2):366.
  29. Άδολεσχία, Λεπτολογία, and the Philosophers in Athens1.Carlo Natali - 1987 - Phronesis 32:232.
  30. R. W. Sharples, Ed., Perspectives On Greek Philosophy: S. V. Keeling Memorial Lectures In Ancient Philosophy 1992-2002. [REVIEW]James Butler - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24 (6):442-444.
  31. An Intellectual Odyssey. [REVIEW]J. S. Morrison - 1971 - The Classical Review 21 (2):222-224.
  32. Paideia: Die Formung des Griechischen Menschen. Von Werner Jaeger. Erster Band. Zweite Auflage. Berlin and Leipzig: De Gruyter, 1936. Cloth, RM. 8. [REVIEW]E. Harrison - 1936 - The Classical Review 50 (2):87-88.
  33. Greek Philosophy Before Plato. [REVIEW]A. E. Taylor - 1928 - The Classical Review 42 (5):180-181.
  34. Pythagoreans and Eleatics. [REVIEW]J. Tate - 1950 - The Classical Review 64 (3-4):109-111.
  35. La Filosofia Dei Greet Nel Suo Sviluppo Storico. [REVIEW]D. Tarrant - 1933 - The Classical Review 47 (4):148-149.
  36. Aeschylus: The Earlier Plays and Related Studies. [REVIEW]E. M. Craik - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (2):470-471.
  37. Individu En Kosmos. Over Enige Gemeenschappelijke Aspecten van Vroeggriekse Dickers En Voorsocratische Philosophen. [REVIEW]J. Tate - 1950 - The Classical Review 64 (1):33-33.
  38. La Filosofia Dei Greci Nel Suo Sviluppo Storico. [REVIEW]D. Tarrant - 1939 - The Classical Review 53 (2):87-87.
  39. Fragments as Fetishes. [REVIEW]Dominic Montserrat - 1999 - The Classical Review 49 (1):90-91.
  40. Ovid's Tristia, Ex Ponto, and Halieutica Fragments. [REVIEW]E. H. Alton - 1916 - The Classical Review 30 (8):229-232.
  41. Michel Despland, The Education of Desire : Plato and the Philosophy of Religion. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1985 ; 395 pp.Michel Despland, The Education of Desire : Plato and the Philosophy of Religion. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1985 ; 395 pp. [REVIEW]Georges Leroux - 1987 - Philosophiques 14 (1):213-218.
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  42. The Presocratic Philosophers. [REVIEW]U. S. - 1980 - Review of Metaphysics 33 (4):777-779.
  43. The Legacy of Parmenides: Eleatic Monism and Later Presocratic Thought. [REVIEW]Daniel W. Graham - 1998 - Ancient Philosophy 18 (2):435-439.
  44. Antiphon the Sophist: The Fragments. [REVIEW]John Dillon - 2005 - Ancient Philosophy 25 (2):440-443.
  45. The Lombard’s Commentary on Isaias and Other Fragments.Beryl Smalley & George Lacombe - 1931 - New Scholasticism 5 (2):123-162.
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  46. Greek Philosophy Before Plato. [REVIEW]Rupert Clendon Lodge - 1929 - Philosophical Review 38 (3):258.
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  47. Aramaic Texts From North Saqq'ra with Some Fragments in PhoenicianAramaic Texts From North Saqqara with Some Fragments in Phoenician.Javier Teixidor & J. B. Segal - 1985 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 105 (4):731.
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  48. Aetius Arabus: Die Vorsokratiker in Arabischer ÜberlieferungAetius Arabus: Die Vorsokratiker in Arabischer Uberlieferung.Everett K. Rowson & Hans Daiber - 1984 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 104 (2):387.
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  49. Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers. A Complete Translation of the Fragments in Diels' Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. [REVIEW]H. K. & Kathleen Freeman - 1949 - Journal of Philosophy 46 (22):717.
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  50. A Muse for Heroes: Nine Centuries of the Epic in France. William Calin.Robert Francis Cook - 1985 - Speculum 60 (3):662-664.
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