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  1. Plato’s Metaphysical Development before Middle Period Dialogues.Mohammad Bagher Ghomi - manuscript
    Regarding the relation of Plato’s early and middle period dialogues, scholars have been divided to two opposing groups: unitarists and developmentalists. While developmentalists try to prove that there are some noticeable and even fundamental differences between Plato’s early and middle period dialogues, the unitarists assert that there is no essential difference in there. The main goal of this article is to suggest that some of Plato’s ontological as well as epistemological principles change, both radically and fundamentally, between the early and (...)
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  2. A Simplicidade da Alma Entre o Fédon, a República e o Timeu de Platão.Leonardo Iorio Cattaneo - 2023 - Dissertation, Federal University of Paraná
  3. The Political Soul: Plato on Thumos, Spirited Motivation, and the City, Josh Wilburn. [REVIEW]Rachel Singpurwalla - 2023 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (3):902-905.
    In this excellent book, Josh Wilburn argues for a new interpretation of Plato's conception of the spirited part of the soul and shows that this conception infor.
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  4. The Political Soul. Plato on Thumos, Spirited Motivation, and the City. By Josh Wilburn.Llooyd P. Gerson - 2022 - Ancient Philosophy 42 (2):541-545.
  5. Plato and the dangerous pleasures of poikilia.Jonathan Fine - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):152-169.
    A significant strand of the ethical psychology, aesthetics and politics of Plato's Republic revolves around the concept of poikilia, ‘fascinating variety’. Plato uses the concept to caution against harmful appetitive pleasures purveyed by democracy and such artistic or cultural practices as mimetic poetry. His aim, this article shows, is to contest a prominent conceptual connection between poikilia and beauty (kallos, to kalon). Exploiting tensions in the archaic and classical Greek concept, Plato associates poikilia with dangerous pleasures to redirect admiration toward (...)
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  6. The First City and First Soul in Plato’s Republic.Jerry Green - 2021 - Rhizomata 9 (1):50-83.
    One puzzling feature of Plato’s Republic is the First City or ‘city of pigs’. Socrates praises the First City as a “true”, “healthy” city, yet Plato abandons it with little explanation. I argue that the problem is not a political failing, as most previous readings have proposed: the First City is a viable political arrangement, where one can live a deeply Socratic lifestyle. But the First City has a psychological corollary, that the soul is simple rather than tripartite. Plato sees (...)
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  7. The embodied self in Plato: Phaedo - Republic - Timaeus.Orestis Karatzoglou - 2021 - Boston: De Gruyter.
    This book argues that, rather than being conceived merely as a hindrance, the body contributes constructively in the fashioning of a Platonic unified self. The Phaedo shows awareness that the indeterminacy inherent in the body infects the validity of any scientific argument but also provides the subject of inquiry with the ability to actualize, to the extent possible, the ideal self. The Republic locates bodily desires and needs in the tripartite soul. Achievement of maximal unity is dependent upon successful training (...)
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  8. Comments on Rachana Kamtekar, Plato’s Moral Psychology.Gabriel R. Lear - 2021 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 103 (1):221-227.
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  9. The Political Soul: Plato on Thumos, Spirited Motivation, and the City.Josh Wilburn - 2021 - Oxford University Press.
    Josh Wilburn examines the relationship between Plato's views on psychology and his political philosophy. Focusing on his reflections on the spirited part of the tripartite soul, or thumos, and spirited motivation, he explores the social and political challenges that occupy Plato throughout his works.
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  10. Plato's Moral Psychology: Intellectualism, the Divided Soul, and the Desire for Good by Rachana Kamtekar.Emily Fletcher - 2020 - Philosophical Review 129 (4):643-646.
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  11. A Gramma of Motives: The Drama of Plato's Tripartite Psychology.John J. Jasso - 2020 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 53 (2):157-180.
    Rhetoricians usually consider Plato's Republic as a work dedicated to political philosophy. As such, it is ostensibly antidemocratic and thus antirhetorical. But if we focus on the reason for the political allegory—the investigation of justice in the soul—it is clear that Plato is interested in Burke's question: “What is involved, when we say what people are doing and why they are doing it?” Accordingly, this article employs the terms of Burke's pentad in order to articulate the rhetorical significance of Plato's (...)
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  12. Plato on the Role of Anger in Our Intellectual and Moral Development.Marta Jimenez - 2020 - In Laura Candiotto & Olivier Renaut (eds.), Emotions in Plato. Brill. pp. 285–307.
    In this paper I examine some of the positive epistemic and moral dimensions of anger in Plato’s dialogues. My aim is to show that while Plato is clearly aware that retaliatory anger has negative effects on people’s behavior, the strategy we find in his dialogues is not to eliminate anger altogether; instead, Plato aims to transform or rechannel destructive retaliatory anger into a different, more productive, reformative anger. I argue that this new form of anger plays a crucial positive role (...)
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  13. Oligarchy and the Tripartite Soul in Plato’s Republic.Chad Jorgenson - 2020 - Apeiron 54 (1):59-88.
    In Republic VIII, oligarchy is represented as a transitional or hybrid regime combining features of aristocracy and timocracy with the rule of appetitive desire characteristic of democracy and tyranny. The apparently anomalous intermediary position of oligarchy, in which an object of appetitive soul provides the foundation for interpersonal and political norms, demonstrates the complexity of the interaction between ruling soul parts and underlying rational structures that give unity to each constitution and character type. This interaction cannot be adequately accounted for (...)
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  14. An Intertextual Reading of Paris’ (re)Actions in the Iliad 6 based on Plato’s Tripartite Theory of Soul.Pedro Proscurcin Junior - 2020 - Eleuthería - Revista Do Curso de Filosofia - UFMS 5 (Jul.-Dez. 2020):06-23.
    This paper aims to elucidate some intricate (re-)actions of Paris in the Iliad 6 based on Plato’s tripartite theory of soul. Due to certain philosophical prejudices, some interpretations cannot identify certain nuances related to the characters’ intrapsychic activities and tend to label the Homeric character as “simple” or “incomplete”. Since the problem of “anachronism” is insurmountable, interpreters have to ensure the best philosophical model to understand some aspects of the Homeric psychology. For different reasons, I shall argue that an intertextual (...)
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  15. Plato’s Moral Psychology: Intellectualism, the Divided Soul, and the Desire for Good, written by Rachana Kamtekar.Sabrina Little - 2020 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 17 (3):363-366.
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  16. LA ESTRATEGIA DEL ALMA TRIPARTITA-THE STRATEGY OF THE TRIPARTITE SOUL.Jesús Antonio Marcos - 2020 - Estudios Filosóficos 69 (202):481-505.
    Abstract: Our soul, as Plato proposed, responds to the nature, functions and interaction of the three parts of which it is composed, without this preventing it from possessing a unitary character. His model of psychism respected the universal perception of the diversity of soul entities, but, by using the tools provided by Greek thought, he turned them into components of a process of opposition and dialectical ascent that reproduced within man the structure of the cosmos. The triangular systems of Aristotle, (...)
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  17. Human Nature in Plato's Philosophy.Fatih Özkan - 2020 - Entelekya Logico-Metaphysical Review 4 (2):155-172.
    Plato argued that knowledge of human nature can be reached through dialogue and dialectical method in accordance with the Socratic heritage. In his philosophy, man can be defined as being capable of rationally answering a rational question. By giving rational answers to himself and others, human also becomes a moral subject. In Plato's philosophy, we see a clear program based on human nature. Issues related to human nature are discussed in the process of applying Plato's theory of ideas to the (...)
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  18. Plato’s Moral Psychology: Intellectualism, the Divided Soul, and the Desire for Good, by Rachana Kamtekar. [REVIEW]G. S. Bowe - 2019 - Ancient Philosophy 39 (2):477-481.
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  19. Akrasia , practical reason, and the diversity of motivation: A new defense of tripartition.Jeremiah Carey - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (4):971-981.
    In akrasia, an agent intentionally acts against her own judgment about what it is best to do. This presents many puzzles for the understanding of human motivation. The Socrates of Plato's Protagoras, for example, denies this is possible because he claims that all action is motivated by an agent's belief about what is best. Plato himself seems to reject this view in the Republic, appealing to three distinct sources of motivation. This paper takes Plato's side in the general debate, arguing (...)
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  20. Plato’s Moral Psychology: Intellectualism, the Divided Soul, and the Desire for Good by Rachana Kamtekar.Ravi Sharma - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (1):160-161.
    This bold and wide-ranging study aims to revise a common picture of Plato’s thinking about human motivation. Kamtekar identifies the picture as one whereby Plato’s Socrates initially embraces intellectualism because he holds that an agent is motivated only by rational considerations based on her own good, and rejects that standpoint in the Republic with the doctrine of the tripartite soul. Kamtekar argues instead that, for Socrates, “human beings have a natural desire for our own good,” and that this principle is (...)
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  21. Plato and the Tripartition of Soul.Rachel Singpurwalla - 2019 - In John E. Sisko (ed.), Philosophy of Mind in Antiquity: History of Philosophy of Mind, Volume 1. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 101-119.
    In the Republic, Phaedrus, and Timaeus, Socrates holds that the psyche is complex, or has three distinct and semi-autonomous sources of motivation, which he calls the reasoning, spirited, and appetitive parts. While the rational part determines what is best overall and motivates us to pursue it, the spirited and appetitive parts incline us toward different objectives, such as victory, honor, and esteem, or the satisfaction of our desires for food, drink, and sex. While it is obvious that Socrates primarily characterizes (...)
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  22. Pleasure and the divided soul in Plato's republic book 9.Brooks Sommerville - 2019 - Classical Quarterly 69 (1):147-166.
    In Book 9 of Plato's Republic we find three proofs for the claim that the just person is happier than the unjust person. Curiously, Socrates does not seem to consider these arguments to be coequal when he announces the third and final proof as ‘the greatest and most decisive of the overthrows’. This remark raises a couple of related questions for the interpreter. Whatever precise sense we give to μέγιστον and κυριώτατον in this passage, Socrates is clearly appealing to an (...)
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  23. Republic, Plato’s 7th letter and the concept of Δωριστὶ ζῆν.Konstantinos Gkaleas - 2018 - E-Logos Electronic Journal for Philosophy 25:43-49.
    If we accept the 7th letter as authentic and reliable, a matter that we will not be addressing in this paper, the text that we have in front of us is “an extraordinary autobiographic document”, an autobiography where the “I” as a subject becomes “I” as an object, according to Brisson. The objective of the paper is to examine how we could approach and interpret the excerpt from Plato’s 7th letter regarding the Doric way of life (Δωριστὶ ζῆν). According to (...)
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  24. Plato's Phaedrus after Descartes' Passions: Reviving Reason's Political Force.Joshua M. Hall - 2018 - Lo Sguardo. Rivista di Filosofia 27:75-93.
    For this special issue, dedicated to the historical break in what one might call ‘the politics of feeling’ between ancient ‘passions’ (in the ‘soul’) and modern ‘emotions’ (in the ‘mind’), I will suggest that the pivotal difference might be located instead between ancient and modern conceptions of the passions. Through new interpretations of two exemplars of these conceptions, Plato’s Phaedrus and Descartes’ Passions of the Soul, I will suggest that our politics today need to return to what I term Plato’s (...)
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  25. The Embodied Soul in Plato's Later Thought.Chad Jorgenson - 2018 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Chad Jorgenson challenges the view that for Plato the good life is one of pure intellection, arguing that his last writings increasingly insist on the capacity of reason to impose measure on our emotions and pleasures. Starting from an account of the ontological, epistemological, and physiological foundations of the tripartition of the soul, he traces the increasing sophistication of Plato's thinking about the nature of pleasure and pain and his developing interest in sciences bearing on physical reality. (...)
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  26. Are the Parts of the Soul Three or Nine According to Plato?Dimitris Papadis - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 2 (2):245-249.
    The present paper discusses the question of whether the manifoldness of the soul is restricted to its three known parts or whether those three parts can further be divided into individual parts. According to the Republic 580d7-8 the three parts of the soul correspond to the three kinds of pleasure, so each part of the soul corresponds to its proper pleasure. It is not only the pleasure that is nuanced, according to each part of the soul and its particular nature, (...)
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  27. Thumos and doxa as intermediates in the Republic.Olivier Renaut - 2018 - Plato Journal 18:71-82.
    Broadly speaking, something can be called intermediate for Plato insofar as it occupies a place between two objects, poles, places, time, or principles. But this broad meaning of the intermediate has been eclipsed by the Aristotelian critique of the intermediate objects of the dianoia, so that it has become more difficult to think of the intermediates as functions of the soul. The aim of this paper is to show how, in the Republic, thumos is analogously treated as an intermediate with (...)
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  28. Plato on the incompatibility of wealth and justice: the property arrangements in the Republic.Anna Schriefl - 2018 - History of Political Thought 39 (2):193-215.
    The property arrangements of the Republic are often linked to Plato's biographical and historical background, especially to his alleged aristocratic prejudices against moneymaking. Contrary to this, I argue that they are based on one of his central philosophical theories, i.e. on his conception of justice. According to Plato, justice involves the control of appetitive desires. Among these appetitive desires, the desire for money stands out for the following reasons given in the text: it is part of human appetite 'by nature', (...)
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  29. Rachana Kamtekar, Plato’s Moral Psychology: Intellectualism, the Divided Soul, and the Desire for the Good (review).Nicholas D. Smith - 2018 - Ethics 129 (2):404-408.
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  30. The Actions of Spirit and Appetite: Voluntary Motion in Galen.Julia Trompeter - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (2):176-207.
    Galen is criticized for combining Plato’s tripartition-cum-trilocation of the soul, in which each part constitutes its own source of motivation, with the demand that the faculty of voluntary motion is limited to the rational part, being the only one located in the brain and having access to the relevant nerves. While scholars have concentrated on small nerves as connective organs, this paper focuses on thepneuma, blood and innate heat. When the latter is increased, the irrational parts can affect the brain’s (...)
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  31. Plato’s Psycho-paideia Mythos Again.Keping Wang - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 2 (2):351-362.
    As is generally perceived, one of the leading themes in Plato’s Republic is psycho-paideia, education and enculturation of human soul or psyche from a moralistic standpoint. Interestingly, the overall structure of the dialogue as a whole is philosophically framed to address the problem with the soul through a chain of myths or allegories. It commences with the myth of the magic ring of Gyges that is deployed to expose the vulnerable nature of the human soul in the choice between the (...)
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  32. Departed Souls? Tripartition at the Close of Plato’s Republic.Nathan Bauer - 2017 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 20 (1):139-157.
    Plato’s tripartite soul plays a central role in his account of justice in the Republic. It thus comes as a surprise to find him apparently abandoning this model at the end of the work, when he suggests that the soul, as immortal, must be simple. I propose a way of reconciling these claims, appealing to neglected features of the city-soul analogy and the argument for the soul’s division. The original true soul, I argue, is partitioned, but in a finer manner (...)
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  33. Plato's Moral Psychology: Intellectualism, the Divided Soul, and the Desire for Good.Rachana Kamtekar - 2017 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Rachana Kamtekar offers a new understanding of Plato's account of the soul and its impact on our living well or badly, virtuously or viciously. She argues that throughout the dialogues Plato maintains that human beings have a natural desire for our own good, and that actions and conditions contrary to this desire are involuntary.
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  34. The Place of Perception in Plato’s Tripartite Soul.Peter D. Larsen - 2017 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 32 (1):69-99.
    This paper considers the place of the capacity for sense perception in Plato's tripartite soul. It argues, against a common recent interpretation, that despite being a capacity of the soul's appetitive part, sense perception is not independent of the soul's rational capacities. On the contrary, the soul's ability to recognize the content that it receives through sense perception depends upon the objects and the activity of its rational capacities. Defending a position of this sort requires one to suppose that despite (...)
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  35. Moral Psychology in Plato's Gorgias.Daniel Rossi Nunes Lopes - 2017 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 11 (1):20-65.
    This essay intends to argue for the affinity between the Gorgias and the Republic concerning issues of moral psychology. To this end I will divide my argument into two halves. The first half will show how the Calliclean moral psychology outlined at 491e-492a implies the possibility of conflict within the soul, especially regarding the relationship between epithumiai and shame. It will then argue that Socrates recognizes the appetitive element of the soul in his reply to Callicles but does not explore (...)
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  36. On Why Thumos will Rule by Force.Nathan Rothschild - 2017 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 20 (1):120-138.
    I argue that Republic presents thumos as a limited, or flawed, principle of psychic unity. My central claim is that Plato both makes this assertion about the necessary limitations of thumos, and can defend it, because he understands thumos as the pursuit of to oikeion, or one’s own. So understood, the thumoetic part divides the world into self and other and pursues the defense of the former from the latter. As a result, when confronted with a conflicting desire, the thumoetic (...)
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  37. How Homeric is the Aristotelian Conception of Courage?Andrei G. Zavaliy - 2017 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 55 (3):350-377.
    When Aristotle limits the manifestation of true courage to the military context only, his primary target is an overly inclusive conception of courage presented by Plato in the Laches. At the same time, Aristotle explicitly tries to demarcate his ideal of genuine courage from the paradigmatic examples of courageous actions derived from the Homeric epics. It remains questionable, though, whether Aristotle is truly earnest in his efforts to distance himself from Homer. It will be argued that Aristotle's attempt to associate (...)
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  38. Colloquium 2 What Kind of Theory is the Theory of the Tripartite Soul?Rachel Barney - 2016 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 31 (1):53-83.
    This paper discusses two related questions about Plato’s account of the tripartite soul in the Republic and Phaedrus. One is whether we should accept the recently prominent ‘analytical’ reading of the theory, according to which the three parts of the soul are animal-like sub-agents, each with its own distinctive and autonomous package of cognitive and desiderative capacities. The other question is how far Plato’s account so interpreted resembles the findings of contemporary neuroscience, given that this also depicts the mind as (...)
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  39. Plato on the Pangs of Love.Mehmet M. Erginel - 2016 - In Mauro Tulli & Michael Erler (eds.), The Selected Papers of the Tenth Symposium Platonicum. 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany: pp. 231-236.
    At the heart of Plato’s theory of erōs is the ‘ascent’ of love for an individual body, through several stages, to love of Beauty itself (Symposium 210a-212b). I argue that our understanding of the psychology of this transformation would benefit especially from bringing in Plato’s views on pain from the Republic. For erōs is presented in the Symposium as including sexual desire (207b) as well as love of wisdom (210d), but the Republic takes the former to be a painful desire, (...)
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  40. Aisthēsis, Reason and Appetite in the Timaeus.Emily Fletcher - 2016 - Phronesis 61 (4):397-434.
  41. Plato's Protagoras the Hedonist.Joshua Wilburn - 2016 - Classical Philology 113 (3):224-244.
    I advocate an ad hominem reading of the hedonism that appears in the final argument of the Protagoras. I that attribute hedonism both to the Many and to Protagoras, but my focus is on the latter. I argue that the Protagoras in various ways reflects Plato’s view that the sophist is an inevitable advocate for, and himself implicitly inclined toward, hedonism, and I show that the text aims through that characterization to undermine Protagoras’ status as an educator. One of my (...)
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  42. Review of J. Clerk Shaw, Plato’s Anti-hedonism and the Protagoras, Cambridge, 2015. [REVIEW]Vanessa de Harven - 2015 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 11.
    In his exciting new book, Plato’s Anti-hedonism and the Protagoras, J. Clerk Shaw paints a masterful portrait of the Athenian majority, or “the many,” as portrayed by Plato not just in the Protagoras (as the title advertises), but throughout the Platonic corpus. Shaw offers an incisive diagnosis of popular “double-think,” which balances the incoherent complex of commitments to hedonism (the view the pleasure is the good), to the possibility of akrasia (weakness of will) and to the belief that injustice is (...)
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  43. The Good Life for Plato’s Tripartite Soul.Hua-Kuei Ho - 2015 - In R. A. H. King (ed.), The Good Life and Conceptions of Life in Early China and Graeco-Roman Antiquity. De Gruyter. pp. 265-280.
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  44. Tyrannized Souls: Plato's Depiction of the ‘Tyrannical Man’.Mark A. Johnstone - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):423-437.
    In book 9 of Plato's Republic, Socrates describes the nature and origins of the ‘tyrannical man’, whose soul is said to be ‘like’ a tyrannical city. In this paper, I examine the nature of the ‘government’ that exists within the tyrannical man's soul. I begin by demonstrating the inadequacy of three potentially attractive views sometimes found in the literature on Plato: the view that the tyrannical man's soul is ruled by his ‘lawless’ unnecessary appetites, the view that it is ruled (...)
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  45. The Development of the Notion of Will in the Pagan Ancient Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.Martyna Koszkało - 2015 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 63 (2):157-186.
    Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie i analiza kształtowania się pojęcia woli w starożytnej filozofii pogańskiej. W kontekście poglądów Sokratesa, Platona i Arystotelesa autor przedstawia wiele greckich intuicji dotyczących psychologii aktów moralnych i ludzkiego działania. Po pierwsze artykuł przedstawia doktrynę intelektualizmu etycznego, przypisywaną Sokratesowi, według której kognitywne elementy są głównym motywem naszych działań. Z tego powodu trudno znaleźć pojęcie wolnej woli w sokratejskiej antropologii. Po drugie artykuł prezentuje interpretację platońskiej antropologii, według której sferę thymos można nazwać proto-wolą. Ostatecznie autor ukazuje, jak trudno (...)
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  46. Plato and the Divided Self.Jonathan Lavery - 2015 - The European Legacy 20 (3):302-303.
  47. Plato and the Divided Self. [REVIEW]Jonathan Lavery - 2015 - The European Legacy:1-2.
  48. Plato and Rawls: Justice in Individual or Society?Mohammad Javad Movahedi Said Binaye Motlagh - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations at University of Tabriz 9 (16):197-213.
    he conception of justice in Plato’s Republic is an abstract concept that Socrates by using midwifery method strives to create it. In fact, although Plato's talk about justice starts from the external perspective, but, his main intention is investigation of all internal structure of human soul and then of social classes and thereby, to disclosure the nature of justice. For Rawls, in contrast, the realities of society and the economic and social conditions of current societies are more important. Rawls’ view (...)
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  49. Courage and the Spirited Part of the Soul in Plato’s Republic.Josh Wilburn - 2015 - Philosophers' Imprint 15.
    In this paper I examine the account of courage offered in Books 3 and 4 of the Republic and consider its relation to the account of courage and cowardice found in the final argument of the Protagoras. I defend two main lines of thought. The first is that in the Republic Plato does not abandon the Protagoras’ view that all cases of cowardice involve mistaken judgment or ignorance about what is fearful. Rather, he continues to treat cowardly behavior as an (...)
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  50. THUMOS IN PLATO. O. Renaut Platon. La médiation des émotions. L'éducation du thymos dans les dialogues. Pp. 376. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2014. Paper, €38. ISBN: 978-2-7116-2530-7. [REVIEW]Robert Zaborowski - 2015 - The Classical Review 65 (2):374-376.
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