Peace and Nonviolence

Edited by Brian C. Barnett (St. John Fisher College, State University of New York (SUNY))
About this topic
Summary Pacifism is a commitment to making peace by nonviolent means of conflict resolution, such as civil disobedience (given the traditional construal of civility as requiring nonviolence). This commitment need not be absolute; some pacifists reject only certain forms of violence under certain circumstances, most commonly war-related violence (and the war-making system which supports it). By contrast, nonviolentism pertains to violence more generally, which in turn raises substantive debates concerning what counts as “violence.” Another conceptual concern is the pervasive temptation to negatively frame pacifism/peace/nonviolence in terms of an absence (e.g., the absence of violence). While this framing captures an important constraint on means and goals, it also perpetuates the widespread misconception that pacifism and nonviolentism are inherently passive—hence weak, ineffectual, and dangerous, thereby leading to misplaced criticisms. For this reason, it is crucial to keep sight on the more positive dimension: (pro)active methods by which to bring about certain goods (e.g., toleration, social justice, cooperation, harmony, and prosperity). Thus, a “positive peace” should be distinguished from a “negative peace,” pacifism from passivism, and nonviolence from non-violence (where hyphenation stresses mere negation—a convention adopted in some nonviolence circles). Ideally, peace and nonviolence theorists will provide and defend accounts of both dimensions. Accounts differ in their positive and negative aims, the means for procuring and maintaining those aims, and the justifications for those aims and methods. Justifications have been based historically on religious or moral considerations, and more recently on personal psychological well-being or strategic effectiveness. A strategic justification in particular leads to conflict studies—the relatively new and continually developing interdisciplinary field that investigates the nature, causes, and consequences of conflict with the aim of finding solutions.
Introductions Encyclopedia entries include Page 2020, Fiala 2008, and Brownlee & Delmas 2021. For a brief but systemic introduction to nonviolence, see Gan 2013. For a thorough historical account of peace movements and ideas, see Cortright 2008
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  1. I. Two Concepts of Legitimacy: France After the Revolution.Stephen Holmes - 1982 - Political Theory 10 (2):165-183.
  2. On the Purpose and Content of the Journal.Barbara E. Wall - 2004 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 1 (1):1-5.
  3. Catholic Social Teaching and the Environment Pastoral Challenge and Strategy.Walter E. Grazer - 2007 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 4 (2):211-225.
  4. Introduction.Barbara E. Wall - 2006 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 3 (2):225-229.
  5. “The Preferential Option for the Poor," National Health Care Reform and America’s Uninsured: Why the "Option" Isn’T "Optional" in Catholic Social Thought.Reverend Gerald S. Twomey - 2008 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 5 (1):111-123.
Peace
  1. WORKPLACE PEACE CONSTRUCTION THROUGH VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR.Louisa Etebom Uwatt & Alexander Essien Timothy - manuscript
    The study investigated university workers’ perception of the verbal and non-verbal communication variables that are important to workplace peace. Three research questions were posed. Questionnaires were used for data collection. The analysis was done using simple percentages. The results showed that for verbal communication, participants considered a rich vocabulary and good diction as very important to workplace peace. For non-verbal communication, politeness and words of endearment were rated most important to workplace peace.
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  2. Peace, Democracy, and Education in Colombia: The Contribution of the Political Philosopher Guillermo Hoyos-Vásquez.Enver Torregroza & Federico Guillermo Serrano-Lopez - 2021 - Social Identities 28.
    The purpose of this article is to present the main contributions to peace, democracy, and the philosophy of education in Colombia, made by philosopher Guillermo Hoyos-Vásquez (Medellín, 1935 – Bogotá, 2013). The work of this Colombian philosopher stands out for its important contributions to political philosophy as the vital, supportive, and responsible exercise of thought concerning the public interest. Using Kant’s concept of practical reason, Husserl’s lifeworld [Lebenswelt], and Habermas’s communicative action as starting points, Hoyos-Vásquez succeeded in going beyond these (...)
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  3. Book Review: War for Peace: Genealogies of a Violent Ideal in Western and Islamic Thought, by Murad Idris. [REVIEW]Andrew F. March - 2021 - Political Theory 49 (1):149-154.
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  4. Kant on the ‘Guarantee of Perpetual Peace’ and the Ideal of the United Nations.Lucas Thorpe - 2019 - Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Humanities 6 (1):223-245..
    The ideal of the United Nations was first put forward by Immanuel Kant in his 1795 essay Perpetual Peace. Kant, in the tradition of Locke and Rousseau is a liberal who believes that relations between individuals can either be based upon law and consent or upon force and violence. One way that such the ideal of world peace could be achieved would be through the creation of a single world state, of which every human being was a citizen. Such an (...)
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  5. Building Communities of Peace: Arendtian Realism and Peacebuilding.Shinkyu Lee - 2021 - Polity 58 (1):75-100.
    Recent studies of peacebuilding highlight the importance of attending to people’s local experiences of conflict and cooperation. This trend, however, raises the fundamental questions of how the local is and should be constituted and what the relationship is between institutions and individual actors of peace at the local level of politics. I turn to Hannah Arendt’s thoughts to address these issues. Arendt’s thinking provides a distinctive form of realism that calls for stable institutions but never depletes the spirit of resistance. (...)
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  6. Kant’s Ideal of the University as a Model for World Peace.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2005 - In Hamidreza Ayatollahy (ed.), Papers of International Conference on Two Hundred Years after Kant. Tehran, Iran: Allame Tabataba’i University Press. pp. 207-222.
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  7. A “Manual” for Escaping Our Vicious Cycles: The Political Relevance of Enemy‐Love.Gerald W. Schlabach - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):478-500.
    In his 2017 World Day of Peace message, Pope Francis made a subtle yet stunning move when he called the Sermon on the Mount the Church’s “manual” for peacemaking at every level. Continuing the “fresh reappraisal” of war that the Second Vatican Council launched, Francis's choice of a term associated with the “Manualist” tradition of natural‐law casuistry signaled the Catholic magisterium’s growing commitment both to rooting its teaching on peace and war in biblical sources instead, and to active nonviolence in (...)
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  8. Evaluating the Legacy of Nonviolence in South Africa.Gail Presbey - 2006 - Peace and Change 31 (2):141-174.
    This paper engages an important debate going on in the literature regarding the efficacy of nonviolence in confronting unjust regimes. I will focus on the commentators who have claimed that nonviolence, if adhered to more resolutely, would have ended South African apartheid sooner. I will contrast them to Mandela’s account that both violence and nonviolence working in tandem were needed to bring a speedy and just resolution to South Africa’s crisis of racist governance. To consider South Africa an easy case (...)
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  9. Hoping for Peace.Lee-Ann Chae - 2020 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (2):211-221.
    When the odds of achieving world peace seem so long, do hopes for peace amount to anything more than wishful thinking? In this paper, I introduce the idea of meaningful hope, which can help us to u...
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  10. Blessed Are the Peacemakers: Pacifism, Just War, and Peacebuilding. By Lisa Sowle Cahill. Pp. Xiv, 380. Minneapolis, MN, Fortress, 2019, $23.09. [REVIEW]Zenon Szablowinski - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):373-374.
  11. War for peace: Genealogies of a violent ideal in western and Islamic political thought.Nicholas Tampio - 2021 - Contemporary Political Theory 20 (1):45-48.
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  12. Blessed Are the Peacemakers: Pacifism, Just War, and Peacebuilding. [REVIEW]Brian Stiltner - 2019 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 17 (1):171-173.
  13. Peaceful Academic Revolution to Help Humanity Resolve Our Global Crises.Nicholas Maxwell, Ronan Browne & Roger Hallam - manuscript
    The purpose of this document is to outline why and how universities must both transform and mobilise to avert the worst impacts of the global crises faced by humanity. The first section addresses the justification for transformation and how academia can and must transform. In the second section, the document highlights the need for a peaceful mobilisation of student and staff bodies to make effective the transformation advocated for. The document then outlines a blueprint as to action that must be (...)
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  14. Capitini, Aldo.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2010 - Leksikon for Det 21. Århundrede.
    A brief presentation of life, activity and publications of an Italian philosopher, the founder with Guido Calogero of the Liberal-Socialist movement under the Fascist regime and the theorist of non-violence and omnicracy as the key ideas for a new left, beyond reformism and third-International state-socialism.
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  15. Acting Out the Kingdom of God. [REVIEW]Charles K. Fink - 2019 - The Acorn 19 (1):48-53.
    Review of Tolstoy and Spirituality (Academic Studies Press, 2018), edited by Pedrag Cicovacki and Heidi Nada Grek, with articles by Miran Bozovic, Predrag Cicovacki, Abdusalam A. Guseynov, Robert Holmes, Božidar Kante, Rosamund Bartlett, Diana Dukhanova, Liza Knapp, Inessa Medzhibovskaya, Donna Tussing Orwin, Mikhail Shishkin, and Alexandra Smith.
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  16. Peace and the Unity of Kant’s Critical Project. [REVIEW]Matthew Rukgaber - 2019 - The Acorn 19 (1):43-47.
    Rossi’s book tackles the challenging task of giving a unified picture of a large swath of Kant’s Critical philosophy by attending to the need for epistemic humility from the first Critique, drawing upon the primacy of practical reason and the importance of freedom in both the first and second Critiques, appealing to the anthropological task that Kant set for himself in the Jaesche Logic and Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, exploring the implications of politics and history for the (...)
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  17. Teilhard’s Proposition for Peace: Rediscovering the Fire. By Jean Maalouf. Pp. X, 290, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, $119.95. [REVIEW]Ilia Delio - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (1):203-204.
  18. Sent Into Exile: The Divine Call to Practice Diaspora.Marc Tumeinski - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (1):70-81.
    This article explores the understanding of the Church as a creative minority, particularly in connection with the Matthean beatitude of peacemaking. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger’s description of the Church as a creative minority provides the starting point. This paper investigates the communal, obedient practice of diaspora peacemaking from multiple and overlapping theological perspectives, including Biblical narratives of diaspora and of Babel, a comparison of political exile and critical exile, and diaspora peacemaking as a threefold ministry of the Church (priest, prophet, king). (...)
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  19. Making Peace with Moral Imperfection.Camil Golub - 2019 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 16 (2).
    How can we rationally make peace with our past moral failings, while committing to avoid similar mistakes in the future? Is it because we cannot do anything about the past, while the future is still open? Or is it that regret for our past mistakes is psychologically harmful, and we need to forgive ourselves in order to be able to move on? Or is it because moral mistakes enable our moral growth? I argue that these and other answers do not (...)
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  20. A New Pathway to World Peace: From American Empire to First Global Nation. By Ted Becker and Brian Polkinghorn. Pp, Ix, 209, Eugene, Oregon, Resource Publications, 2017, $27.00. [REVIEW]Richard Penaskovic - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (6):975-975.
  21. Peacebuilding in a Fractious World: On Hoping Against All Hope. Edited by Richard Penaskovic and Mustafa Şahin. Pp. X, 198, Eugene, OR, Pickwick Books, 2017, $25.00. [REVIEW]Peter Admirand - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (6):975-976.
  22. Toward a New Conception of Socially-Just Peace.Joshua M. Hall - 2017 - In Fuat Gursozlu (ed.), Peace, Culture, and Violence. Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 248-272.
    In this chapter, I approach the subject of peace by way of Andrew Fiala’s pioneering, synthetic work on “practical pacifism.” One of Fiala’s articles on the subject of peace is entitled “Radical Forgiveness and Human Justice”—and if one were to replace “Radical Forgiveness” with “Peace,” this would be a fair title for my chapter. In fact, Fiala himself explicitly makes a connection in the article between radical forgiveness and peace. Also in support of my project, Fiala’s article names four of (...)
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  23. Peace, Self‐Determination and Reckoning with the Past: A Reply to Butt, Lippert‐Rasmussen, Pasternak, Wellman and Stemplowska.Cécile Fabre - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (3):391-404.
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  24. The Pacifist Tradition and Pacifism as Transformative and Critical Theory.Andrew Fiala - 2018 - The Acorn 18 (1):5-28.
    Pacifism is often painted into a corner as an absolute rejection of all violence and war. Such a dogmatic and negative formulation of pacifism does leave us with pacifism as a morally problematic position. But pacifism is not best understood as a negative claim. Nor is pacifism best understood as a singular or monistic concept. Rather, there is a “pacifist tradition” that is grounded in an affirmative claim about the importance of nonviolence, love, community building, and peaceful conflict resolution. This (...)
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  25. Dorothy Day’s Pursuit of Public Peace Through Word and Action.Gail Presbey - 2014 - In Greg Moses & Gail Presbey (eds.), Peace Philosophy and Public Life: Commitments, Crises, and Concepts for Engaged Thinking. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 17-40.
    A co-founder of the Catholic Worker Movement, its newspaper, and hospitality houses, the writer Dorothy Day promoted public peace nationally and internationally as a journalist, an organizer of public protests, and a builder of associational communities. Drawing upon Hannah Arendt’s conceptions of the role of speech and action in creating the public realm, this paper focuses on several of Day’s most controversial public positions: her leadership of non-cooperation against Civil Defense drills intended to prepare New York City residents to survive (...)
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  26. Perpetual Peace: Derrida Reading Kant.Jacques de Ville - 2019 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 32 (2):335-357.
    Kant’s 1795 essay on perpetual peace has been lauded as one of his most important and influential political texts as well as one of the most important texts on peace. Kant’s text was largely forgotten until the 1980s and 1990s, with numerous commentaries appearing around the time of its 200 years existence. The French philosopher Jacques Derrida’s interest in Kant’s text appears to have arisen around the same time, and his analyses of this text continued after the turn of the (...)
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  27. Women Peace and Security: Adrift in Policy and Practice.Laura Davis - 2019 - Feminist Legal Studies 27 (1):95-107.
    This comment reflects on how the Women, Peace and Security agenda has been translated into policy and put into practice by the European Union and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Although the WPS agenda has enabled many gains by women peacebuilders, this comment identifies important challenges from these two very different contexts. First, situating WPS policy areas within a broader feminist political economy analysis demonstrates how little influence the WPS agenda has across government. Second, the WPS agenda is being used (...)
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  28. Is Perpetual Peace Possible? [REVIEW]Nicholas Tampio - 2019 - Political Theory 47 (2):258-266.
  29. The Triumph of Liberal Democratic Peace and the Dangers of Its Success.Fuat Gürsözlü - 2018 - In Andrew Fiala (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Pacifism and Nonviolence. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 213-224.
    The Triumph of Liberal Democratic Peace and the Dangers of Its Success” provides an overview of the “liberal democratic peace theory” that is associated with Kant and has been developed by Doyle and other contemporary scholars. The chapter examines the problem of wars that are fought in the name of democracy and the way that the liberal democratic peace theory can end up encouraging military interventions. It argues that a careful understanding of the Kantian democratic peace theory can resist the (...)
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  30. Réflexions sur l'indisponibilité de la paix.Daniel Schulthess - 2002 - In Walter Tega (ed.), La Philosophie et la Paix - Actes du XXVIIIe Congrès de l'ASPLF, Bologne, 29 août-2 septembre 2000. Paris: Vrin. pp. p. 643-648.
    Starting from the recognition of the difficulty of establishing peace and the observation that several attempts to terminate conflicts end in failure, the author puts forward the argument that peace is a state that is essentially a by-product, according to the definition given by Jon Elster in his homonymous paper of 1981. Such states are characterized by the fact that they can only be brought about by actions aimed at other ends, i.e. non-intentionally. According to the author it is in (...)
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  31. Why Theorize Modus Vivendi?Fabian Wendt - 2018 - In John Horton, Manon Westphal & Ulrich Willems (eds.), The Political Theory of Modus Vivendi. Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 31-47.
    There have been four main motives to introduce the notion of modus vivendi in the political-philosophical literature. One is to use it as a negative contrast to what one regards as the ideal goal in politics. The second is to use it within a distinctively realist political theory that refrains from advocating utopian ideals. The third is to defend liberal institutions as a modus vivendi. The fourth is to have a concept for the institutional tools for peace. Depending on the (...)
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  32. The Routledge Handbook of Pacifism and Nonviolence.Andrew Fiala (ed.) - 2018 - Routledge.
    Interest in pacifism—an idea with a long history in philosophical thought and in several religious traditions—is growing. The Routledge Handbook of Pacifism and Nonviolence is the first comprehensive reference designed to introduce newcomers and researchers to the many varieties of pacifism and nonviolence, to their history and philosophy, and to pacifism’s most serious critiques. The volume offers 32 brand new chapters from the world’s leading experts across a diverse range of fields, who together provide a broad discussion of pacifism and (...)
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  33. Pope Francis on War and Peace.Christian N. Braun - 2018 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 15 (1):63-87.
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  34. Pacifism: A Philosophy of Nonviolence.Robert L. Holmes - 2016 - Bloomsbury.
    In a world riven with conflict, violence and war, this book proposes a philosophical defense of pacifism. It argues that there is a moral presumption against war and unless that presumption is defeated, war is unjustified. Leading philosopher of non-violence Robert Holmes contends that neither just war theory nor the rationales for recent wars defeat that presumption, hence that war in the modern world is morally unjustified. A detailed, comprehensive and elegantly argued text which guides both students and scholars through (...)
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  35. Peace Education and Peace Education Research: Toward a Concept of Poststructural Violence and Second-Order Reflexivity.Kevin Kester & Hilary Cremin - 2017 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 49 (14):1415-1427.
    Peace and conflict studies education has grown significantly in the last 30 years, mainly in Higher Education. This article critically analyzes the ways in which this field might be subject to poststructural critique, and posits Bourdieusian second-order reflexivity as a means of responding to these critiques. We propose here that theory-building within PACS education is often limited by the dominance of Galtung and Freire, and that, while the foundational ideas of positive and negative peace, structural and cultural violence, conscientization, reflexivity (...)
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  36. Terrorism, Jus Post Bellum and the Prospect of Peace.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2017 - In Florian Demont-Biaggi (ed.), The Nature of Peace and the Morality of Armed Conflict. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 123-140.
    Just war scholars are increasingly focusing on the importance of jus post bellum – justice after war – for the legitimacy of military campaigns. Should something akin to jus post bellum standards apply to terrorist campaigns? Assuming that at least some terrorist actors pursue legitimate goals or just causes, do such actors have greater difficulty satisfying the prospect-of-success criterion of Just War Theory than military actors? Further, may the use of the terrorist method as such – state or non-state – (...)
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  37. Editor's Introduction.Greg Moses - 2017 - The Acorn 17 (1):1-3.
    Epicurus, Marcus Aurelius, Mahatma Gandhi, Alain Locke, Howard Thurman, and Dr. Huey Newton comprise central figures of concern in three feature articles of this issue. The fourth feature takes us on a climate march through Washington, D.C. where the central figure of concern is a broken global relationship. In addition, we offer book reviews that take up applications of nonviolence to counter-terrorism, of ethics to immigration, of pacifism to war, and cosmopolitanism to peacebuilding.
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  38. The Relevance of Northern Ireland. [REVIEW]Sanjay Lal - 2017 - The Acorn 17 (1):79-81.
    To Andrew Fitz-Gibbon the history of Northern Ireland provides much useful insight by which progress can be made in the on-going (and seemingly never ending) vicious conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians that our world has not been able to break free of. In the first three chapters of “Talking to Terrorists” the Northern Ireland conflicts are placed within a very accessible and surprisingly thorough (given the book’s brevity) context. In his final chapter “Toward a Peaceful Future” Fitz-Gibbon identifies and elaborates (...)
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  39. Peace, Culture, and Violence.Fuat Gursozlu (ed.) - 2018 - Brill.
    Peace, Culture, and Violence examines deeper sources of violence by providing a critical reflection on the forms of violence that permeate everyday life and our inability to recognize these forms of violence. Exploring the elements of culture that legitimize and normalize violence, the essays collected in this volume invite us to recognize and critically approach the violent aspects of reality we live in and encourage us to envision peaceful alternatives. Including chapters written by important scholars in the fields of Peace (...)
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  40. Making Peace Education Everyone’s Business.Gilbert Burgh & Simone Thornton - 2017 - In Ching-Ching Lin & Levina Sequeira (eds.), Inclusion, Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue in Young People's Philosophical Inquiry. Rotterdam: pp. 55-65.
    We argue for peace education as a process of improving the quality of everyday relationships. This is vital, as children bring their habits formed largely by social and political institutions such as the family, religion, law, cultural mores, to the classroom (Splitter, 1993; Furlong & Morrison, 2000) and vice versa. It is inevitable that the classroom habitat, as a microcosm of the community in which it is situated, will perpetuate the epistemic practices and injustices of that community, manifested in attitudes, (...)
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  41. I. Two Concepts of Legitimacy: France After the Revolution.Stephen Holmes - 1982 - Political Theory 10 (2):165-183.
  42. Philosophers of Peace and War: Kant, Clause-Witz, Marx, Engels, and Tolstoyby GallieW. B.. New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Pp. X, 147. $12.95. [REVIEW]Richard H. Cox - 1979 - Political Theory 7 (1):149-152.
  43. Review of Anti-Militarism. Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace by Cyntia Cockburn. [REVIEW]Marzenna Jakubczak - 2013 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 3 (1):219-220.
  44. Book Review: Leo Strauss: Man of Peace, by Robert Howse. [REVIEW]Seyla Benhabib - 2017 - Political Theory 45 (2):273-277.
  45. A Kantian Argument for Sovereignty Rights of Indigenous Peoples.Thomason Krista - 2014 - Public Reason 6 (1-2):21-34.
    Kant’s non-voluntarist conception of political obligation has led some philosophers to argue that he would reject self-government rights for indigenous peoples. Some recent scholarship suggests, however, that Kant’s critique of colonialism provides an argument in favor of granting self-government rights. Here I argue for a stronger conclusion: Kantian political theory not only can but must include sovereignty for indigenous peoples. Normally these rights are considered redress for historic injustice. On a Kantian view, however, I argue that they are not remedial. (...)
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