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  1. Nyāyacaturgranthikā.Anantalāla Ṭhakkura (ed.) - unknown - New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
    Exegesis on Vātsyāyana's Nyāyabhāṣya, expounding the Nyaya School in Hindu philosophy.
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  2. Uddyotakara on Universals I: Against Resemblance Nominalism.Nilanjan Das - forthcoming - Journal of Hindu Studies.
    Universals are properties that are shared by multiple objects. In classical South Asia, Brahmanical thinkers from Vyākaraṇa, Nyāya, Vaiśeṣika, and Mīmāṃsā text traditions were realists about universals, while most Buddhists were nominalists. In this paper, my aim is to reconstruct the early Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika theory of universals, with special emphasis on the arguments of the Nyāya philosopher Uddyotakara (6th century CE) against a Buddhist strand of resemblance nominalism. I show that Uddyotakara's contribution to this debate is twofold. First, he is possibly (...)
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  3. Raghunātha on seeing absence.Jack Beaulieu - 2023 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 31 (3):421-447.
    Later Nyāya philosophers maintain that absences are real particulars, irreducible to any positives, that we perceive. The fourteenth-century Nyāya philosopher Gaṅgeśa argues for a condition on absence perception according to which we always perceive an absence as an absence of its counterpositive, or its corresponding absent object or property. Call this condition the ‘counterpositive condition’. Gaṅgeśa shows that the counterpositive condition is both supported by a plausible thesis about the epistemology of relational properties and motivates the defence of absence as (...)
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  4. XI—Śrīharṣa on Two Paradoxes of Inquiry.Nilanjan Das - 2023 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 123 (3):275-304.
    In A Confection of Refutation (Khaṇḍanakhaṇḍakhādya), the twelfth-century philosopher and poet Śrīharṣa addresses a version of Meno’s paradox. This version of the paradox was well known in first millennium South Asia through the writings of two earlier Sanskrit philosophers, Śabarasvāmin (4th–5th century ce) and Śaṃkara (8th century ce). Both these thinkers proposed a solution to the paradox. I show how Śrīharṣa rejects this solution, and splits the old paradox into two new ones: the paradox of triviality and the paradox of (...)
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  5. Vatsyayana's Commentary on the Nyaya-sutra.Matthew R. Dasti - 2023 - New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    Vatsyayana's Commentary on the Nyaya-sutra is one of classical India's most important philosophical works.
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  6. The Concept of Anumāna in Navya-nyāya.Raghunath Ghosh - 2023 - Studia Humana 12 (1-2):4-11.
    According to the Navya Naiyāyikas, inference is the knowledge, which is produced out of consideration. But what is to be understood by the term ‘consideration’ or ‘parāmarśa’? According to them, parāmarśa or consideration is the factor through the operation of which the inferential conclusion can be attained. Parāmarśa has been defined as the knowledge of the existence of the hetu or reason in the pakṣa or subject, which reason is characterized by its being concomitant with the sādhya, the knowledge in (...)
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  7. Nyāya Formalized: Exercises of Application.Alberto Anrò - 2022 - Philosophy East and West 72 (1):1-34.
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  8. Maheśa Chandra’s Exposition of the Navya-Nyāya Concept of “Cognition” (jñāna) from the Perspective of Inquisitive Logic.Eberhard Guhe - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (5):835-864.
    The present paper is about three concepts which are crucially involved in Gaṅgeśa's interpretation of a Mīmāṃsā argument against the well-known design inference of the existence of God in Nyāya, namely the concepts “cognition” (jñāna), “certitude” (niścaya) and “doubt” (saṃśaya). According to Maheśa Chandra, the author of the Navya-Nyāya manual Brief Notes on the Modern Nyāya System of Philosophy and its Technical Terms, certitude and doubt are the two varieties of cognition. He illustrates the verbal expression of certitudes by means (...)
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  9. Unsur-unsur Epistemologi ‘Proto-Nyaya’ dalam Bhagavad-Gita.Jeffrey W. Jacobson - 2022 - Diskursus - Jurnal Filsafat dan Teologi STF Driyarkara 18 (2):133-150.
    The Bhagavad-Gita, as a multivalent text, has been a source of inspiration for all areas of Indian thought. This paper identifies elements in the Bhagavad-Gita which may have influenced the formation of Nyaya philosophy in the centuries after it was written. Part one of the paper reviews Nyaya epistemology as a whole, focusing on aspects that play an important role in the Bhagavad-Gita: perception (pratyaksa), inference (anumana), ‘syllogism’, verbal utterance (sabda) and the practical orientation of knowledge. The second part shows (...)
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  10. Debating with Fists and Fallacies: Vācaspati Miśra and Dharmakīrti on Norms of Argumentation.Malcolm Keating - 2022 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 26 (April):63-87.
    The tradition of Nyāya philosophy centers on a dispassionate quest for truth which is simultaneously connected to soteriological and epistemic aims. This article shows how Vācaspati Miśra brings together the soteriological concept of dispassion with the discourse practices of debate, as a response to Buddhist criticisms in Dharmakīrti’s Vādanyāya. He defends the Nyāyasūtra’s stated position that fallacious reasoning is a legitimate means for a debate, under certain circumstances. Dharmakīrti argues that such reasoning is rationally ineffective and indicates unvirtuous qualities. For (...)
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  11. The Pragma-Dialectics of Dispassionate Discourse: Early Nyāya Argumentation Theory.Malcolm Keating - 2022 - Religions 10 (12).
    Analytic philosophers have, since the pioneering work of B.K. Matilal, emphasized the contributions of Nyāya philosophers to what contemporary philosophy considers epistemology. More recently, scholarly work demonstrates the relevance of their ideas to argumentation theory, an interdisciplinary area of study drawing on epistemology as well as logic, rhetoric, and linguistics. This paper shows how early Nyāya theorizing about argumentation, from Vātsyāyana to Jayanta Bhaṭṭa, can fruitfully be juxtaposed with the pragma-dialectic approach to argumentation pioneered by Frans van Eemeren. I illustrate (...)
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  12. The Logics of Counterinference and the “Additional Condition” (upādhi) in Gaṅgeśa’s Defense of the Nyāya Theistic Inference from Effects.Stephen Phillips - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (5):821-833.
    This paper is taken from a long section of the _Tattva-cintā-maṇi_ by Gaṅgeśa that is devoted to proving the existence of—to use an inadequate word—“God” in a somewhat minimalist sense. The _īśvara_, the “Lord,” is for Gaṅgeśa, following Nyāya predecessors, a divine agent, a self, responsible for much, not all, of the order in the world. Unseen Force, _adṛṣṭa_, which is in effect _karman_ made by human action, is also a powerful agent as well as things’ intrinsic natures. Moreover, ordinary (...)
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  13. Visvabandhu Tarkatīrtha’s “The Nyāya on True Cognition (pramā)”. Translated from Sanskrit and Bengali with explanatory notes.Jaysankar Lal Shaw - 2022 - RUDN Journal of Philosophy 26 (2):259-284.
    The following publication includes the translation of the paper “The Nyāya on True Cognition ” by late Mahāmahopādhya pandit Visvabandhu Tarkatīrtha, translated from Sanskrit and Bengali, supplemented with an introduction and additional explanatory notes by J.L. Shaw. The text aims to discuss the Nyāya conception of truth, which is a property of cognition. According to Gaṅgeśa, the founder of Navya-Nyāya, the truth cannot be considered as a class-essence because there will be a defect called ‘ sāṅkarya ’ between truth and (...)
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  14. Theory of Error and Nyaya Philosophy: A Conceptual Analysis.Gobinda Bhattacharjee - 2021 - International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews 8 (3):958-964.
    In this paper, I propose to discuss the theory of error or Khyativāda with special reference to Nyāya philosophy. The error is an epistemological concept. As such it is contrasted with the truth. Philosophers, while dealing with the concept of error, have analyzed it from logical, metaphysical and psychological perspective. The problem of error in Indian philosophy is discussed in the different theories known as the Khyativāda. According to Nyāya School error is known as anyathākhyativāda. Here 'anyathā' literally means 'otherwise' (...)
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  15. Nyāya’s Response to Skepticism.Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti - 2021 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 12 (1):72-89.
    The classical Indian school called Nyāya (literally “logic” or “right reasoning”), is arguably the leading anti-skeptical tradition within all of Indian philosophy. Defending a realist metaphysics and an epistemology of “knowledge sources” (pramāṇa), its responses to skepticism are often appropriated by other schools of thought. This paper examines its responses to skeptical arguments from dreams, from “the three times,” from justificatory regress, and over the problem of induction.
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  16. Gaṅgeśa on Epistemic Luck.Nilanjan Das - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (2):153-202.
    This essay explores a problem for Nyāya epistemologists. It concerns the notion of pramā. Roughly speaking, a pramā is a conscious mental event of knowledge-acquisition, i.e., a conscious experience or thought in undergoing which an agent learns or comes to know something. Call any event of this sort a knowledge-event. The problem is this. On the one hand, many Naiyāyikas accept what I will call the Nyāya Definition of Knowledge, the view that a conscious experience or thought is a knowledge-event (...)
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  17. Epistemology, Logic and Metaphysics in Pre-Modern India: New Avenues for the Study of Navya-Nyāya.Hugo David & Jonathan Duquette - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (2):145-151.
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  18. There is Something Wrong with Raw Perception, After All: Vyāsatīrtha’s Refutation of Nirvikalpaka-Pratyakṣa.Amit Chaturvedi - 2020 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 48 (2):255-314.
    This paper analyzes the incisive counter-arguments against Gaṅgeśa’s defense of non-conceptual perception offered by the Dvaita Vedānta scholar Vyāsatīrtha in his Destructive Dance of Dialectic. The details of Vyāsatīrtha’s arguments have gone largely unnoticed by subsequent Navya Nyāya thinkers, as well as by contemporary scholars engaged in a debate over the role of non-conceptual perception in Nyāya epistemology. Vyāsatīrtha thoroughly undercuts the inductive evidence supporting Gaṅgeśa’s main inferential proof of non-conceptual perception, and shows that Gaṅgeśa has no basis for thinking (...)
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  19. Vātsyāyana’s Guide to Liberation.Nilanjan Das - 2020 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 48 (5):791-825.
    In this essay, my aim is to explain Vātsyāyana’s solution to a problem that arises for his theory of liberation. For him and most Nyāya philosophers after him, liberation consists in the absolute cessation of pain. Since this requires freedom from embodied existence, it also results in the absolute cessation of pleasure. How, then, can agents like us be rationally motivated to seek liberation? Vātsyāyana’s solution depends on what I will call the Pain Principle, i.e., the principle that we should (...)
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  20. Old Topics, New Formulations: Khaṇḍadeva and Navyanyāya.Bogdan Diaconescu - 2020 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (2):291-321.
    This article is first in a series dedicated to issues in the intellectual history of Mīmāṃsā in early modern India and part of a larger effort to broaden the basis for understanding the new formulations of central topics of the Mīmāṃsā textual-ritual complex in this period. It examines how the Varanasi scholar Khaṇḍadevamiśra makes use of Navyanyāya tools of analysis by putting under the microscope the example of his investigation and new formulation of the signification of agent and agency by (...)
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  21. Controversial Reasoning in Indian Philosophy: Major Texts and Arguments on Arthâpatti.Malcolm Keating - 2020 - London: Bloomsbury Academic Publishing.
    Arthâpatti is a pervasive form of reasoning investigated by Indian philosophers in order to think about unseen causes and interpret ordinary and religious language. Its nature is a point of controversy among Mimamsa, Nyaya, and Buddhist philosophers, yet, to date, it has received less attention than perception, inference, and testimony. This collection presents a one-of-a-kind reference resource for understanding this form of reasoning studied in Indian philosophy. Assembling translations of central primary texts together with newly-commissioned essays on research topics, it (...)
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  22. Nārāyaṇa Bhaṭṭa's Elucidation of Epistemic Instruments and Their Objects.Malcolm Keating - 2020 - In Controversial Reasoning in Indian Philosophy: Major Texts and Arguments on Arthâpatti. London: Bloomsbury Academic Publishing. pp. 111-126.
    Translation of a section of the Mānameyodaya dealing with the independence of arthāpatti (postulation) from anumāna (inferential reasoning).
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  23. Impact of Nyaya-Vaiseshika on Indian Thoughts.Lakshmi Vijayan & T. V. (eds.) - 2020 - Kanpur: Maya Prakashan.
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  24. Descriptive catalogue of Nyaya manuscripts in Oriental Institute, Vadodara.Sweta Prajapati (ed.) - 2019 - Delhi, India: New Bhartiya Book Corporation.
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  25. The Nyāya Argument for Disjunctivism.Henry Ian Schiller - 2019 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 36 (1):1-18.
    The Nyāya school of classical Indian epistemology defended (by today’s standards) a radical version of epistemic externalism. They also gave arguments from their epistemological positions to an early version of disjunctivism about perceptual experience. In this paper I assess the value of such an argument, concluding that a modified version of the Nyāya argument may be defensible.
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  26. History of Indian philosophy.Purusottama Bilimoria (ed.) - 2017 - New York, Abingdon UK: Routledge Taylor & Francis Palgrave.
    The History of Indian Philosophy is a comprehensive and authoritative examination of the movements and thinkers that have shaped Indian philosophy over the last three thousand years. An outstanding team of international contributors provide fifty-eight accessible chapters, organis[=z]ed into three clear parts: knowledge, context, concepts philosophical traditions engaging and encounters: modern and postmodern. This outstanding collection is essential reading for students of Indian philosophy. It will also be of interest to those seeking to explore the lasting significance of this rich (...)
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  27. The Nyaya View of Definition.Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti - 2017 - Journal of Indian Philosophy and Religion 22:127-169.
    A Nyaya definition the major purpose of which is efficient use of words and avoiding ambiguities and errors, is the statement of a unique feature that belongs to each definiendum and nothing else so that there is none of the three faults of overcoverage, undercoverage and failure to belong to any definiendum. There should be no circularity that is of three kinds, self-dependence (where the definiendum appears in the definiens); mutual dependence (where the definiendum and the definiens are used in (...)
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  28. Vatsyayana: Cognition as a Guide to Action.Matthew R. Dasti - 2017 - In Jonardon Ganeri (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Indian Philosophy.
    Pakṣilasvāmin Vātsyāyana (c. 450 CE) is the author of the Commentary on Nyāya (Nyāya-bhāṣya), the first full commentary on the Nyāya-sūtra of Gautama (c. 150 CE), which is itself the foundational text of the school of philosophy called “Nyāya.” The Nyāya tradition is home to a number of leading voices within the classical Indian philosophical scene and is celebrated in later doxographies as one of the six “orthodox” systems of Hindu thought. Given the way that sūtra texts and their first (...)
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  29. The Nyāya-Sūtra: Selections with Early Commentaries.Matthew Dasti & Stephen Phillips - 2017 - Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Edited by Matthew R. Dasti & Stephen H. Phillips.
    Often translated simply as "logic," the Sanskrit word _nyāya_ means "rule of reasoning" or "method of reasoning." Texts from the school of classical Indian philosophy that bears this name are concerned with cognition, reasoning, and the norms that govern rational debate. This translation of selections from the early school of Nyāya focuses on its foundational text, the _Nyāya-sūtra_, with excerpts from the early commentaries. It will be welcomed by specialists and non-specialists alike seeking an accessible text that both represents some (...)
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  30. Reliability of a Speaker and Recognition of a Listener: Bocheński and Nyāya on the Relation of Authority.Agnieszka Rostalska - 2017 - Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies 21:155-173.
    In the Nyāyasūtras (NS), the fundamental text of the Nyāya tradition, testimony is defined as a statement of a reliable speaker (āpta). According to the NS, such a speaker should possess three qualities: competence, honesty and desire to speak. The content of a discourse, including the prescriptions, is also considered reliable due to the status of a given author and the person that communicated it. -/- The Polish philosopher J.M. Bocheński similarly stresses the role of a speaker; he holds that (...)
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  31. The Problem of Foundation in Early Nyāya and in Navya-Nyāya.Eberhard Guhe - 2015 - History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (2):97-113.
    The evaluation of arguments was not the sole concern of logicians in ancient India. Early Nyāya and the later Navya-Nyāya provide an interesting example of the interaction between logic and ontology. In their attempt to develop a kind of property-location logic Naiyāyikas had to consider what kind of restrictions they should impose on the residence relation between a property and its locus. Can we admit circular residence relations or infinitely descending chains of properties, each depending on its successor as its (...)
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  32. Comparative Philosophy & J. L. Shaw.Michael Hemmingsen & Purushottama Bilimoria - 2015 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    As a Festschrift, this book celebrates and honours the scholarly achievements of Professor Jaysankar Lal Shaw, one of the most eminent and internationally acclaimed comparative philosophers of our times. Original works by leading international philosophers and logicians are presented here, exploring themes such as: meaning, negation, perception and Indian and Buddhist systems of philosophy, especially Nyaya perspectives. -/- Professor Shaw’s untiring effort to solve some of the problems of contemporary philosophy of language, logic, epistemology, metaphysics and morals from the perspectives (...)
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  33. A Study on Congruence between Classical Nyaya Sutras and Modern Theories of Knowledge.Jatin Pandey & Manjari Singh - 2015 - Journal of Human Values 21 (2):106-115.
    Knowledge is an asset that can make or break organizations. Its importance has been duly asserted in the Western management thought as well as in the Indian classical philosophical thought. The present study takes a hermeneutical approach by reviewing the Western literature related to knowledge and then trying to find congruence with the Indian philosophy of Nyaya Sutras. Nyaya is a branch of Indian philosophical thought; these thoughts were written in the form of verses called the sutras. We draw from (...)
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  34. On Knowing Universals: The Nyāya Way.Monima Chadha - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (2):287-302.
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  35. Nyāya's Self as Agent and Knower.Matthew R. Dasti - 2014 - In Matthew R. Dasti & Edwin F. Bryant (eds.), Free will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 112.
    Much of classical Hindu thought has centered on the question of self: what is it, how does it relate to various features of the world, and how may we benefit by realizing its depths? Attempting to gain a conceptual foothold on selfhood, Hindu thinkers commonly suggest that its distinctive feature is consciousness (caitanya). Well-worn metaphors compare the self to light as its awareness illumines the world of knowable objects. Consciousness becomes a touchstone to recognize the presence of a self. A (...)
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  36. A Synopsis of Science: From the Standpoint of the Nyaya Philosophy.James R. Ballantyne - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    James Robert Ballantyne taught oriental languages in India for sixteen years, producing grammars of Hindi, Sanskrit and Persian, along with translations of Hindu philosophy. In 1859, for the use of Christian missionaries, he prepared a guide to Hinduism, in English and Sanskrit. Published in two volumes in 1852, Synopsis of Science was intended to introduce his Indian pupils to Western science by using the framework of Hindu Nyaya philosophy, which was familiar to them and which Ballantyne greatly respected. Volume 1 (...)
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  37. Synopsis of Science: From the Standpoint of the Nyaya Philosophy.James R. Ballantyne - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    James Robert Ballantyne taught oriental languages in India for sixteen years, compiling grammars of Hindi, Sanskrit and Persian, along with translations of Hindu philosophy. In 1859, for the use of Christian missionaries, he prepared a guide to Hinduism, in English and Sanskrit. Published in two volumes in 1852, Synopsis of Science was intended to introduce his Indian pupils to Western science by using the framework of Hindu Nyaya philosophy, which was familiar to them and which Ballantyne greatly respected. This second (...)
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  38. The arrival of Navya-Nyāya techniques in Varanasi.Johannes Bronkhorst, Bogdan Diaconescu & Malhar Kulkarni - 2013 - In Kuruvilla Pandikattu Sj & Binoy Pichalakkattu Sj (eds.), An Indian Ending: Rediscovering the Grandeur of Indian Heritage for a Sustainable Future. Essays in Honour of Professor Dr. John Vattanky SJ On Completing Eighty Years. Serials Publications.
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  39. Systematizing Nyāya. [REVIEW]Matthew R. Dasti - 2013 - Philosophy East and West 63 (4):617-637.
    An ongoing effort, exemplified though happily not exhausted in the work of B. K. Matilal, is to present the best of classical Indian philosophy in a way that speaks to contemporary philosophical concerns, while still being historically and philologically responsible. Epistemology in Classical India: The Knowledge Sources of the Nyāya School by Stephen Phillips is expressly this kind of work. Phillips begins by explaining that his book is “for philosophers and students of philosophy, not for specialists in classical Indian thought” (...)
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  40. Nyāya.Matthew R. Dasti - 2012 - The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This is an overview of the Nyaya ("Logic") school of classical Indian philosophy, focusing on the earlier period (up to roughly 1000 CE).
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  41. Parasitism and Disjunctivism in Nyāya Epistemology.Matthew R. Dasti - 2012 - Philosophy East and West 62 (1):1-15.
    From the early modern period, Western epistemologists have often been concerned with a rigorous notion of epistemic justification, epitomized in the work of Descartes: properly held beliefs require insulation from extreme skepticism. To the degree that veridical cognitive states may be indistinguishable from non-veridical states, apparently veridical states cannot enjoy high-grade positive epistemic status. Therefore, a good believer begins from what are taken to be neutral, subjective experiences and reasons outward—hopefully identifying the kinds of appearances that properly link up to (...)
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  42. Debating Verbal Cognition: The Theory of the Principal Qualificand (mukyaviśeṣya) in Classical Indian Thought.Bogdan Diaconescu - 2012 - Motilal Banarsidass.
    The intellectual culture of India presents us with highly elaborated theories of verbal cognition, known in Sanskrit philosophical literature under the generic name of sabdabodha. The theory explored in this book represents the content of the cognition derived from linguistic utterances as a paraphrase centered on a meaning element-the principal qualificand, which is qualified by other meaning elements. Thinkers of the Mimamsa, Nyaya and Vyakarana schools concern themselves with this topic, situated at the interface between epistemology, linguistics, scriptural exegesis and (...)
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  43. On the new ways of the late Vedic hermeneutics: Mīmāṃsā and Navya-Nyāya.Bogdan Diaconescu - 2012 - Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques 66 (2):261-306.
    This article aims to follow the process of adoption of Navya-Nyāya techniques of cognitive analysis in the school of Vedic hermeneutics, Mīmāṃsā, in the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries, in the larger context of the spread of these techniques in India. I shall argue that this process arises in Mīmāṃsā on the sidelines of the Advaita-Dvaita Vedānta controversy in South India, then subsequently flourishes in Varanasi. These techniques are adopted gradually and selectively, for not all the Mīmāṃsā thinkers choose to (...)
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  44. Realism and Essentialism in the Nyāya Darśana.John Kronen & Joy Laine - 2012 - International Philosophical Quarterly 52 (3):315-333.
    Philosophers affiliated with the Nyāya school of classical Indian philosophy developed an impressive species of realism. Nyāya philosophers defended direct realism in holding that we perceive bodies, not just their qualities or mental images of their qualities. This sort of realism has been out of favor for centuries in the West and faces a number of problems that the Nyāya knew and answered in a sophisticated way. Rather than focus on the Nyāya defense of direct realism, we focus on the (...)
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  45. Indian Rational Theology: Proof, Justification, and Epistemic Liberality in Nyāya's Argument for God.Matthew R. Dasti - 2011 - Asian Philosophy 21 (1):1-21.
    In classical India, debates over rational theology naturally become the occasion for fundamental questions about the scope and power of inference itself. This is well evinced in the classical proofs for God by the Hindu Nyāya tradition and the opposing arguments of classical Buddhists and Mīmāsā philosophers. This paper calls attention to, and provides analysis of, a number of key nodes in these debates, particularly questions of inferential boundaries and whether inductive reasoning has the power to support inferences to wholly (...)
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  46. Is cognition an attribute of the self or it rather belongs to the body? Some dialectical considerations on Udbhaṭabhaṭṭa’s position against Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika.Krishna Del Toso - 2011 - Open Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):48.
    In this article an attempt is made to detect what could have been the dialectical reasons that impelled the Cār-vāka thinker Udbhatabhatta to revise and reformulate the classical materialistic concept of cognition. If indeed according to ancient Cārvākas cognition is an attribute entirely dependent on the physical body, for Udbhatabhatta cognition is an independent principle that, of course, needs the presence of a human body to manifest itself and for this very reason it is said to be a peculiarity of (...)
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  47. Composite Substances as True Wholes: Toward a Modified Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Theory of Composite Substances.John Kronen & Jacob Tuttle - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):289-316.
    In the Categories Aristotle defined substance as that which is neither predicable of nor in another. In saying that a substance is not predicable of another, Aristotle meant to exclude genera and species from the category substance. Aman is a substance but not man. In saying that a substance is not in another, Aristotle meant to exclude property particulars from the category. A man is a substance, not his color. The Categories treats substances as simples. Though a particular substance, Bucephalus (...)
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  48. Epistemology in Classical India: The Knowledge Sources of the Nyaya School.Stephen H. Phillips - 2011 - New York: Routledge.
    In this book, Phillips gives an overview of the contribution of Nyaya--the classical Indian school that defends an externalist position about knowledge as well as an internalist position about justification. Nyaya literature extends almost two thousand years and comprises hundreds of texts, and in this book, Phillips presents a useful overview of the under-studied system of thought. For the philosopher rather than the scholar of Sanskrit, the book makes a whole range of Nyaya positions and arguments accessible to students of (...)
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  49. Classical Indian Philosophy of Induction: The Nyāya Viewpoint.Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti - 2010 - Lexington Books. Edited by Gaṅgeśa.
    The problem of induction : East and West -- The later Nyaya solution -- The method of generalization : Vyaptigrahopayah -- Counterfactual reasoning : Tarkah -- Universal based extraordinary perception : Samanyalaksanapratyaksa -- Earlier views of adjuncts : Upadhivadah -- The accepted view of adjuncts : Upadhivadasiddhantah -- Classification of adjuncts : Upadhivibhagah -- Sriharsa's Khandanakhandakhadyam on pervasion -- Selected passages from Prabhacandra's Prameyakamalamartanda on critique of pervasion and inference -- Selections from Dharmakirti's Nyayabindu on non-perception as a probans.
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  50. Against a Hindu God by Parimal G. Patil (Columbia University Press 2009). [REVIEW]Matthew R. Dasti - 2010 - Journal of Asian Studies.
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