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  1. Combining Fast and Slow Thinking for Human-like and Efficient Navigation in Constrained Environments.Marianna Bergamaschi Ganapini, Murray Campbell, Francesco Fabiano, Lior Horesh, Jon Lenchner, Andrea Loreggia, Nicholas Mattei, Taher Rahgooy, Francesca Rossi, Biplav Srivastava & Brent Venable - manuscript
    [Multiple authors] In this paper, we propose a general architecture that is based on fast/slow solvers and a metacognitive component. We then present experimental results on the behavior of an instance of this architecture, for AI systems that make decisions about navigating in a constrained environment. We show how combining the fast and slow decision modalities allows the system to evolve over time and gradually pass from slow to fast thinking with enough experience, and that this greatly helps in decision (...)
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  2. The metaperceptual function: Exploring dissociations between confidence and task performance with type 2 psychometric curves.Brian Maniscalco, Olenka Graham Castaneda, Brian Odegaard, Jorge Morales, Sivananda Rajananda & Megan Peters - manuscript
    Confidence can dissociate from perceptual accuracy, suggesting distinct computational and neural processes underlie these psychological functions. Recent investigations have therefore sought to experimentally isolate metacognitive processes by creating conditions where perceptual sensitivity is matched but confidence differs (“matched-performance / different-confidence”; MPDC). Despite these endeavors’ success, much remains unknown about MPDC effects and how to best harness them in experimental settings. Here we developed a principled approach to comprehensively characterizing MPDC effects through analyzing metaperceptual (i.e., type 2 psychometric) functions relating objective (...)
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  3. What and How of Philosophy.Ulrich de Balbian - forthcoming - Oxford: Academic Publishers.
    FREE download of book. Top 1% of downloads (Academia.Edu) I analyse philosophical reasoning and argumentation, Critical Thinking and Argument Maps and other techniques, argument mapping, mind maps, etc I show that 'good' philosophy is/was only seen as and restricted to the application of Informal Logic, its arguments and type of reasoning. I Analyse the philosophical tutorial method of OXFORD University - rated as the top university for now. -/- I suggest that philosophical thinking and expression should be many-levelled and multi-dimensional. (...)
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  4. The effect of time pressure on metacognitive control: developmental changes in self‑regulation and efficiency during learning.Gökhan Gönül, Nike Tsalas & Markus Paulus - forthcoming - Metacognition and Learning.
    The effect of time pressure on metacognitive control is of theoretical and empirical relevance and is likely to allow us to tap into developmental differences in performances which do not become apparent otherwise, as previous studies suggest. In the present study, we investigated the effect of time pressure on metacognitive control in three age groups (10-year-olds, 14-year-olds, and adults, n = 183). Using an established study time allocation paradigm, participants had to study two different sets of picture pairs, in an (...)
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  5. Confidence in Consciousness Research.Matthias Michel - forthcoming - WIREs Cognitive Science:e1628.
    To study (un)conscious perception and test hypotheses about consciousness, researchers need procedures for determining whether subjects consciously perceive stimuli or not. This article is an introduction to a family of procedures called ‘confidence-based procedures’, which consist in interpreting metacognitive indicators as indicators of consciousness. I assess the validity and accuracy of these procedures, and answer a series of common objections to their use in consciousness research. I conclude that confidence-based procedures are valid for assessing consciousness, and, in most cases, accurate (...)
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  6. The Epistemic Role of Vividness.Joshua Myers - forthcoming - Analysis.
    The vividness of mental imagery is epistemically relevant. Intuitively, vivid and intense memories are epistemically better than weak and hazy memories, and using a clear and precise mental image in the service of spatial reasoning is epistemically better than using a blurry and imprecise mental image. But how is vividness epistemically relevant? I argue that vividness is higher-order evidence about one’s epistemic state, rather than first-order evidence about the world. More specifically, the vividness of a mental image is higher-order evidence (...)
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  7. Metacognition of Inferential Transitions.Nicholas Shea - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    A thought process is an unfolding causal chain. Some thoughts cause others in virtue of their contents. Paradigmatic cases of personal level inference involve something more, some kind of appreciation or feeling that the conclusion follows from the premises. First- order processes are inadequate to account for the phenomenon. Attempts to capture the additional ingredient in terms of second-order beliefs have proven problematic. An intermediate position has, however, been overlooked. The extra ingredient could be an epistemic feeling, a form of (...)
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  8. How to get rich from inflation.Simon Alexander Burns Brown - 2024 - Consciousness and Cognition 117 (C):103624.
    We seem to have rich experience across our visual field. Yet we are surprisingly poor at tasks involving the periphery and low spatial attention. Recently, Lau and collaborators have argued that a phenomenon known as “subjective inflation” allows us to reconcile these phenomena. I show inflation is consistent with multiple interpretations, with starkly different consequences for richness and for theories of consciousness more broadly. What’s more, we have only weak reasons favouring any of these interpretations over the others. I provisionally (...)
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  9. Transparency and the Mindfulness Opacity Hypothesis.Victor Lange & Thor Grünbaum - 2024 - Philosophical Quarterly 74 (3):822-843.
    Many philosophers endorse the Transparency Thesis, the claim that by introspection one cannot become aware of one's experience. Recently, some authors have suggested that the Transparency Thesis is challenged by introspective states reached under mindfulness. We label this the Mindfulness Opacity Hypothesis. The present paper develops the hypothesis in important new ways. First, we motivate the hypothesis by drawing on recent clinical psychology and cognitive science of mindfulness. Secondly, we develop the hypothesis by describing the implied shift in experiential perspective, (...)
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  10. Psychological Epiphenomenalism.Darryl Mathieson - 2024 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 31 (3-4):120-143.
    Researchers in the psychological sciences have put forward the thesis that various sources of psychological, cognitive, and neuroscientific evidence demonstrate that being conscious of our mental states does not make any difference to our behaviour. In this paper, I argue that the evidence marshalled in support of this view — which I call psychological epiphenomenalism — is subject to major objections, relies on a superficial reading of the relevant literature, and fails to engage with the more precise ways in which (...)
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  11. Cognitive penetration and implicit cognition.Lucas Battich & Ophelia Deroy - 2023 - In J. Robert Thompson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Implicit Cognition. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 144-152.
    Cognitive states, such as beliefs, desires and intentions, may influence how we perceive people and objects. If this is the case, are those influences worse when they occur implicitly rather than explicitly? Here we show that cognitive penetration in perception generally involves an implicit component. First, the process of influence is implicit, making us unaware that our perception is misrepresenting the world. This lack of awareness is the source of the epistemic threat raised by cognitive penetration. Second, the influencing state (...)
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  12. Imagining the future self through thought experiments.K. Miyamoto, M. F. S. Rushworth & Nicholas Shea - 2023 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
    The ability of the mind to conceptualize what is not present is essential. It allows us to reason counterfactually about what might have happened had events unfolded differently or had another course of action been taken. It allows us to think about what might happen – to perform 'Gedankenexperimente' (thought experiments) – before we act. However, the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating this ability are poorly understood. We suggest that the frontopolar cortex (FPC) keeps track of and evaluates alternative choices (...)
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  13. Skilled Action and Metacognitive Control.Myrto Mylopoulos - 2023 - In Paul Henne & Samuel Murray (eds.), Experimental Advances in Philosophy of Action. Bloomsbury.
  14. Millikan’s consistency testers and the cultural evolution of concepts.Nicholas Shea - 2023 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 5 (1):79-101.
    Ruth Millikan has hypothesised that human cognition contains ‘consistency testers’. Consistency testers check whether different judgements a thinker makes about the same subject matter agree or conflict. Millikan’s suggestion is that, where the same concept has been applied to the world via two routes, and the two judgements that result are found to be inconsistent, that makes the thinker less inclined to apply those concepts in those ways in the future. If human cognition does indeed include such a capacity, its (...)
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  15. Are forgotten memories literal experiences of absences? Episodic forgetting and metacognitive feelings.Marta Caravà - 2022 - Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences 43 (3):e61021.
    Are occurrent states of forgetting literal experiences of absences? I situate this question within the debate on mental time travel (MTT) to understand whether these states can be explained as literal experiences of absent episodic memories. To frame my argument, I combine Barkasi and Rosen’s literal approach to MTT with Farennikova’s literal approach to the perception of absences, showing that both are built on the idea that for an experience to be literal it must afford an unmediated contact with the (...)
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  16. An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Research. 2nd Revised Edition.Machiel Keestra, Anne Uilhoorn & Jelle Zandveld - 2022 - Amsterdam, Nederland: Amsterdam University Press.
    [This book replaces the - discontinued - first edition of 'Introduction to Interdisciplinary Research' (2016, by Menken & Keestra)] We are increasingly realizing that, as a result of technological developments and globalization, problems are becoming so complex that they can only be solved through cooperation between scientists from different disciplines. Healthcare, climate change, food security, globalization, and quality of life are just a few examples of issues that require scientists to work across disciplines. In many cases, extra-academic stakeholders must be (...)
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  17. Confidence Tracks Consciousness.Jorge Morales & Hakwan Lau - 2022 - In Josh Weisberg (ed.), Qualitative Consciousness: Themes From the Philosophy of David Rosenthal. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 91-105.
    Consciousness and confidence seem intimately related. Accordingly, some researchers use confidence ratings as a measure of, or proxy for, consciousness. Rosenthal discusses the potential connections between the two, and rejects confidence as a valid measure of consciousness. He argues that there are better alternatives to get at conscious experiences such as direct subjective reports of awareness (i.e. subjects’ reports of perceiving something or of the degree of visibility of a stimulus). In this chapter, we offer a different perspective. Confidence ratings (...)
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  18. The skill of self-control.Juan Pablo Bermúdez - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):6251-6273.
    Researchers often claim that self-control is a skill. It is also often stated that self-control exertions are intentional actions. However, no account has yet been proposed of the skillful agency that makes self-control exertion possible, so our understanding of self-control remains incomplete. Here I propose the skill model of self-control, which accounts for skillful agency by tackling the guidance problem: how can agents transform their abstract and coarse-grained intentions into the highly context-sensitive, fine-grained control processes required to select, revise and (...)
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  19. The Interior Life: An Interreligious Approach.Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2021 - Indian Catholic Matters.
    The interface between Roman Catholic Christianity and the Sanatana Dharma is often limited to Vedantic discourses and neglects the Shakta traditions to be found within the woof of Hinduism. And generally, this dialogue is between celibates of both religions. This blog-post after removing false notions about Tantra, goes on to show how Tantra as a lived faith is about interiority and a life of contemplation. This post also touches upon three crucial differences between Christianity and Tantra. To quote from the (...)
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  20. Looking for Profundity (in All the Wrong Places).Bence Nanay - 2021 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 79 (3):344-353.
    Philosophers of music, like Charles Swann in Proust’s novel (Proust 1913/1992, p. 360), have traditionally found it difficult to utter the word ‘profound’ unironically. But this changed with Peter Kivy’s 1990 paper ‘The profundity of music’ The problem Kivy draws our attention to is this: we do call some musical works profound. However, Kivy argues, given that a work is profound only if it is about something profound and given that music (or ‘music alone’) is not about anything, this leads (...)
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  21. Unconscious perception and central coordinating agency.Joshua Shepherd & Myrto Mylopoulos - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (12):3869-3893.
    One necessary condition on any adequate account of perception is clarity regarding whether unconscious perception exists. The issue is complicated, and the debate is growing in both philosophy and science. In this paper we consider the case for unconscious perception, offering three primary achievements. First, we offer a discussion of the underspecified notion of central coordinating agency, a notion that is critical for arguments that purportedly perceptual states are not attributable to the individual, and thus not genuinely perceptual. We develop (...)
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  22. Concept Appraisal.Sapphira R. Thorne, Jake Quilty-Dunn, Joulia Smortchkova, Nicholas Shea & James A. Hampton - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (5):e12978.
    This paper reports the first empirical investigation of the hypothesis that epistemic appraisals form part of the structure of concepts. To date, studies of concepts have focused on the way concepts encode properties of objects and the way those features are used in categorization and in other cognitive tasks. Philosophical considerations show the importance of also considering how a thinker assesses the epistemic value of beliefs and other cognitive resources and, in particular, concepts. We demonstrate that there are multiple, reliably (...)
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  23. Who wrote that? Automaticity and reduced sense of agency in individuals prone to dissociative absorption.Noa Bregman-Hai, Yoav Kessler & Nirit Soffer-Dudek - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 78 (C):102861.
  24. Are errors detected before they occur? Early error sensations revealed by metacognitive judgments on the timing of error awareness.Francesco Di Gregorio, Martin E. Maier & Marco Steinhauser - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 77:102857.
  25. Knowing Ourselves Together: The Cultural Origins of Metacognition.Cecilia Heyes, Dan Bang, Nicholas Shea, Christopher D. Frith & Stephen M. Fleming - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (5):349-362.
    Metacognition – the ability to represent, monitor and control ongoing cognitive processes – helps us perform many tasks, both when acting alone and when working with others. While metacognition is adaptive, and found in other animals, we should not assume that all human forms of metacognition are gene-based adaptations. Instead, some forms may have a social origin, including the discrimination, interpretation, and broadcasting of metacognitive representations. There is evidence that each of these abilities depends on cultural learning and therefore that (...)
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  26. Can Informational Theories Account for Metarepresentation?Miguel Ángel Sebastián & Marc Artiga - 2020 - Topoi 39 (1):81-94.
    In this essay we discuss recent attempts to analyse the notion of representation, as it is employed in cognitive science, in purely informational terms. In particular, we argue that recent informational theories cannot accommodate the existence of metarepresentations. Since metarepresentations play a central role in the explanation of many cognitive abilities, this is a serious shortcoming of these proposals.
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  27. Rezension zu "Sex, Ökologie, Spiritualität" (Sex, Ecology, Spirituality) von Ken Wilber 2 Ausgabe 851p (2001) (Überprüfung überarbeitet 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Willkommen in der Hölle auf Erden: Babys, Klimawandel, Bitcoin, Kartelle, China, Demokratie, Vielfalt, Dysgenie, Gleichheit, Hacker, Menschenrechte, Islam, Liberalismus, Wohlstand, Internet, Chaos, Hunger, Krankheit, Gewalt, Künstliche Intelligenz, Krieg. Reality Press. pp. 222-238.
    Dieses Buch und die meisten seiner Quellen sind Möchtegern-Psychologie texte, obwohl die meisten Autoren es nicht erkannten. Es geht um menschliches Verhalten und Argumentation, warum wir so denken und handeln, wie wir es tun und wie wir uns in Zukunft verändern könnten. Aber (wie alle diese Diskussionen bis vor kurzem)keine der Erklärungensind wirklich Erklärungen, und so geben sie keinen Einblick in menschliches Verhalten. Niemand diskutiert die damit verbundenen mentalen Mechanismen. Es ist, als würde man beschreiben, wie ein Auto by arbeitet, (...)
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  28. A Metacognitive Approach to Memory Markers.Matheus Diesel Werberich - 2020 - Aporia 20:19-30.
    Given both the phenomenological and cognitive similarities between episodic memory and imagination, it’s difficult to say how we can reliably distinguish them at their moment of retrieval. Several memory markers have thus been proposed, which are characteristics that would reliably indicate to the subject that her mental state is an instance of memory. While the question of what exactly constitutes these memory markers is still an issue to be settled, there is also the more general question of whether they can (...)
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  29. Perceptual biases and metacognition and their association with anomalous self experiences in first episode psychosis.Abigail Wright, Barnaby Nelson, David Fowler & Kathryn Greenwood - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 77:102847.
  30. Inner Speech and Metacognition: a defense of the commitment-based approach.Víctor Fernández Castro - 2019 - Logos and Episteme: An International Journal of Epistemology (3):245-261.
    A widespread view in philosophy claims that inner speech is closely tied to human metacognitive capacities. This so-called format view of inner speech considers that talking to oneself allows humans to gain access to their own mental states by forming metarepresentation states through the rehearsal of inner utterances (section 2). The aim of this paper is to present two problems to this view (section 3) and offer an alternative view to the connection between inner speech and metacognition (section 4). According (...)
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  31. Über Wolfgang Pauli - Quantenphysik, Verständnis der Natur und die Rolle der Psyche.Alfred Gierer - 2019 - In Wissenschaftliches Denken, das Rätsel Bewusstsein und pro-religiöse Ideen. Würzburg, Germany: Königshausen&Neumann. pp. 65-81.
    An abstract in English is included in the download. Wolfgang Pauli war einer der Grossen unter den Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts, nicht ganz so berühmt wie Heisenberg und Einstein, aber annähernd ebenso bedeutend. Er war es, der bei der Entwicklung der Quantenphysik das sogenannte Ausschließungsprinzip entdeckte und damit den Weg zu unserem physikalischen Grundverständnis der ganzen Chemie eröffnete. Seine Gedanken galten aber auch hintergründigen wissenschaftsphilosophischen Fragen, und die gängigen Auffassungen über die Rolle von Vernunft und Materialismus in der Naturwissenschaft waren (...)
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  32. Analytic Idealism: A consciousness-only ontology.Bernardo Kastrup - 2019 - Dissertation, Radboud University Nijmegen
    This thesis articulates an analytic version of the ontology of idealism, according to which universal phenomenal consciousness is all there ultimately is, everything else in nature being reducible to patterns of excitation of this consciousness. The thesis’ key challenge is to explain how the seemingly distinct conscious inner lives of different subjects—such as you and me—can arise within this fundamentally unitary phenomenal field. Along the way, a variety of other challenges are addressed, such as: how we can reconcile idealism with (...)
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  33. The Idea of the World: A multi-disciplinary argument for the mental nature of reality.Bernardo Kastrup - 2019 - Winchester, UK: Iff Books.
    The Idea of the World offers a grounded alternative to the frenzy of unrestrained abstractions and unexamined assumptions in philosophy and science today. This book examines what can be learned about the nature of reality based on conceptual parsimony, straightforward logic and empirical evidence from fields as diverse as physics and neuroscience. It compiles an overarching case for idealism - the notion that reality is essentially mental - from ten original articles the author has previously published in leading academic journals. (...)
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  34. Optimistic metacognitive judgments predict poor performance in relatively complex visual tasks.Daniel T. Levin, Gautam Biswas, Joeseph S. Lappin, Marian Rushdy & Adriane E. Seiffert - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 74 (C):102781.
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  35. De la telaraña a la web: Artefactos cognitivos en animales no-humanos.Joan Sebastián Mejía-Rendón & Andrés Crelier - 2019 - ArtefaCToS. Revista de Estudios Sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología 8 (2):27-52.
    We examine the notion of cognitive artifact and its possible application to the animal technic. Although the issue of animal technic is not very much discussed, the case studies focused on the capacity of using and manufacturing tools suggest that some animals deploy cognitive skills. Could the tools employed by animals be considered genuine cases of cognitive artifacts? In this paper we propose a definition of “cognitive artifact” based on the notion of “proper function,” which allows us to develop a (...)
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  36. Meditation focused on self-observation of the body impairs metacognitive efficiency.Carlos Schmidt, Gabriel Reyes, Mauricio Barrientos, Álvaro I. Langer & Jérôme Sackur - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 70:116-125.
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  37. Concept‐metacognition.Nicholas Shea - 2019 - Mind and Language 35 (5):565-582.
    Concepts are our tools for thinking. They enable us to engage in explicit reasoning about things in the world. Like physical tools, they can be more or less good, given the ways we use them – more or less dependable for categorisation, learning, induction, action-planning, and so on. Do concept users appreciate, explicitly or implicitly, that concepts vary in dependability? Do they feel that some concepts are in some way defective? If so, we metacognize our concepts. One example that has (...)
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  38. The Global Workspace Needs Metacognition.Nicholas Shea & Chris D. Frith - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 27 (3):560-571.
    The two leading cognitive accounts of consciousness currently available concern global workspace (a form of working memory) and metacognition. There is relatively little interaction between these two approaches and it has even been suggested that the two accounts are rival and separable alternatives. Here, we argue that the successful function of a global workspace critically requires that the broadcast representations include a metacognitive component.
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  39. Relationships between metacognitive beliefs, social evaluative threat and worry.Raphaël Trouillet, Estelle Guerdoux-Ninot & Najate Jebbar - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 76:102837.
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  40. Cognitive phenomenology and metacognitive feelings.Santiago Arango-Muñoz - 2018 - Mind and Language 34 (2):247-262.
    The cognitive phenomenology thesis claims that “there is something it is like” to have cognitive states such as believ- ing, desiring, hoping, attending, and so on. In support of this idea, Goldman claimed that the tip-of-the-tongue phe- nomenon can be considered as a clear-cut instance of non- sensory cognitive phenomenology. This paper reviews Goldman's proposal and assesses whether the tip-of-the- tongue and other metacognitive feelings actually constitute an instance of cognitive phenomenology. The paper will show that psychological data cast doubt (...)
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  41. The Phenomenology of REM-sleep Dreaming: The Contributions of Personal and Perspectival Ownership, Subjective Temporality and Episodic Memory.Stan Klein - 2018 - Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice 6:55-66.
    Although the dream narrative, of (bio)logical necessity, originates with the dreamer, s/he typically does not know this. For the dreamer, the dream world is the real world. In this article I argue that this nightly misattribution is best explained in terms of the concept of mental ownership (e.g., Albahari, 2006; Klein, 2015a; Lane, 2012). Specifically, the exogenous nature of the dream narrative is the result of an individual assuming perspectival, but not personal, ownership of content s/he authored (i.e., “The content (...)
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  42. Domain-general and Domain-specific Patterns of Activity Support Metacognition in Human Prefrontal Cortex.Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau & Stephen M. Fleming - 2018 - The Journal of Neuroscience 38 (14):3534-3546.
    Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains; for example, memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks or if self-evaluative processes are domain specific. Here, we investigated this issue directly by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics. By comparing patterns (...)
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  43. Exploiting failures in metacognition through magic: Visual awareness as a source of visual metacognition bias.Jeniffer Ortega, Patricia Montañes, Anthony Barnhart & Gustav Kuhn - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 65 (C):152-168.
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  44. Altering movement parameters disrupts metacognitive accuracy.E. R. Palser, A. Fotopoulou & J. M. Kilner - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 57:33-40.
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  45. On a ‘failed’ attempt to manipulate visual metacognition with transcranial magnetic stimulation to prefrontal cortex.Eugene Ruby, Brian Maniscalco & Megan A. K. Peters - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 62:34-41.
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  46. Metacognition and Abstract Concepts.Nicholas Shea - 2018 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 373.
    The problem of how concepts can refer to or be about the non-mental world is particularly puzzling for abstract concepts. There is growing evidence that many characteristics beyond the perceptual are involved in grounding different kinds of abstract concept. A resource that has been suggested, but little explored, is introspection. This paper develops that suggestion by focusing specifically on metacognition—on the thoughts and feelings that thinkers have about a concept. One example of metacognition about concepts is the judgement that we (...)
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  47. Domain-specific and domain-general processes underlying metacognitive judgments.Lisa M. Fitzgerald, Mahnaz Arvaneh & Paul M. Dockree - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 49:264-277.
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  48. There Is an ‘Unconscious,’ but It May Well Be Conscious.Bernardo Kastrup - 2017 - Europe's Journal of Psychology 13 (3):559-572.
    Depth psychology finds empirical validation today in a variety of observations that suggest the presence of causally effective mental processes outside conscious experience. I submit that this is due to misinterpretation of the observations: the subset of consciousness called “meta-consciousness” in the literature is often mistaken for consciousness proper, thereby artificially creating space for an “unconscious.” The implied hypothesis is that all mental processes may in fact be conscious, the appearance of unconsciousness arising from our dependence on self-reflective introspection for (...)
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  49. Metacognition and Reflection by Interdisciplinary Experts: Insights from Cognitive Science and Philosophy.Machiel Keestra - 2017 - Issues in Interdisciplinary Studies 35:121-169.
    Interdisciplinary understanding requires integration of insights from different perspectives, yet it appears questionable whether disciplinary experts are well prepared for this. Indeed, psychological and cognitive scientific studies suggest that expertise can be disadvantageous because experts are often more biased than non-experts, for example, or fixed on certain approaches, and less flexible in novel situations or situations outside their domain of expertise. An explanation is that experts’ conscious and unconscious cognition and behavior depend upon their learning and acquisition of a set (...)
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  50. Metacognition, selfexperience and the prospect of enhancing selfmanagement in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.Paul H. Lysaker & John T. Lysaker - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (2):169-178.
    In general, current biomedical models of schizophrenia focus on distinguishing discrete elements that, on their own or in combination with others, might lead to some form of disability. These different and potentially autonomous aspects of the disorder that might disrupt daily activities include positive and negative symptoms as well as disturbances in neurocognitive and psychobiological processes. Such disturbances include genetic vulnerabilities that increase the risk of abnormalities in brain development, and resultant neurocognitive deficits which interfere with the ability to carry (...)
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