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  1. Against Prohibition (Or, When Using Ordinal Scales to Compare Groups Is OK).Cristian Larroulet Philippi - forthcoming - The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    There is a widely held view on measurement inferences, that goes back to Stevens’s ([1946]) theory of measurement scales and ‘permissible statistics’. This view defends the following prohibition: you should not make inferences from averages taken with ordinal scales (versus quantitative scales: interval or ratio). This prohibition is general—it applies to all ordinal scales—and it is sometimes endorsed without qualification. Adhering to it dramatically limits the research that the social and biomedical sciences can conduct. I provide a Bayesian analysis of (...)
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  2. Comment on Gignac and Zajenkowski, “The Dunning-Kruger effect is (mostly) a statistical artefact: Valid approaches to testing the hypothesis with individual differences data”.Avram Hiller - 2023 - Intelligence 97 (March-April):101732.
    Gignac and Zajenkowski (2020) find that “the degree to which people mispredicted their objectively measured intelligence was equal across the whole spectrum of objectively measured intelligence”. This Comment shows that Gignac and Zajenkowski’s (2020) finding of homoscedasticity is likely the result of a recoding choice by the experimenters and does not in fact indicate that the Dunning-Kruger Effect is a mere statistical artifact. Specifically, Gignac and Zajenkowski (2020) recoded test subjects’ responses to a question regarding self-assessed comparative IQ onto a (...)
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  3. On the Challenges of Measurement in the Human Sciences.Cristian Larroulet Philippi - 2023 - Dissertation, University of Cambridge
    Measurement practices are central to most sciences. In the human sciences, however, it remains controversial whether the measurement of human attributes—depression, happiness, intelligence, etc.—has been successful. Are, say, widely used depression questionnaires valid measuring instruments? Can we trust self-reported happiness scales to deliver quantitative measurements as it is sometimes claimed? These and related questions are till today hotly disputed. There are two main frameworks under which human measurements are studied and criticized. One is the so-called construct validity framework. Here, criticisms (...)
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  4. Theories of Independent Intelligences as a Lakatosian Research Program.Jonathan Egeland - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (5):2441-2456.
    Theories of different and independent types of intelligence constitute a Lakatosian research program, as they all claim that human intelligence has a multidimensional structure, consisting of independent cognitive abilities, and that human intelligence is not characterized by any general ability that is of greater practical importance, or that has greater predictive validity, than other, more specialized cognitive abilities. This paper argues that the independent intelligences research program is degenerating, since it has not led to novel, empirically corroborated predictions. However, despite (...)
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  5. Developing an objective measure of knowledge of factory farming.Adam Feltz, Jacob N. Caton, Zac Cogley, Mylan Engel, Silke Feltz, Ramona Ilea, L. Syd M. Johnson & Tom Offer-Westort - 2022 - Philosophical Psychology 37 (2).
    Knowledge of human uses of animals is an important, but understudied, aspect of how humans treat animals. We developed a measure of one kind of knowledge of human uses of animals – knowledge of factory farming. Studies 1 (N = 270) and 2 (N = 270) tested an initial battery of objective, true or false statements about factory farming using Item Response Theory. Studies 3 (N = 241) and 4 (N = 278) provided evidence that responses to a 10-item Knowledge (...)
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  6. L'intelligenza tra natura e cultura.Davide Serpico - 2022 - Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.
    ENG: We all have our own ideas about what it is like to be intelligent. Indeed, even the experts disagree on this topic. This has generated diverse theories on the nature of intelligence and its genetic and environmental bases. Many scientific and philosophical questions thus remain unaddressed: is it possible to characterize intelligence in scientific terms? What do IQ tests measure? How is intelligence influenced by genetics, epigenetics, and the environment? What are the ethical and social implications of the research (...)
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  7. g as bridge model.Devin Sanchez Curry - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (5):1067-1078.
    Psychometric g—a statistical factor capturing intercorrelations between scores on different IQ tests—is of theoretical interest despite being a low-fidelity model of both folk psychological intelligence and its cognitive/neural underpinnings. Psychometric g idealizes away from those aspects of cognitive/neural mechanisms that are not explanatory of the relevant variety of folk psychological intelligence, and it idealizes away from those varieties of folk psychological intelligence that are not generated by the relevant cognitive/neural substrate. In this manner, g constitutes a high-fidelity bridge model of (...)
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  8. The Cyclical Return of the IQ Controversy: Revisiting the Lessons of the Resolution on Genetics, Race and Intelligence.Davide Serpico - 2021 - Journal of the History of Biology 54 (2):199-228.
    In 1976, the Genetics Society of America published a document entitled “Resolution of Genetics, Race, and Intelligence.” This document laid out the Society’s position in the IQ controversy, particularly that on scientific and ethical questions involving the genetics of intellectual differences between human populations. Since the GSA was the largest scientific society of geneticists in the world, many expected the document to be of central importance in settling the controversy. Unfortunately, the Resolution had surprisingly little influence on the discussion. In (...)
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  9. Cultural evolution of genetic heritability.Ryutaro Uchiyama, Rachel Spicer & Michael Muthukrishna - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e152.
    Behavioral genetics and cultural evolution have both revolutionized our understanding of human behavior – largely independent of each other. Here, we reconcile these two fields under a dual inheritance framework, offering a more nuanced understanding of the interaction between genes and culture. Going beyond typical analyses of gene–environment interactions, we describe the cultural dynamics that shape these interactions by shaping the environment and population structure. A cultural evolutionary approach can explain, for example, how factors such as rates of innovation and (...)
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  10. The fashionable scientific fraud: Collingwood’s critique of psychometrics.Joel Michell - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (2):3-21.
    In his review of Charles Spearman’s The Nature of ‘Intelligence’, R. G. Collingwood launched an attack upon psychometrics that was expanded in his Essay on Metaphysics. Although underrated by friend and foe alike, Collingwood’s critique identified a number of defects in the thinking of psychometricians that subsequently became entrenched. However, his main complaint was that psychology generally was a ‘fashionable scientific fraud’. This charge was inspired by his more general views on logic and metaphysics, which, however, as I argue, are (...)
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  11. Introduction: Contested narratives of the mind and the brain: Neuro/psychological knowledge in popular debates and everyday life.Susanne Schregel - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (5):12–36.
    This article explores the history of British Mensa to examine the contested status of high intelligence in Great Britain between the late 1940s and the late 1980s. Based on journals and leaflets from the association and newspaper articles about it, the article shows how protagonists from the high IQ society campaigned for intelligence and its testing among the British public. Yet scathing reactions to the group in newspapers suggest that journalists considered it socially provocative to stress one’s own brainpower as (...)
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  12. The Looking Glass for Intelligence Quotient Tests: The Interplay of Motivation, Cognitive Functioning, and Affect.Venkat Ram Reddy Ganuthula & Shuchi Sinha - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests and the corresponding psychometric explanations dominate both the scientific and popular views about human intelligence. Though the IQ tests have been in currency for long, there exists a gap in what they are believed to measure and what they do. While the IQ tests index the quality of cognitive functioning in selected domains of mental repertoire, the applied settings often inflate their predictive value leading to an interpretive gap. The present article contends that studying the (...)
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  13. Morphing Intelligence: From Iq Measurement to Artificial Brains.Catherine Malabou - 2019 - Columbia University Press.
    Acclaimed philosopher Catherine Malabou traces the modern metamorphoses of intelligence, seeking to understand how neurobiological and neurotechnological advances have transformed our present-day view. She emphasizes the intertwined, networked relationships among the biological, the technological, and the symbolic.
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  14. General intelligence is a source of individual differences between species: Solving an anomaly.Michael A. Woodley of Menie, Heitor B. F. Fernandes, Jan te Nijenhuis, Mateo Peñaherrera-Aguirre & Aurelio José Figueredo - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40:e223.
    Burkart et al. present a paradox – general factors of intelligence exist among individual differences (g) in performance in several species, and also at the aggregate level (G); however, there is ambiguous evidence for the existence of g when analyzing data using a mixed approach, that is, when comparing individuals of different species using the same cognitive ability battery. Here, we present an empirical solution to this paradox.
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  15. Numbering the mind: Questionnaires and the attitudinal public.Jacy L. Young - 2017 - History of the Human Sciences 30 (4):32-53.
    During the interwar years psychologists Louis Leon Thurstone and Rensis Likert produced newly standardized forms of questionnaires. Both built on developments in mental testing, including the use of restricted sets of answers and the emergence of statistical techniques, to create questionnaires that employed numerical scaling. This transformation in shape of questionnaires was intimately tied up with both psychologists’ nominal subject of investigation: attitudes. Efforts to render psychology a socially valuable and influential science spurred psychologists to create sophisticated and increasingly precise (...)
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  16. Intelligence, race, and psychological testing.Mark Alfano, Latasha Holden & Andrew Conway - 2016 - In Naomi Zack (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Race.
    This chapter has two main goals: to update philosophers on the state of the art in the scientific psychology of intelligence, and to explain and evaluate challenges to the measurement invariance of intelligence tests. First, we provide a brief history of the scientific psychology of intelligence. Next, we discuss the metaphysics of intelligence in light of scientific studies in psychology and neuroimaging. Finally, we turn to recent skeptical developments related to measurement invariance. These have largely focused on attributability: Where do (...)
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  17. Increasing the Sum Total of General Intelligence, As Measured by Individual IQ Scores.Matti Häyry - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (3):505-514.
  18. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests.Heiner Rindermann, David Becker & Thomas R. Coyle - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    Following Snyderman and Rothman, we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education, wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim (...)
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  19. Race, IQ, and the search for statistical signals associated with so-called “X”-factors: environments, racism, and the “hereditarian hypothesis”.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):1-17.
    Some authors defending the “hereditarian” hypothesis with respect to differences in average IQ scores between populations have argued that the sorts of environmental variation hypothesized by some researchers rejecting the hereditarian position should leave discoverable statistical traces, namely changes in the overall variance of scores or in variance–covariance matrices relating scores to other variables. In this paper, I argue that the claims regarding the discoverability of such statistical signals are broadly mistaken—there is no good reason to suspect that the hypothesized (...)
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  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Psychological Science.Katherine Nelson - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (3):263-272.
    The field of psychology has emphasized quantitative laboratory research as a defining character of its role as a science, and has generally de-emphasized qualitative research and theorizing throughout its history. This article reviews some of the effects of this emphasis in two areas, intelligence testing, and learning and memory. On one side, quantitative measurement produced the widely used IQ test but shed little light on the construct of intelligence and its role in human cognition. On the other side, reductive quantification (...)
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  21. Stereotype threat and intellectual virtue.Mark Alfano - 2014 - In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155-74.
    For decades, intelligence and achievement tests have registered significant differences between people of different races, ethnicities, classes, and genders. We argue that most of these differences are explained not as reflections of differences in the distribution of intellectual virtues but as evidence for the metacognitive mediation of the intellectual virtues. For example, in the United States, blacks typically score worse than whites on tests of mathematics. This might lead one to think that fewer blacks possess the relevant intellectual virtues, or (...)
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  22. The mental test as a boundary object in early-20th-century Russian child science.Andy Byford - 2014 - History of the Human Sciences 27 (4):22-58.
    This article charts the history of mental testing in the context of the rise and fall of Russian child science between the 1890s and the 1930s. Tracing the genealogy of testing in scientific experimentation, scholastic assessment, medical diagnostics and bureaucratic accounting, it follows the displacements of this technology along and across the boundaries of the child science movement. The article focuses on three domains of expertise – psychology, pedagogy and psychiatry, examining the key guises that mental testing assumed in them (...)
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  23. Are Highly Theistic Countries Dumber? Critiquing the Intelligence-Religiosity Nexus Theory.Amir Azarvan - 2013 - Catholic Social Science Review 18:151-168.
    Recent research suggests that higher-IQ countries have significantly more atheists, supposedly because higher intelligence confers a greater ability to apprehend the assumed irrationality of theistic belief. In this quantitative study, an alternative explanation is offered to explain the apparent relationship between intelligence and theism. It is theorized that higher education in free societies brings greater exposure to, and eases the acceptance of, such unconventional views as atheism. This exposure, in and of itself, augments the likelihood that one will reject belief (...)
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  24. Pre- and postnatal drivers of childhood intelligence: Evidence from singapore.Gail Pacheco, Mary Hedges, Chris Schilling & Susan Morton - 2013 - Journal of Biosocial Science 45 (1):41-56.
    SummaryThis study seeks to investigate what influences intelligence in early childhood. The Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk Factors of Myopia is used to assess determinants of childhood IQ and changes in IQ. This longitudinal data set, collected in 1999, includes a wealth of demographic, socioeconomic and prenatal characteristics. The richness of the data allows various econometric approaches to be employed, including the use of ordered and multinomial logit analysis. Mother's education is found to be a consistent and key determinant (...)
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  25. Iq and Human Intelligence.Nicholas Mackintosh - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The question 'What is intelligence?' may seem simple to answer, but the study and measurement of human intelligence is one of the most controversial subjects in psychology. For much of its history, the focus has been on differences between people, on what it means for one person to be more intelligent than another, and how such differences might have arisen, obscuring efforts to understand the general nature of intelligence. These are obviously fundamental questions, still widely debated and misunderstood. New definitions (...)
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  26. Specific Language As Constituents of Intelligence.Michael E. Martinez & Dianna Townsend - 2011 - American Journal of Semiotics 27 (1-4):95-113.
    Traditionally, psychologists have utilized rather large-grain, macro units to clarify and measure cognition. Favored units include psychometric factors (e.g., IQ,verbal ability, quantitative ability) and categories of cognition (e.g., inductive reasoning, inference, mental rotation). In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that specific language concepts can complement psychometric factors and cognitive categories as distinguishable units of human intelligence. We found that productive use of specific language in persuasive essays predicted cognitive ability scores on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT). A simple sum (...)
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  27. Three puzzles and eight gaps: What heritability studies and critical commentaries have not paid enough attention to.Peter Taylor - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):1-31.
    This article examines eight “gaps” in order to clarify why the quantitative genetics methods of partitioning variation of a trait into heritability and other components has very limited power to show anything clear and useful about genetic and environmental influences, especially for human behaviors and other traits. The first two gaps should be kept open; the others should be bridged or the difficulty of doing so should be acknowledged: 1. Key terms have multiple meanings that are distinct; 2. Statistical patterns (...)
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  28. Measurement and meritocracy: An intellectual history of iq.John Carson - 2009 - Modern Intellectual History 6 (3):637-644.
  29. Measurement and meritocracy: An intellectual history of iq: Theodore M. Porter.Theodore M. Porter - 2009 - Modern Intellectual History 6 (3):637-644.
    Is intelligence a fit topic for intellectual history? The creation and institutionalization of IQ have been a favorite topic in the history of psychology, and have even achieved some standing in social histories of class, race, and mobility, especially in the United States. The campaign to quantify intelligence tended to remove it from the domain of intellectual history, which after all has traditionally emphasized ideas and interpretations. Measurement, and not alone of the mind, was pursued as a way to rein (...)
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  30. Rational and irrational thought: The thinking that IQ tests miss.Keith E. Stanovich - 2009 - Scientific American Mind 20 (6):34-39.
  31. Intelligence? What intelligence?Roberto Colom - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):155-156.
    Neuroimaging evidence, both within and between research strategies, is largely heterogeneous. This results from the way the construct of interest (i.e., intelligence) is measured. Every single available measure comprises several cognitive abilities, although the so-called g factor is always present. Here I suggest that studies must always control for this empirical fact to arrive at solid conclusions.
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  32. Assessing the relationship among Defining Issues Test scores and crystallised and fluid intellectual indices.W. Derryberry, Kristy Jones, Frederick Grieve & Brian Barger - 2007 - Journal of Moral Education 36 (4):475-496.
    Differing findings exist on how Defining Issues Test (DIT) scores relate to intelligence. Further study is needed in order to address aspects of intellect not previously considered and to address how these relationships rival studies that have compared indices of intellect with constructs similar to DIT scores. In the present study, a sample of 117 participants completed the DIT and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), which assesses crystallised and fluid intelligence. Structural equation modelling offered supporting evidence that (...)
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  33. The parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence: Converging neuroimaging evidence.Rex E. Jung & Richard J. Haier - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):135-154.
    Here we review 37 modern neuroimaging studies in an attempt to address this question posed by Halstead (1947) as he and other icons of the last century endeavored to understand how brain and behavior are linked through the expression of intelligence and reason. Reviewing studies from functional (i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) and structural (i.e., magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, voxel-based morphometry) neuroimaging paradigms, we report a striking consensus suggesting that variations in a distributed network predict (...)
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  34. Resolving the IQ paradox: Heterosis as a cause of the Flynn effect and other trends.Michael A. Mingroni - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (3):806-829.
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  35. Heritability and Heterogeneity: The Irrelevance of Heritability in Explaining Differences between Means for Different Human Groups or Generations.Peter Taylor - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (4):392-401.
    Many psychometricians and behavioral geneticists believe that high heritability of IQ test scores within racial groups coupled with environmental hypotheses failing to account for the differences between the mean scores for groups lends plausibility to explanations of mean differences in terms of genetic factors. This two-component argument cannot be sustained when viewed in the light of the conceptual and methodological themes introduced in Taylor . These themes concern the difficulties of moving from the statistical analysis of variance of observed traits (...)
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  36. Phlogiston, fluid intelligence, and the lynn–flynn effect.Martin Voracek - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):142-143.
    Blair's assertion that fluid intelligence (gF) is distinct from general intelligence (g) is contradictory to cumulative evidence from intelligence research, including extant and novel evidence about generational IQ gains (Lynn–Flynn effect). Because of the near unity of gF and g, his hypothetical concept of gF' (gF “purged” of g variance) may well be a phlogiston theory. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  37. Intelligence, Destiny, and Education: The Ideological Roots of Intelligence Testing.John White - 2006 - Routledge.
    The nature of intelligence and how it can be measured has occupied psychologists, educationalists, biologists and philosophers for hundreds of years. However, there has been little investigation into the rise of the traditional dominant educational ideology that intelligence and IQ have innate limits and are unchanging and unchangeable. This book traces the roots of this mind set back to early puritan communities on both sides of the Atlantic, drawing parallels between puritan dogma and the development of the traditional curricula and (...)
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  38. IQ Testing: A Matter of Life or Death.Gerald P. Koocher - 2003 - Ethics and Behavior 13 (1):1-2.
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  39. The IQ paradox is still resolved: Reply to Loehlin (2002) and Rowe and Rodgers (2002).William T. Dickens & James R. Flynn - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):764-771.
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  40. The IQ paradox: Resolved? Still an open question.John C. Loehlin - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):754-758.
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  41. Expanding variance and the case of historical changes in IQ means: A critique of Dickens and Flynn (2001).David C. Rowe & Joseph L. Rodgers - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):759-763.
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  42. Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved.William T. Dickens & James R. Flynn - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (2):346-369.
  43. Measuring Minds: Henry Herbert Goddard and the Origins of American Intelligence Testing by Leila Zenderland. [REVIEW]Katherine Pandora - 1999 - Isis 90:395-396.
  44. What went wrong? Reflections on science by observation and the bell curve.Clark Glymour - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):1-32.
    The Bell Curve aims to establish a set of causal claims. I argue that the methodology of The Bell Curve is typical of much of contemporary social science and is intrinsically defective. I claim better methods are available for causal inference from observational data, but that those methods would yield no causal conclusions from the data used in the formal analyses in The Bell Curve. Against the laissez-faire social policies advocated in the book, I claim that when combined with common (...)
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  45. X-linkage, lyonization and a female premium in the verbal iq results of orkney schoolchildren, 1947–75.Joan D. T. Goodman & R. B. Anderton - 1997 - Journal of Biosocial Science 29 (1):63-72.
    This paper reports the preliminary findings of an analysis of the Moray House (verbal IQ) results of a base sample of 4383 Orkney children due to be tested in the schools at age 11±1[fraction one-half] years in 1947–75. Girls enjoy a 3·63% premium relative to phenotypically equivalent boys at test age. Relationships within the sample, which includes some members of the parental generation, are known. The trait is found to be X-linked, with nine phenotypes in the boys, and lyonization is (...)
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  46. Measuring the Mind: Education and Psychology in England, c. 1860-c. 1990 by Adrian Wooldridge. [REVIEW]John Carson - 1996 - Isis 87:191-192.
  47. Molecular genetic research on IQ: can it be done? Should it be done?Jo Daniels, Peter McGuffin & Mike Owen - 1996 - Journal of Biosocial Science 28 (4):490-507.
  48. Sex differences and IQ.N. J. Mackintosh - 1996 - Journal of Biosocial Science 28 (4):558-571.
  49. The Definition of a Profession: The Authority of Metaphor in the History of Intelligence Testing, 1890-1930 by JoAnne Brown. [REVIEW]John Carson - 1994 - Isis 85:722-723.
  50. What We Call Smart: A New Narrative for Intelligence and Learning.Lynda Miller - 1993 - Singular.
    Noting that the collective stories of special education have grown out of a tradition that, by its nature tends to perpetuate problems, this book examines such narratives and how they influence thinking and belief about intelligence and learning. It begins by examining how the current story of intelligence developed and illustrates some of the consequences of accepting the concept of intelligence as anything that can be measured or quantified--and defined as normal. The second chapter discusses how deviation from what is (...)
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