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  1. Locke and Descartes on Unavoidable Thoughts of Essence.Michael Jacovides - manuscript
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  2. The Contours of Locke’s General Substance Dualism.Graham Clay - 2022 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 4 (1):1-20.
    In this paper, I will argue that Locke is a substance dualist in the general sense, in that he holds that there are, independent of our classificatory schema, two distinct kinds of substances: wholly material ones and wholly immaterial ones. On Locke’s view, the difference between the two lies in whether they are solid or not, thereby differentiating him from Descartes. My way of establishing Locke as a general substance dualist is to be as minimally committal as possible at the (...)
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  3. Im Namen der Dinge: John Locke und der Begriff des Wesens.David Wörner - 2019 - Basel: Schwabe Verlag.
    In this monograph I propose to interpret John Locke's view of central metaphysical notions such as substance, essence and identity to the backdrop of his distinction between distinct and confused ideas. I show that Locke draws this traditional distinction in a novel way—as a distinction pertaining only to the way ideas are related to our use of language. This distinction, I argue, allows him to radically rethink traditional questions of metaphysics and to mount a linguistic criticism of traditional metaphysical views (...)
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  4. Lockean Essentialism and the Possibility of Miracles.Nathan Rockwood - 2018 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 56 (2):293-310.
    If the laws of nature are metaphysically necessary, then it appears that miracles are metaphysically impossible. Yet Locke accepts both Essentialism, which takes the laws to be metaphysically necessary, and the possibility of miracles. I argue that the apparent conflict here can be resolved if the laws are by themselves insufficient for guaranteeing the outcome of a particular event. This suggests that, on Locke’s view, the laws of nature entail how an object would behave absent divine intervention. While other views (...)
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  5. Lockean Real Essences and Ontology.Jan-Erik Jones - 2016 - Southwest Philosophy Review 32 (2):137-162.
    In this paper I argue that John Locke is not ontologically committed to corpuscularian real essences. I do this by laying out his antirealist argument against corpuscular real essences within the Essay and then defend it. I then identify a version of real essences to which he is ontologically committed. Recognition of the antirealist argument in the Essay should significantly alter our interpretation of the Essay.
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  6. Locke's Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Michael Jacovides - 2015 - Philosophical Review 124 (1):153-155.
  7. Locke's Metaphysics.G. A. J. Rogers - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):199-202.
  8. Mechanism and Essentialism in Locke's Thought.Lisa Downing - 2013 - In Stewart Duncan & Antonia LoLordo (eds.), Debates in Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings and Contemporary Responses. Routledge. pp. 159.
  9. Intentionality Bifurcated: A Lesson from Early Modern Philosophy?Lionel Shapiro - 2013 - In Martin Lenz & Anik Waldow (eds.), Contemporary Perspectives on Early Modern Philosophy: Nature and Norms in Thought. Springer.
    This paper examines the pressures leading two very different Early Modern philosophers, Descartes and Locke, to invoke two ways in which thought is directed at objects. According to both philosophers, I argue, the same idea can simultaneously count as “of” two different objects—in two different senses of the phrase ‘idea of’. One kind of intentional directedness is invoked in answering the question What is it to think that thus-and-so? The other kind is invoked in answering the question What accounts for (...)
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  10. Locke's Metaphysics.Matthew Stuart - 2013 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Matthew Stuart offers a fresh interpretation of John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, arguing for the work's profound contribution to metaphysics. He presents new readings of Locke's accounts of personal identity and the primary/secondary quality distinction, and explores Locke's case against materialism and his philosophy of action.
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  11. Maupertuis on attraction as an inherent property of matter.Lisa Downing - 2012 - In Janiak Schliesser (ed.), Interpreting Newton.
    Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis’ famous and influential Discours sur les différentes figures des astres, which represented the first public defense of attractionism in the Cartesian stronghold of the Paris Academy, sometimes suggests a metaphysically agnostic defense of gravity as simply a regularity. However, Maupertuis’ considered account in the essay, I argue, is much more subtle. I analyze Maupertuis’ position, showing how it is generated by an extended consideration of the possibility of attraction as an inherent property and fuelled by (...)
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  12. Locke on Real Essence.Jan-Erik Jones - 2012 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In this encyclopedia entry I canvass the current interpretations of John Locke's concept of Real Essence and the role it plays in his philosophy.
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  13. Locke's moral man.Antonia LoLordo - 2012 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Antonia Lolordo presents an original interpretation of John Locke's metaphysics of moral agency, in which to be a moral agent is simply to be free, rational, and a person.
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  14. Primary and secondary qualities in Locke's 'Essay'.Michael Ayers - 2011 - In Lawrence Nolan (ed.), Primary and Secondary Qualities: The Historical and Ongoing Debate. Oxford University Press. pp. 136.
  15. Locke on Real Essence and Water as a Natural Kind: A Qualified Defence.E. J. Lowe - 2011 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 85 (1):1-19.
    ‘Water is H2O’ is one of the most frequently cited sentences in analytic philosophy, thanks to the seminal work of Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam in the 1970s on the semantics of natural kind terms. Both of these philosophers owe an intellectual debt to the empiricist metaphysics of John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, while disagreeing profoundly with Locke about the reality of natural kinds. Locke employs an intriguing example involving water to support his view that kinds (or ‘species’), such (...)
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  16. Understanding affinity: Locke on generation and the task of classification.Jennifer Mensch - 2011 - Locke Studies 11:49-71.
    John Locke’s theory of classification is a subject that has long received scholarly attention. Little notice has been taken, however, of the problems that were posed for taxonomy by its inability to account for organic processes. Classification, designed originally as an exercise in logic, becomes complicated once it turns to organic life and the aims of taxonomy become entangled with processes of generation, variation, and inheritance. Locke’s experience with organisms—experience garnered through his work in botany and medicine—suggested to him both (...)
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  17. Essence and Properties.David S. Oderberg - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (1):85-111.
    The distinction between the essence of an object and its properties has been obscured in contemporary discussion of essentialism. Locke held that the properties of an object are exclusively those features that ‘flow’ from its essence. Here he follows the Aristotelian theory, leaving aside Locke’s own scepticism about the knowability of essence. I defend the need to distinguish sharply between essence and properties, arguing that essence must be given by form and that properties flow from form. I give a precise (...)
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  18. Locke on Real Essences, Intelligibility, and Natural Kinds.Jan-Erik Jones - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Research 35:147-172.
    In this paper I criticize arguments by Pauline Phemister and Matthew Stuart that John Locke's position in his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding allows for natural kinds based on similarities among real essences. On my reading of Locke, not only are similarities among real essences irrelevant to species, but natural kind theories based on them are unintelligible.
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  19. How Essentialists Misunderstand Locke.Nigel Leary - 2009 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 26 (3):273-292.
    Talk of “essences” has, since Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam, gained significant currency in contemporary philosophy. It is no longer unfashionable to talk about the essence of this or that (natural) kind, and as such we now find a variety of brands of essentialism on the market including B.D. Ellis’s scientific essentialism, David Oderberg’s real Essentialism, Alexander Bird’s dispositional essentialism, and the contemporary essentialism of Kripke and Putnam. -/- Almost all these brands of essentialism share a particular gloss on Locke’s (...)
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  20. Locke on essences and classification.Margaret Atherton - 2007 - In Lex Newman (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Locke's "Essay Concerning Human Understanding". Cambridge University Press.
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  21. Locke vs. Boyle: The real essence of corpuscular species.Jan-Erik Jones - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (4):659 – 684.
    While the tradition of Locke scholarship holds that both Locke and Boyle are species anti-realists, there is evidence that this interpretation is false. Specifically, there has been some recent work on Boyle showing that he is, unlike Locke, a species realist. In this paper I argue that once we see Boyle as a realist about natural species, it is plausible to read some of Locke’s most formidable anti-realist arguments as directed specifically at Boyle’s account of natural species. This is a (...)
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  22. Locke on individuation and the corpuscular basis of kinds.Dan Kaufman - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (3):499–534.
    In a well-known paper, Reginald Jackson expresses a sentiment not uncommon among readers of Locke: “Among the merits of Locke’s Essay…not even the friendliest critic would number consistency.”2 This unflattering opinion of Locke is reiterated by Maurice Mandelbaum: “Under no circumstances can [Locke] be counted among the clearest and most consistent of philosophers.”3 The now familiar story is that there are innumerable inconsistencies and internal problems contained in Locke’s Essay. In fact, it is probably safe to say that there is (...)
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  23. Locke on Individuation and the Corpuscular Basis of Kinds.Dan Kaufman - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (3):499-534.
    In this paper, I examine the crucial relationship between Locke’s theory of individuation and his theory of kinds. Locke holds that two material objects—e.g., a mass of matter and an oak tree—can be in the same place at the same time, provided that they are ‘of different kinds’. According to Locke, kinds are nominal essences, that is, general abstract ideas based on objective similarities between particular individuals. I argue that Locke’s view on coinciding material objects is incompatible with his view (...)
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  24. Locke on adequacy to an archetype and real essence.Beverly Hinton - 2006 - Locke Studies 6:59-83.
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  25. Leibniz and Locke and the Debate over Species.Jan-Erik Jones - 2006 - In François Duchesneau & Jérémie Girard (eds.), Leibniz selon les Nouxeaux Essais sur l'entendement Humain. Vrin & Bellarmin.
    Susanna Goodin, in her article “Locke and Leibniz and the Debate over Species” , argues that Leibniz’s criticisms of Locke’s species conventionalism are inadequate as a refutation of Locke’s arguments, and if Leibniz were to buttress his criticisms by appeal to his own metaphysical commitments, he could do so only at the expense of so radically altering the nature of the debate that Locke’s original concerns would not even arise. I argue, however, that Leibniz has an argument within the Nouveaux (...)
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  26. Boyle, classification and the workmanship of the understanding thesis.Jan-Erik Jones - 2005 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 43 (2):171-183.
    The current consensus in Locke scholarship is that Robert Boyle anticipated Locke's thesis that classification into species is the arbitrary work of the understanding. In fact, according to Michael Ayers, inter alia, not only did Boyle and Locke both think that classification is the workmanship of the understanding but that this thesis follows directly from the mechanical hypothesis itself. In this paper I argue that this reading of Boyle is mistaken: Locke's thesis on classification was not anticipated by Boyle. I (...)
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  27. Locke on Essence and Identity. [REVIEW]Walter Ott - 2005 - Review of Metaphysics 58 (3):654-656.
    Christopher Hughes Conn’s book is a welcome addition to the growing literature on Locke’s metaphysics. Conn aims at philosophical insight as well as historical accuracy and treats Locke in the light of such contemporary figures as Lewis, Zemach, Quine, and van Inwagen.
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  28. General ideas and the knowability of essence: Interpretations of Locke's theory of knowledge.Maurilio Lovatti - 2004 - Dissertation, Oxford, Tercentenary John Locke Conference (April 2-4, 2004)
    Widespread amongst scholars is the legend according to which Locke shows a strong aversion to abstract ideas, similar to that of Berkley in the Treatise. This legend is endorsed by influential commentators on Locke. He does not even propose the reduction of ideas to mental pictures (a reduction which in Berkeley and Hume will form the base of the negation of the existence of abstract ideas in the mind). Locke is not in the least afraid of abstract ideas; his constant (...)
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  29. Review of Locke on essence and identity. [REVIEW]E. J. Lowe - 2004 - Locke Studies 4:243-253.
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  30. Locke on Natural Kinds and Essential Properties.Christopher Hughes Conn - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Research 27:475-497.
    The two opinions concerning real essences that Locke mentions in III.iii.17 represent competing theories about the way in which naturally occurring objects are divided into species. In this paper I explain what these competing theories amount to, why he denies the theory of kinds that is embodied in the first of these opinions, and how this denial is related to his general critique of essentialism. I argue first, that we cannot meaningfully ask whether Locke accepts the existence of natural kinds, (...)
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  31. The "Workmanship of the Understanding": Realist and Anti-Realist Theories of Classification in Boyle, Locke and Leibniz.Jan-Erik Jones - 2002 - Dissertation, University of California, Irvine
    The focus of this dissertation is the debate over classification and species realism/anti-realism in the new science of mechanism. I argue that Michael Ayers's Interpretation of Robert Boyle as a Lockean on species is incorrect. Boyle is more realist than Locke, indeed, Boyle's theory of classification was more similar to Leibniz's than to Locke's. This realist account of Boyle helps to diagnose an important connection between Leibniz and Boyle, and show Locke as a much more novel philosopher of science. ;I (...)
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  32. Substance, Sorts, and Consciousness: Locke's Empiricism and His Account of Personal Identity in "an Essay Concerning Human Understanding".Eva Deane Kort - 2001 - Dissertation, University of Florida
    In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke famously introduces both the problem of personal identity over time and a controversial solution to it. The problem is to provide a criterion for when a person, A, at a time, t, is the same as a person, B, at a later time, t' . Locke's proposal that A at t is the same person as B at t ' just in case B at t' is conscious of some episode in the mental (...)
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  33. Toward 'Perfect Collections of Properties': Locke on the Constitution of Substantial Sorts.Lionel Shapiro - 1999 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):551-593.
    Locke's claims about the "inadequacy" of substance-ideas can only be understood once it is recognized that the "sort" represented by such an idea is not wholly determined by the idea's descriptive content. The key to his compromise between classificatory conventionalism and essentialism is his injunction to "perfect" the abstract ideas that serve as "nominal essences." This injunction promotes the pursuit of collections of perceptible qualities that approach ever closer to singling out things that possess some shared explanatory-level constitution. It is (...)
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  34. The Inessentiality of Lockean Essences.Margaret Atherton - 1998 - In Vere Chappell (ed.), Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  35. The Relevance of Locke's Theory of Ideas to his Doctrine of Nominal Essence and Anti-Essentialist Semantic Theory.Martha Brandt Bolton - 1998 - In Vere Chappell (ed.), Locke. Oxford University Press.
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  36. Locke.Vere Claiborne Chappell (ed.) - 1998 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This new volume in the successful Oxford Readings in Philosophy series presents a selection of the best recent articles on the main topics in Locke's philosophy. These include: innate ideas, ideas and perception, primary and secondary qualities, free will, substance, personal identity, language, essence, knowledge, and belief. The authors include some of the world's leading Locke scholars, and their essays exemplify the best - and most accessible - recent scholarship on Locke, making the volume essential for students and specialists.
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  37. The Status of Mechanism in Locke’s Essay.Lisa Downing - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (3):381-414.
    The prominent place 0f corpuscularizm mechanism in L0ckc`s Essay is nowadays universally acknowledged} Certainly, L0ckc’s discussions 0f the primary/secondary quality distinction and 0f real essences cannot be understood without reference to the corpuscularizm science 0f his day, which held that all macroscopic bodily phenomena should bc explained in terms 0f the motions and impacts 0f submicroscopic particles, 0r corpuscles, each of which can bc fully characterized in terms of 21 strictly limited range 0f (primary) properties: size, shape, motion (or mobility), (...)
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  38. The Status of Mechanism in Locke’s Essay.Lisa Downing - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (3):381-414.
    The prominent place of corpuscularian mechanism in Locke's Essay is nowadays universally acknowledged. Certainly, Locke's discussions of the primary/secondary quality distinction and of real essences cannot be understood without reference to the corpuscularian science of his day, which held that all macroscopic bodily phenomena should be explained in terms of the motions and impacts of submicroscopic particles, or corpuscles, each of which can be fully characterized in terms of a strictly limited range of properties: size, shape, motion, and, perhaps, solidity (...)
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  39. Why Knowledge of the Internal Constitution is Not the Same as Knowledge of the Real Essence and Why This Matters.Susanna Goodin - 1998 - Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (1):149-155.
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  40. Reference and natural kind terms: The real essence of Locke's view.P. Kyle Stanford - 1998 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79 (1):78–97.
    J. L. Mackie's famous claim that Locke ‘anticipates’ Kripke's Causal Theory of Reference rests, I suggest, upon a pair of important misunderstandings. Contra Mackie, as well as the more recent accounts of Paul Guyer and Michael Ayers, Lockean Real Essences consist of those features of an entity from which all of its experienceable properties can be logically deduced; thus a substantival Real Essence consists of features of a Real Constitution plus logically necessary objective connections between them and features of some (...)
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  41. A Refutation Of The Possibility Of Real Species In Locke: A Response To Phemister. Goodin - 1997 - Locke Studies 28:67-76.
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  42. The Possibility of Real Species in Locke: A Reply to Goodin.Pauline Phemister - 1997 - Locke Studies 28:77-86.
  43. Locke's Semantics and the New Theory of Reference to Natural Kinds. Laporte - 1996 - Locke Studies 27:41-65.
  44. Locke on language and real essences : a defense.Nicholas Unwin - 1996 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 13 (2):205-219.
  45. Routledge philosophy guidebook to Locke on human understanding.E. J. Lowe - 1995 - New York: Routledge.
    Locke on Human Understanding, is a comprehensive introduction to John Locke's major work, Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Locke's Essay remains a key work in many philosophical fields, notably in epistemology, metaphysics and the philosophies of mind and language. In addition, Locke is often referred to as the first English empiricist. Knowledge of this influential work and figure is essential to Enlightenment thought. E. J. Lowe's approach enables students to effectively study the Essay by placing Locke's life and works in (...)
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  46. Woolhouse on Real Essences: A Reply.B. Barger - 1994 - Locke Studies 25:95.
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  47. Locke on Substance Ideas and the Determination of Kinds: A Reply to Mattern.M. Bolton - 1994 - Locke Studies 25:17.
  48. Real Essences.J. Danaher - 1994 - Locke Studies 25:83.
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  49. 3 Locke's philosophy of body.Edwin McCann - 1994 - In V. C. Chappell (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Locke. Cambridge University Press. pp. 56.
  50. The Scholastic Background to Locke's Thought.J. Milton - 1994 - Locke Studies 25.
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