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  1. Apulian Binominal Qualitative Noun Phrases.Angelapia Massaro - manuscript
    In this paper, we will analyze several morphosyntactic properties related to qualitative binominal constructions (complex noun phrases of the type a jewelNP1 of a villageNP2) from a Southern Italo-Romance language spoken in the Apulian town of San Marco in Lamis (Foggia). The language realizes QBCs in two ways: prepositionally (with də), allowing both definites indefinites, and non-prepositionally, only allowing definite nouns. We will suggest that in the latter type N1 and N2 are related by a categorial match of the determiners (...)
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  2. The Use of Modern Technology in English Language Teaching- ELT.Md Majidul Haque Bhuiyan, Syeda Tasfia Imam & Kamrunnahar Rakhi - manuscript
    Learning a second language is always a difficult task and so, children is given the task to do it in the elementary stage. It depends on various factors and combining that factors the result comes on. A favorable outcome results in when the teachers devote themselves to teach the younger the Achilles task as soon as possible. Sometimes the result become satisfactory but most of the time it doesn’t happen. And because of this reason, technological use on this teaching should (...)
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  3. An Existing Sculps Human Modelling- The Deviations in Dialect of Indian Standard English From the British Colonial Period to Present Times. [REVIEW]Syeda Tasfia Imam, Md Majidul Haque Bhuiyan & Kamrunnahar Rakhi - manuscript
    English is spoken all around the world as it is chosen as the second language to speak within most of the countries. However, from the ancient history of the British to come into this South Asian region, the entrance of English as a speaking language happened. Though, after some centuries, the British went out of the mainland of India, it remains the second-largest spoken language there. Here comes another fact; many words in Standard English changed its form. So, this made (...)
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  4. Systematizität der Sprache und Systematizität des Denkens bei Destutt de Tracy.Lucia Oliveri - 2020 - In Kurt Bayertz und Nikola Anna Kompa und Niko Strobach (ed.), Das Projekt einer ‚Idéologie‘ Destutt de Tracys Ideenlehre als Wissenschaftsbewegung der Spätaufklärung. Amburgo, Germania: pp. 61-84.
    Destutt de Tracy zielt darauf ab, zu erklären, wie inter- und transsubjektive Prozesse auf das einzelne Individuum wirken und es gestalten. Dafür braucht er eine externalistische Sprachtheorie und eine sensualistische kognitive Architektur, nach der Denken Empfinden ist. Das Denken ist relational, aber wird nicht auf kognitiver Ebene durch sprachähnliche Strukturen – durch die Syntax und Semantik einer Mentalsprache – implementiert. Obwohl Externalismus und sensualistische Architektur in eine inkohärente Theorie zu münden scheinen, versucht Destutt de Tracy die Spannung durch seine Entwicklungsgeschichte (...)
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  5. LOGISCHE UND SEMANTISCHE FUNKTION DER PRÄPOSITIONEN IN LEIBNIZ’ SPRACHPHILOSOPHIE.Lucia Oliveri - 2014 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Studia Leibnitiana - Supplementa 38 Einheit der Vernunft und Vielfalt der Sprachen Beiträge zu Leibniz' Sprachforschung und Zeichentheorie. Stoccarda, Germania: pp. 55-82.
    Eine Untersuchung der Präpositionen bei Leibniz kann aufgrund ihrer synkatego-rematischen Natur zeigen, in welchem Sinne die Sprache - als strukturiertes, bedeutendes Zeichensystem – das logische Verhältnis unter den Notionen ausdrü-cken kann, und damit der Zusammenhang zwischen Grammatik und Semantik einerseits, und Logik anderseits, erhellen. Meiner Ansicht nach bekommt auch Leibniz' Versuch des Aufbaus einer characteristica universalis dank dieser Per-spektive ein neues Forschungsinteresse. Um das Interesse für diese Redeteile zu wecken, werde ich zuvor in einem kurzen Exkurs die vorgängige Tradition dar-stellen. (...)
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  6. Somatic Semantics: Anorexia and the Nature of Meaning.Louis Caruana - 2010 - In Antonio Mancini, Silvia Daini & Louis Caruana (eds.), Anorexia Nervosa, a multi-disciplinary approach: from biology to philosophy. New York: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 173-186.
    This paper explores some ways how perceptual-cognitive accounts of anorexia can benefit from philosophy. The first section focuses on the three dimensions of anorexia most open to a contribution from philosophy: the dimensions of language, perception and cognition. In the second section, I offer a brief overview of what philosophy has to say regarding these dimensions, especially as they relate to two crucial issues: introspection and meaning. I draw from current philosophy of language, especially from the arguments against using internal (...)
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  7. Communication as Socially Extended Active Inference: An Ecological Approach to Communicative Behavior.Rémi Tison & Pierre Poirier - 2021 - Ecological Psychology 34.
    In this paper, we introduce an ecological account of communication according to which acts of communication are active inferences achieved by affecting the behavior of a target organism via the modification of its field of affordances. Constraining a target organism’s behavior constitutes a mechanism of socially extended active inference, allowing organisms to proactively regulate their inner states through the behavior of other organisms. In this general conception of communication, the type of cooperative communication characteristic of human communicative interaction is a (...)
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  8. In the Court of the Jester: On Comedy and Democracy.Cade M. Olmstead - 2019 - Kritika and Kontext 1 (56):142-147.
    This paper seeks to make an assessment of the current political landscape with regard to the way comedy gets deployed as a form of political rhetoric and action. It begins with Alenka Zupančič’s analysis in 'The Odd One In' (2008) of G.W.F. Hegel’s developmental account of ancient Greek theatrical forms. The conclusion of comedy as a concrete universal is then expanded through reference to the performance theory of JeffreyC. Alexander. Attention is given to ineffective forms of comedy as political action, (...)
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  9. Pragmatic Particularism.Ray Buchanan & Henry Ian Schiller - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    For the Intentionalist, utterance content is wholly determined by a speaker’s meaning-intentions; the sentence uttered serves merely to facilitate the audience’s recovering these intentions. We argue that Intentionalists ought to be Particularists, holding that the only “principles” of meaning recovery needed are those governing inferences to the best explanation; “principles” that are both defeasible and, in a sense to be elaborated, variable. We discuss some ways in which some theorists have erred in trying to tame the “wild west” of pragmatics (...)
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  10. How Socratic Is Swift's Irony?Chris A. Kramer - 2017 - In Janelle Pötzsch (ed.), Jonathan Swift and Philosophy. Lanham, MD 20706, USA: pp. 13-25.
    Was Swift correct that “reasoning will never make a man correct an ill opinion, which by reasoning he never acquired” (Letter to a Young Gentleman)? If so, what recourse is there to change attitudes especially among those who continue to fervently believe unjustified claims and act upon them in a way that affects other people? I will answer the first question with a qualified yes, and the second I will follow Swift’s implicit proposal to rely upon humor, satire, playful ridicule, (...)
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  11. Simulating Grice: Emergent Pragmatics in Spatialized Game Theory.Patrick Grim - 2011 - In Anton Benz, Christian Ebert & Robert van Rooij (eds.), Language, Games, and Evolution. Springer-Verlag.
    How do conventions of communication emerge? How do sounds or gestures take on a semantic meaning, and how do pragmatic conventions emerge regarding the passing of adequate, reliable, and relevant information? My colleagues and I have attempted in earlier work to extend spatialized game theory to questions of semantics. Agent-based simulations indicate that simple signaling systems emerge fairly naturally on the basis of individual information maximization in environments of wandering food sources and predators. Simple signaling emerges by means of any (...)
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  12. Radical Changes in Cognitive Process Due to Technology.Arthur M. Glenberg - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):263-274.
    A strong case can be made that the cognitive system is designed for guiding action, not, for example, symbol manipulation. I review empirical work demonstrating the link between action and cognition with special attention to the processes of language comprehension. Next, I sketch an embodied cognition framework for integrating work on language understanding with a more general approach to cognition and action. This general approach considers contributions to action of bodily states, emotions, social and cultural processes, and learning within a (...)
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  13. Culturally Embedded Schemata for False Belief Reasoning.Leda Berio - 2020 - Synthese (Special Issue: THE CULTURAL EVOL):1-30.
    I argue that both language acquisition and cultural and social factors contribute to the formation of schemata that facilitate false belief reasoning. While the proposal for an active role of language acquisition in this sense has been partially advanced by several voices in the mentalizing debate, I argue that other accounts addressing this issue present some shortcomings. Specifically, I analyze the existing proposals distinguishing between “structure-oriented” views :1858–1878, 2007; de Villiers in Why language matters for theory of mind. Oxford University (...)
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  14. Thomas Reid and the Priority Thesis: A Defence Against Turri.Benjamin Formanek - unknown
    The project of this paper is to rebut John Turri’s arguments against Thomas Reid’s thesis concerning the priority of natural language. Human language, as Reid professes, is chiefly aimed at the communication of ones thoughts, purposes, intentions, and desires, whereby communication is accomplished through signs. For Reid, signs are either natural or artificial, and by extension, language is also either natural or artificial. While artificial language has no meaning absent some settled upon compact or agreement, every person knows, by their (...)
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  15. A Puzzle concerning Compositionality in Machines.Ryan M. Nefdt - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):47-75.
    This paper attempts to describe and address a specific puzzle related to compositionality in artificial networks such as Deep Neural Networks and machine learning in general. The puzzle identified here touches on a larger debate in Artificial Intelligence related to epistemic opacity but specifically focuses on computational applications of human level linguistic abilities or properties and a special difficulty with relation to these. Thus, the resulting issue is both general and unique. A partial solution is suggested.
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  16. Slurs and Register: A Case Study in Meaning Pluralism.Justina Diaz-Legaspe, Chang Liu & Robert J. Stainton - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (2):156-182.
    Most theories of slurs fall into one of two families: those which understand slurring terms to involve special descriptive/informational content (however conveyed), and those which understand them to encode special emotive/expressive content. Our view is that both offer essential insights, but that part of what sets slurs apart is use-theoretic content. In particular, we urge that slurring words belong at the intersection of a number of categories in a sociolinguistic register taxonomy, one that usually includes [+slang] and [+vulgar] and always (...)
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  17. What is a Slur?Justina Diaz-Legaspe - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (5):1399-1422.
    Although there seems to be an agreement on what slurs are, many authors diverge when it comes to classify some words as such. Hence, many debates would benefit from a technical definition of this term that would allow scholars to clearly distinguish what counts as a slur and what not. Although the paper offers different definitions of the term in order to allow the reader to choose her favorite, I claim that ‘slurs’ is the name given to a grammatical category, (...)
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  18. Speaker Meaning and the Interpretation and Construction of Executive Orders.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2018 - Wake Forest Journal of Law and Policy 8 (2):319-361.
    This Article explores the interpretation and construction of executive orders using as examples President Trump’s two executive orders captioned “Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States” (the “Two Executive Orders”). President Trump issued the Two Executive Orders in the context of (among other things) Candidate Trump’s statements such as: “Islam hates us,” and “[W]e can’t allow people coming into this country who have this hatred.” President Trump subsequently provided further context including his tweet about the second (...)
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  19. Gorsuch and Originalism: Some Lessons From Logic, Scripture, and Art.Harold Anthony Lloyd - manuscript
    Neil Gorsuch lauds judges who purport to “apply the law as it is, focusing backward, not forward, and looking to text, structure, and history to decide what a reasonable reader at the time of the events in question would have understood the law to be . . . .” It’s hard to see how such a form of Originalism withstands scrutiny. -/- First, using “reasonable reader” understandings rather than speaker meaning turns language and law on their heads. Audiences effectively become (...)
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  20. How to Hintikkize a Frege.Fabien Schang - 2016 - In Amirouche Moktefi, Alessio Moretti & Fabien Schang (eds.), Let’s be Logical (Studies in the Philosophy and History of Logic). Londres, Royaume-Uni: pp. 161-172.
    The paper deals with the main contribution of the Finnish logician Jaakko Hintikka: epistemic logic, in particular the 'static' version of the system based on the formal analysis of the concepts of knowledge and belief. I propose to take a different look at this philosophical logic and to consider it from the opposite point of view of the philosophy of logic. At first, two theories of meaning are described and associated with two competing theories of linguistic competence. In a second (...)
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  21. Триада: Метод изучения сущности семиотического единства языка и искусства.Vladimir Breskin - 2012 - Философские Мысль 3:119-159.
    Целью данного исследования является описание нового метода изучения доречевого языка. Предлагаемый подход позволяет соотнести эпистемологию лингвистики с общефилософскими мировоззренческими традициями других научных дисциплин. Метод построен на соответствии трёх лингвистических категорий – существительных, глаголов и междометий, по своим моторным и выразительным качествам, трём основным видам искусства – графике (изобразительному искусству), движению (танцу) и звукам (музыке), и рассматривает подобное соотношение как обусловленное природой рецепторной системы человека. Объясняя фундаментальное единство семиотической природы языка и феноменов искусства и эстетики, метод позволяет провести хронологизацию важных культурных (...)
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  22. The Co-Ascription of Ordered Lexical Pairs: A Cognitive-Science-Based Semantic Theory of Meaning and Reference. Part 1.Tom Johnston - manuscript
    Lexical semantics has a problem. As Allesandro Lenci put it, the problem is that it cannot distinguish semantic from non-semantic relationships within its data. (2008, 2014). The data it relies on are patterns of co-occurrence of lexemes within linguistic corpora. But patterns of co-occurrence can reflect either our knowledge of what the world is like or our knowledge of what words mean -- matters of fact or matters of meaning. -/- In this essay, I develop a semantic theory which draws (...)
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  23. Hyperintensional Semantics: A Fregean Approach.Mattias Skipper & Jens Christian Bjerring - 2020 - Synthese 197 (8):3535-3558.
    In this paper, we present a new semantic framework designed to capture a distinctly cognitive or epistemic notion of meaning akin to Fregean senses. Traditional Carnapian intensions are too coarse-grained for this purpose: they fail to draw semantic distinctions between sentences that, from a Fregean perspective, differ in meaning. This has led some philosophers to introduce more fine-grained hyperintensions that allow us to draw semantic distinctions among co-intensional sentences. But the hyperintensional strategy has a flip-side: it risks drawing semantic distinctions (...)
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  24. Esthétique, Signification, et Valeur: Développements de la Seconde Philosophie de Ludwig Wittgenstein.Julian Friedland - 2000 - Dissertation, University of Paris 1 - Panthéon Sorbonne
    Notre etude se concentre principalement sur la "seconde philosophie" de Wittgenstein pour developper d'avantage le theme deja central depuis sa "premiere philosophie", selon lequel l'ethique et l'esthetique sont transcendentales. Nous etudions ainsi les relations entre l'esthetique, la signification et la valeur en reempruntant la methode de l'analyse linguistique par experiences de pensee, dont wittgenstein se servait pour devoiler les erreurs fatales du projet positiviste. Nous montrons que cette critique est particulierement propice aujourd'hui ou la majorite des philosophes analytiques importants partagent (...)
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  25. Perceptual Expansion Under Cognitive Guidance: Lessons From Language Processing.Endre Begby - 2017 - Mind and Language 32 (5):564-578.
    This paper aims to provide an empirically informed sketch of how our perceptual capacities can interact with cognitive processes to give rise to new perceptual attributives. In section 1, I present ongoing debates about the reach of perception and direct focus toward arguments offered in recent work by Tyler Burge and Ned Block. In section 2, I draw on empirical evidence relating to language processing to argue against the claim that we have no acquired, culture-specific, high-level perceptual attributives. In section (...)
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  26. On the Epistemology and Psychology of Speech Comprehension.Dean Pettit - 2009 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 5.
    How do we know what other speakers say? Perhaps the most natural view is that we hear a speaker's utterance and infer what was said, drawing on our competence in the syntax and semantics of the language. An alternative view that has emerged in the literature is that native speakers have a non-inferential capacity to perceive the content of speech. Call this the perceptual view. The disagreement here is best understood as an epistemological one about whether our knowledge of what (...)
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  27. Extending Statistical Learning Farther and Further: Long-Distance Dependencies, and Individual Differences in Statistical Learning and Language.Jennifer B. Misyak & Morten H. Christiansen - 2007 - In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1307--1312.
  1. (Non-)Conceptual Representation of Meaning in Utterance Comprehension.Anders Nes - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Many views of utterance comprehension agree that understanding an utterance involves knowing, believing, perceiving, or, anyhow, mentally representing the utterance to mean such-and-such. They include cognitivist as well as many perceptualist views; I give them the generic label ‘representationalist’. Representationalist views have been criticized for placing an undue metasemantic demand on utterance comprehension, viz. that speakers be able to represent meaning as meaning. Critics have adverted to young speakers, say about the age of three, who do comprehend many utterances but (...)
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  2. Deep Learning and Artificial Intelligence: X, XX, XXX.Ilexa Yardley - 2017 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  3. Sulla nozione di conoscenza innata in N. Chomsky.Marco Salucci - 1987 - Annali Del Dipartimento di Filosofia di Firenze 3:153-189.
    In tis paper I examine the notion of innate knowledge maintained by N. Chomsky.
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  4. Элементарная основа языка.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Русский язык прошёл долгий путь становления, в ходе которого совершенствовался его алфавит, его понятийное и смысловое содержание, его культура речи. В 20-м веке русский язык стал и продолжает оставаться самым развитым языком современности, и в этом качестве он является своеобразным эталоном для оценки других языков.
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  5. An Ontological Puzzle About the Speech of Black Folk.Stephen Lester Thompson - 1993 - Found Object 2:21-29.
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  6. The Grammar of Civilization: Crummell and Douglass on Doing Things with Words.Stephen Lester Thompson - 1999 - In Bill Lawson & Frank Kirkland (eds.), Frederick Douglass: A Critical Reader. Malden, MA, USA: pp. 173-203.
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  7. The Manifestation Challenge: The Debate Between McDowell and Wright.Ali Hossein Khani & Saeedeh Shahmir - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations at University of Tabriz 12 (24): 287-306.
    In this paper, we will discuss what is called the “Manifestation Challenge” to semantic realism, which was originally developed by Michael Dummett and has been further refined by Crispin Wright. According to this challenge, semantic realism has to meet the requirement that knowledge of meaning must be publically manifested in linguistic behaviour. In this regard, we will introduce and evaluate John McDowell’s response to this anti-realistic challenge, which was put forward to show that the challenge cannot undermine realism. According to (...)
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  8. Kripkenstein Meets the Chinese Room: Looking for the Place of Meaning From a Natural Point of View.Michael Kober - 1998 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 41 (3):317-332.
    The discussion between Searle and the Churchlands over whether or not symbolmanipulating computers generate semantics will be confronted both with the rulesceptical considerations of Kripke/wittgenstein and with Wittgenstein's privatelanguage argument in order to show that the discussion focuses on the wrong place: meaning does not emerge in the brain. That a symbol means something should rather be conceived as a social fact, depending on a mutual imputation of linguistic competence of the participants of a linguistic practice to one another. The (...)
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  9. Virtue Semantics: Towards an Agent-Based Theory of Linguistic Understanding.Cheng-Hung Tsai - 2006 - Dissertation, National Taiwan University
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  10. Diagnose van de Moderne Filosoof: Waarom filosofen gek zijn.Nicole des Bouvrie - 2018 - Eindhoven: Damon.
    Zijn filosofen gek? Zo ja, waarom? En ligt dat dan aan de filosoof, aan de filosofie of aan de diagnostiek? Dat zijn de vragen die in 'Diagnose van de moderne filosoof' centraal staan. Nicole des Bouvrie neemt aan de hand van het diagnostische handboek van psychiaters en psychologen (de DSM-V) de situatie van de hedendaagse denker onder de loep. Autisme, psychoses, anorexia en andere aandoeningen passeren de revue, om aan de hand van een grondige anamnese van hedendaagse denkbeelden uit de (...)
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  11. Syntax Meets Semantics During Brain Logical Computations.Arturo Tozzi, James F. Peters, Andrew And Alexander Fingelkurts & Leonid Perlovsky - 2018 - Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 140:133-141.
    The discrepancy between syntax and semantics is a painstaking issue that hinders a better comprehension of the underlying neuronal processes in the human brain. In order to tackle the issue, we at first describe a striking correlation between Wittgenstein's Tractatus, that assesses the syntactic relationships between language and world, and Perlovsky's joint language-cognitive computational model, that assesses the semantic relationships between emotions and “knowledge instinct”. Once established a correlation between a purely logical approach to the language and computable psychological activities, (...)
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  12. Book Review:Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use Noam Chomsky; Language and Problems of Knowledge: The Managua Lectures Noam Chomsky. Stabler Jr - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (3):533-536.
  13. Must We Measure What We Mean?Nat Hansen - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 60 (8):785-815.
    This paper excavates a debate concerning the claims of ordinary language philosophers that took place during the middle of the last century. The debate centers on the status of statements about ‘what we say’. On one side of the debate, critics of ordinary language philosophy argued that statements about ‘what we say’ should be evaluated as empirical observations about how people do in fact speak, on a par with claims made in the language sciences. By that standard, ordinary language philosophers (...)
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  14. Why Truth-Conditional Semantics in Generative Linguistics is Still the Better Bet.Toby Napoletano - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (3):673-692.
    In his “Meaning and Formal Semantics in Generative Grammar” (Erkenntnis 2015, 61–87), Stephen Schiffer argues that truth-conditional semantics is a poor fit with generative linguistics. In particular, he thinks that it fails to explain speakers’ abilities to understand the sentences of their language. In its place, he recommends his “Best Bet Theory”—a theory which aims to directly explain speakers’ abilities to mean things by their utterances and know what others mean by their utterances. I argue that Schiffer does not provide (...)
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  15. Linguistic Knowledge and Unconscious Computations.Luigi Rizzi - 2016 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 7 (3):338-349.
    : The open-ended character of natural languages calls for the hypothesis that humans are endowed with a recursive procedure generating sentences which are hierarchically organized. Structural relations such as c-command, expressed on hierarchical sentential representations, determine all sorts of formal and interpretive properties of sentences. The relevant computational principles are well beyond the reach of conscious introspection, so that studying such properties requires the formulation of precise formal hypotheses, and empirically testing them. This article illustrates all these aspects of linguistic (...)
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  16. Harry M. Bracken, "Mind and Language. Essays on Descartes and Chomsky". [REVIEW]Kathleen M. Squadrito - 1986 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 24 (4):559.
  17. Double Review: Chomsky: Ideas and Ideals by Neil Smith and Chomsky: Language, Mind, and Politics by James McGilvray.Fred D'Agostino - 2001 - Mind and Language 16 (3):335-344.
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  18. The Ideas of Chomsky.Tony Tyley, Noam Chomsky, Janet Hoenig, Bryan Magee & Inc B. B. C. Education & Training - 1997 - Films for the Humanities & Sciences Distributed Under License From Bbc Worldwide Americas.
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  19. Understanding Language Acquisition: The Framework of Learning Christina E. Erneling Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993, Xiii + 256 Pp., $59.50; Paper $19.95. [REVIEW]Benjamin R. Tilghman - 1997 - Dialogue 36 (2):425-427.
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  20. Linguistic Intuition and Reductionism: Comments on Katz's Paper.Esa Saarinen - 1982 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 23:296-304.
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  21. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use. Stabler - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (3):533-536.
  22. Knowledge of Language" by David Cooper. [REVIEW]Robert Geer - 1981 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 11 (4):518.
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  23. Language Understanding is Grounded in Experiential Simulations: A Response to Weiskopf.Raymond W. Gibbs & Marcus Perlman - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):305-308.
    Several disciplines within the cognitive sciences have advanced the idea that people comprehend the actions of others, including the linguistic meanings they communicate, through embodied simulations where they imaginatively recreate the actions they observe or hear about. This claim has important consequences for theories of mind and meaning, such as that people’s use and interpretation of language emerges as a kind of bodily activity that is an essential part of ordinary cognition. Daniel Weiskopf presents several arguments against the idea that (...)
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