About this topic
Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
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  1. Bilimde Sınır Çizme Problemi: Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn ve Sonrası.Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı - 2018 - Dissertation,
    Bilimin ne olduğunun belirlenmesi ve bu bağlamda bilimin sözde bilim ya da bilimsel olmayan alanlara ilişkin sınırının nasıl çizileceği tartışması, bilim felsefesinde sınır çizme problemi olarak ele alınmaktadır. Çalışmanın ana konusunu oluşturan bu problem, özellikle yirminci yüzyıldan itibaren, bilim felsefecileri tarafından birçok ölçüt ortaya konularak çözümlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu ölçütler genellikle, bilim ile sözde bilim arasındaki sınırı belirlemek amacıyla, bilimi mantık ve mantıksal önermeler üzerinden değerlendirmektedir. Şu ana kadar Viyana Çevresi, Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos gibi filozoflarca ortaya konulan ölçütler, nihai olarak problemi (...)
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  2. ‘A Formula Which I Derived Many Years Ago’ Boole, Reichenbach and Popper on Probability and Conditionals.Hans Rott - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-8.
    This note presents a very brief history of the observation that the probability of the material conditional A⊃B is in general different from, but cannot be less than, the conditional probability of...
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  3. Why is Popper's critical method fascinating?Paweł Jan Polak - 2021 - Philosophical Problems in Science 71:211-216.
    This review article presents an important, newly published study of Popper's critical method by Zbigniew Liana. The review emphasizes the very high level of the study, points to its originality, and explains why the book is recommended mainly to specialists of Popper's thought. It is also explained how the book manages to contain so many original and valuable analyses in a small volume.
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  4. Etica e storia della filosofia.Francesco Allegri - 2016 - Roma, Italia: Aracne.
  5. Popper e a objetividade do conhecimento científico: a ciência provisória e a verdade temporária.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2011 - Cognitio-Estudos: Revista Eletrônica de Filosofia - Philosophy Eletronic Journal 8 (1):17-28.
    Se a leitura da epistemologia clássica e a perspectiva dos adeptos do “empirismo lógico” assinalam que a ciência demanda a exclusão de tudo aquilo que não se impõe ao horizonte que envolve a dedutibilidade analítica e a verificabilidade, Karl Popper defende que mais do que saber quando e em que condição uma teoria dialoga com a verdade a relevância não acena senão para a demarcação entre ciência e não ciência, particularmente no tocante às fronteiras que abrangem a ciência que carrega (...)
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  6. Bilimsel Nesnellik, Kültür ve Protokol Önermeleri Tartışması: Carnap, Neurath ve Popper.Zöhre Yücekaya & Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı (eds.) - 2021 - Ankara, Türkiye: Gazi Kitabevi.
    Bilimi ve bilimsel bilgiyi kültür, değer ve öznel yargılardan izole ederek nesnel bir şekilde ortaya koyabilmeye yönelik hararetli tartışmaların yaşandığı yirminci yüzyıl bilim anlayışının temel gayesi, deney ve gözleme tabi olabilecek fiziki dünyadaki olguları, mantıksal çözümlemeye tabi tutarak birleştirilmiş bilime ulaşmaktır. Bu amaca giden yolda olgulara dayanmayan ve sınanamayan her türlü metafizik öge yok sayılır. Bilimsel bilginin sadece deney ve gözleme tabi olana, diğer bir deyişle olgu verilerine dayandığı iddiasını taşıyan bu düşünce sistemi, özellikle Viyana Çevresi üyeleri tarafından benimsenmiştir. Bu (...)
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  7. The Sociologist of Knowledge in the Positivism Dispute.Iaan Reynolds - 2021 - Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory 2021.
    This paper studies the conflict between critical rationalism and critical theory in Karl Popper and Theodor Adorno’s 1961 debate by analyzing their shared rejection of Karl Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge. Despite the divergences in their respective projects of critical social research, Popper and Adorno agree that Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge is uncritical. By investigating their respective assessments of this research program I reveal a deeper similarity between critical rationalism and critical theory. Though both agree on the importance of critique, they (...)
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  8. Popper's ‘Rationality Principle’ and ‘Epistemic’ Rationality: An Attempt at Reconciliation.Alfonso Palacio-Vera - 2021 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 33 (4):195-209.
    ‘Situational Analysis’ constitutes Popper's methodological proposal for the social sciences. There is an apparent inconsistency in the fact that, on the one hand, Popper maintains that we lear...
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  9. Popper’s Paradox of Tolerance: An Examination of Segregated Muslim Neighbourhoods in Modern Britain.Rumy Hasan - 2021 - Perichoresis 19 (3):89-112.
    The twenty first century has witnessed a heightened interest in Muslim settlers in western democracies. In Britain, following the suicide bombings of 9/11 and particularly in the aftermath of the 7th July 2005 bombings in London, much of this focus has been on the threat of terror attacks emanating from radicalised Muslims. It is clearly the case that the same focus also applies to other west European countries which have witnessed similar attacks. The question arises as to the kind of (...)
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  10. Improve Popper and Procure a Perfect Simulacrum of Verification Indistinguishable From the Real Thing.Nicholas Maxwell - 2021 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science.
    According to Karl Popper, science cannot verify its theories empirically, but it can falsify them, and that suffices to account for scientific progress. For Popper, a law or theory remains a pure conjecture, probability equal to zero, however massively corroborated empirically it may be. But it does just seem to be the case that science does verify empirically laws and theories. We trust our lives to such verifications when we fly in aeroplanes, cross bridges and take modern medicines. We can (...)
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  11. Discussion Article: Comments on Joao Pinheiro da Silva's Paper: 'Popperian Hayek or Hayekian Popper?'.Mark Amadeus Notturno - 2021 - Economic Thought 10 (1):61.
  12. Popperian Hayek or Hayekian Popper?Joao Pinheiro da Silva - 2021 - Economic Thought 10 (1):46.
    Friedrich Hayek was a fervent advocate of the methodological specificity of the social sciences. However, given his contact with Karl Popper, several historians and philosophers have characterized his final position as Popperian, that is, a position that would have accepted the unity of scientific method. A closer look at Hayek's philosophy and Popper's own intellectual course shows that such a thesis is based on misconceptions that can be overcome by taking the Hayekian concept of 'spontaneous order' as the foundation of (...)
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  13. Karl Popper's Science and Philosophy.Parusniková Zuzana & Merritt David (eds.) - 2021 - Springer.
    Of all philosophers of the 20th century, few built more bridges between academic disciplines than Karl Popper. He contributed to a wide variety of fields in addition to the epistemology and the theory of scientific method for which he is best known. This book illustrates and evaluates the impact, both substantive and methodological, that Popper has had in the natural and mathematical sciences. The topics selected include quantum mechanics, evolutionary biology, cosmology, mathematical logic, statistics, and cognitive science. The approach is (...)
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  14. Identificarea pseudoştiinţei.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Un domeniu, practică, sau set de cunoştinţe, ar putea în mod rezonabil să fie numit pseudoştiinţă atunci când este prezentat ca fiind în conformitate cu normele de cercetare ştiinţifică, dar din punctul de vedere al demonstraţiei nu respectă aceste norme. Karl Popper a declarat că nu este suficient să se facă distincţia între ştiinţă şi pseudoştiinţă, sau metafizică, prin criteriul de aderare riguroasă la metoda empirică, care este în esenţă inductivă, bazată pe observare sau experimentare. El a propus o metodă (...)
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  15. Zur Deutung von Axiomensystemen bei Popper.Hans-Peter Leeb - 2002 - In Was wir Karl R. Popper und seiner Philosophie verdanken. Zu seinem 100. Geburtstag. Academia Verlag. pp. 133-159.
    In Popper's Logik der Forschung, a theoretical system is a set of sentences that describe a particular sub-area of science, in particular of empirical science. The goal of axiomatizing a theoretical system is to specify a small number of "axioms" describing all presuppositions of the sub-area under consideration, so that all other sentences of this system can be derived from them by means of logical or mathematical transformations. The paper discusses two philosophical interpretations of these proper axioms. First, proper axioms (...)
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  16. Philosophy of Science, Network Theory, and Conceptual Change: Paradigm Shifts as Information Cascades.Patrick Grim, Joshua Kavner, Lloyd Shatkin & Manjari Trivedi - forthcoming - In Euel Elliot & L. Douglas Kiel (eds.), Complex Systems in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Theory, Method, and Application. University of Michigan Press.
    Philosophers have long tried to understand scientific change in terms of a dynamics of revision within ‘theoretical frameworks,’ ‘disciplinary matrices,’ ‘scientific paradigms’ or ‘conceptual schemes.’ No-one, however, has made clear precisely how one might model such a conceptual scheme, nor what form change dynamics within such a structure could be expected to take. In this paper we take some first steps in applying network theory to the issue, modeling conceptual schemes as simple networks and the dynamics of change as cascades (...)
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  17. Review of Schubert (1995): Platon: «Der Staat». Ein einfuhrender Kommentar & Döring (1996): Karl R. Popper: «Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde». Ein einfuhrender Kommentar. [REVIEW]Orrin F. Summerell - 1998 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 3 (1):230-233.
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  18. Philosophy of Science Viewed Through the Lense of “Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy” (RPYS).K. Brad Wray & Lutz Bornmann - 2015 - Scientometrics 102 (3):1987-1996.
    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science (...)
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  19. Bemerkung zur Popper-Diskussion.H. Merkens - 1980 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (1):162-163.
    Poppers doppelter Falsifikationismus führt dazu, daß der Kritische Rationalismus nicht als die Metatheorie der empirischen Sozialwissenschaften angesehen werden kann. Außerdem ist in diesem Ansatz die logische Asymmetrie von Verifikation und Falsifikation nicht realisiert.
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  20. Jacques G. Ruelland, De l’épistémologie à la politique. La philosophie de l’histoire de K. R. Popper, Paris, P.U.F. , 1991, 248 pages. [REVIEW]François Tournier - 1994 - Philosophiques 21 (2):636-640.
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  21. Exploring Schumacher and Popper: A Quest for the Philosophical Foundations of Project Cycle Management.Katri Targama & Patrick Rang - 2011 - Philosophy of Management 10 (2):41-52.
    In this article we interlink the philosophical ideas of Ernst Schumacher and Karl Popper within the framework of planning and management, describe project management cases implemented using the principles of project cycle management and study whether the success or failure can be attributed to following these concepts.We consider two basic concepts for perceiving the world surrounding us: the concept of organisation and that of self-organisation. The former emphasises the predictability of the future, where the results of each activity are predetermined (...)
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  22. Contrastando a Popper. [REVIEW]Ramón Queraltó - 2010 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 25 (1):108-111.
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  23. Karl Popper: Kłopoty Z Racjonalizmem, Kłopoty Z Filozofią.Ryszard Kleszcz - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
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  24. Popper Jako Antyindukcjonista.Krystyna Misiuna - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
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  25. Karl Popper I Rossiia.V. N. Sadovskii & Institut Sistemnogo Analiza Nauk) - 2002
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  26. Physics as Metaphor an Inaugural Lecture Given in the University of Fort Hare on the 9th May, 1974.R. H. Hobart - 1974
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  27. Popper by Frederic Raphael. [REVIEW]I. Grattan-Guinness - 2000 - Isis 91:840-840.
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  28. Karl R. Popper o El Signo de la Ambivalencia.Juan García-Morán Escobedo - 1994 - Isegoría: Revista de Filosofía Moral y Política 9:207-212.
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  29. Popper, Karl.Jonathan Lieberson - 1982 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 49 (1):68-115.
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  30. Some Scientism, Some Historicism, Some Critics: Hayek's and Popper's Critiques Revisited.'.Thomas Uebel - 2000 - In M. W. F. Stone & Jonathan Wolff (eds.), The Proper Ambition of Science. Routledge. pp. 151--73.
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  31. Popper on Learning From Experience'.Joseph Agassi - 1969 - In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg. pp. 162--71.
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  32. Karl R. Popper's View of History Translated by Martin J. Jandl.Helmut Reinalter - 2005 - In Friedrich Wallner, Martin J. Jandl & Kurt Greiner (eds.), Science, Medicine, and Culture: Festschrift for Fritz G. Wallner. Peter Lang. pp. 72.
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  33. Popper and Sen on Rationality and Economics: Two (Independent) Wrong Turns Can Be Remedied with the Same Program.John Wettersten - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 369--378.
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  34. Popper and Communitarianism: Justification and Criticism of Moral Standards.Harald Stelzer - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 273--285.
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  35. Why, and to What Extent, May a False Hypothesis Yield the Truth?Stefano Gattei - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 47--61.
    Some of Kepler's works seem very different in character. His youthful Mysterium cosmographicum (1596) argues for heliocentrism on the basis of metaphysical, astronomical, astrological, numerological and architectonic principles. By contrast, Astronomia nova (1609) is far more tightly argued on the basis of only a few dynamical principles. In the eyes of many, such a contrast embodies a transition from Renaissance to early modern science. I suggest that Karl Popper's fallibilist and piecemeal approach, and especially his theory of errors, might prove (...)
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  36. Popper's Continuing Relevance.Ian Jarvie - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 217--235.
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  37. A Neo-Popperian Advance on Popper?John Watkins - 1992 - In W. Newton-Smith, Tʻien-chi Chiang & E. James (eds.), Popper in China. Routledge. pp. 138--157.
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  38. Karl Raimund Popper.Volker Schürmann - 2004 - In Gisela Riescher (ed.), Politische Theorie der Gegenwart in Einzeldarstellungen. Von Adorno Bis Young. Alfred Kröner Verlag. pp. 343--389.
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  39. Otto Selz: Ein Pionier der Kognitionspsychologie.M. Hanke - 1993 - In Christopher Hookway (ed.), Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge University Press. pp. 185--190.
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  40. Popper, Karl Raimund.P. Schroeder-Heister - 2001 - In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
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  41. Ein Brief an Popper.A. Riel & K. Popper - 1990 - Schopenhauer Jahrbuch 71:193-195.
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  42. Karl Popper.A. Liberális Gondolat A. Tudományban & ÉSA POLITIKÁBAN - 1991 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 58:81.
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  43. Popper.Lewis Wolpert - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (3):308-308.
  44. Was wir Karl R. Popper und seiner Philosophie verdanken. Zu seinem 100. Geburtstag.Edgar Morscher (ed.) - 2002 - Academia Verlag.
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  45. Hacia Una Filosofía Social de la Ciencia En Karl R. Popper.Ambrosio Velasco Gómez - 2003 - Signos Filosóficos 6 (11s):71-84.
    Popper is commonly considered as an analytical philosopher who focuses on epistemological and methodological aspects of scientific development, disregarding any social, cultural or political consideration. Against this popular image of Popper’s philosophy, I argue in this paper that Popper’s acco..
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  46. The Uses of Karl Popper.Günter Wächtershäuser - 1995 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 39:177-189.
    Karl Popper's work is of great diversity. It touches on virtually every intellectual activity. But he himself considered his philosophy of science one of his most important achievements. And indeed his achievement here is revolutionary. It destroyed the philosophy of inductivism which held sway over science for hundreds of years.
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  47. Does Popper Explain Historical Explanation?Kenneth Minogue - 1995 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 39:225-240.
    It is one of Karl Popper's great distinctions that he has an intense—some would say too intense—awareness of the history of philosophy within which he works. He knows not only its patterns, but also its comedies, and sometimes he plays rhetorically against their grain. He knows, for example, that the drive to consistency tends to turn philosophy into compositions of related doctrines, each seeming to involve the others. Religious belief, for example, tends to go with idealism and free will, religious (...)
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  48. karl Popper como punto de partida para una filosofía de la teología.Dawn E. Schrader - 1987 - Diálogo Filosófico 8:139-144.
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  49. La Objetividad Como Logro Práctico.Ester Isabel Llinás & María Inés González Carella - 2002 - Cinta de Moebio 13.
    In the last decades the concept of objectivity has been criticized by the ?new epistemologies?. These criticisms favour the consolidation of relativist and subjective positions, which condition the objectivity of scientific knowledge to such an extent that it seems to be a goal impossible to achiev..
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  50. Del Positivismo Disciplinario y el Racionalismo Crítico a la Epistemología Dialéctica Crítica con base en La Totalidad, como Método Alternativo de Investigación Científica.Carlos Eduardo Massé Narváez - 2001 - Cinta de Moebio 11.
    Con base en las limitaciones del método positivista en general en cuanto a su error histórico de separar el sujeto del objeto; pasando a exponer la inmanencia logicista del racionalismo crítico de Popper, se pasa a esbozar los lineamientos de una propuesta alternativa para la investigación científi..
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