About this topic
Summary Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher who for the most significant period of his career held a position at the London School of Economics.  Popper was a philosopher of science, who also made contributions in epistemology, philosophy of mind and social and political philosophy.  He argued that scientific theories are distinguished from non-scientific theories and pseudo-science by being falsifiable claims about the world.  Popper proposed a "solution" to the problem of induction by arguing that there is no need for induction in the scientific method.  The method of science is to propose conjectural theories which are then submitted to rigorous tests in the attempt to falsify them.  Theories which fail these tests are to be rejected.  Theories which survive attempts to refute them may be accepted tentatively, but are not proven to be true.  At best, they may be highly corroborated.  This "falsificationist" philosophy of science has a more general application beyond the method of the sciences.  The attempt to falsify a theory is an attempt to criticize the theory.  For Popper, criticism lies at the heart of rational thought, which he took to consist in the method of critical discussion and reflection.  The resulting general position is known as "critical rationalism".  Popper extended these ideas as well into the social and political realm.  He introduced the distinction between open and closed societies.  Open societies welcome and foster critical discussion and change whereas closed societies, which are usually tribal societies, are based on unchanging social custom and ritual.
Key works The classic statement of Popper's philosophy of science is The Logic of Scientific Discovery.  Perhaps the best introduction to his work is his collection of essays, Conjectures and Refutations.  Popper's social and political thought may be found in The Poverty of Historicism and The Open Society and its Enemies.  A good anthology of his writings has been edited by David Miller, Popper Selections.  A useful way into Popper's ideas is by way of his intellectual autobiography, Unended Quest, as is Bryan Magee's short book, Popper.  Alan Musgrave's Common Sense, Science and Scepticism presents a broadly Popperian introduction to epistemology.  David Miller's Critical Rationalism presents good discussion of many critical points that have been made against Popper's views.  Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, edited by Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, contains a number of important papers which bring Popper's views into contact with T.S. Kuhn's theory of science.  Wesley Salmon's 'Rational Prediction' is an important criticism of Popper's solution to the problem of induction.  See also Adolf Grunbaum's paper 'Is the method of bold conjectures and attempted refutations justifiably the method of science?'.
Introductions A good place to start is the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thornton 2008.  Alan Chalmers provides an introductory discussion in What is this thing called science?, chapters 4-6.  Gurol Irzik provides an overview in 'Critical Rationalism', and Alan Musgrave presents his interpretation of Popper's solution of the problem of induction in his paper 'How Popper (might have) solved the problem of induction'.
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  1. Popper e a objetividade do conhecimento científico: a ciência provisória e a verdade temporária.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2011 - Cognitio-Estudos: Revista Eletrônica de Filosofia - Philosophy Eletronic Journal / Centro de Estudos de Pragmatismo, PUC/SP – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo [São Paulo, Brasil] 8 (1):17-28.
    Se a leitura da epistemologia clássica e a perspectiva dos adeptos do “empirismo lógico” assinalam que a ciência demanda a exclusão de tudo aquilo que não se impõe ao horizonte que envolve a dedutibilidade analítica e a verificabilidade, Karl Popper defende que mais do que saber quando e em que condição uma teoria dialoga com a verdade a relevância não acena senão para a demarcação entre ciência e não ciência, particularmente no tocante às fronteiras que abrangem a ciência que carrega (...)
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  2. Bilimsel Nesnellik, Kültür ve Protokol Önermeleri Tartışması: Carnap, Neurath ve Popper.Zöhre Yücekaya & Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı (eds.) - 2021 - Ankara, Türkiye: Gazi Kitabevi.
    Bilimi ve bilimsel bilgiyi kültür, değer ve öznel yargılardan izole ederek nesnel bir şekilde ortaya koyabilmeye yönelik hararetli tartışmaların yaşandığı yirminci yüzyıl bilim anlayışının temel gayesi, deney ve gözleme tabi olabilecek fiziki dünyadaki olguları, mantıksal çözümlemeye tabi tutarak birleştirilmiş bilime ulaşmaktır. Bu amaca giden yolda olgulara dayanmayan ve sınanamayan her türlü metafizik öge yok sayılır. Bilimsel bilginin sadece deney ve gözleme tabi olana, diğer bir deyişle olgu verilerine dayandığı iddiasını taşıyan bu düşünce sistemi, özellikle Viyana Çevresi üyeleri tarafından benimsenmiştir. Bu (...)
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  3. Kültür ve Değerlerin Bilimdeki Rolü: Popper ve Kuhn’un Bilimsel Nesnellik Anlayışı.Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı - 2021 - Ankara, Türkiye: Gazi Kitabevi.
    Bilime ve onun bilgisine akademik, politik, ekonomik ve kamusal alanlar olmak üzere birçok alanda diğer bilgi iddialarına kıyasla daha fazla güven duyulmaktadır. Bilime duyulan bu güvenin temelinde büyük ölçüde bilimsel süreçlerin ve yöntemlerin nesnel bir şekilde yürütülmesi ve bu nesnel sürecin bir ürünü olarak bilimsel bilginin tarafsız bilim insanları tarafından ortaya konulduğu düşüncesi yatmaktadır. Bu bakımdan toplum tarafından bilimin tartışılmaz statüsünün ve bilimsel bilgiye verilen değerin belirleyicisi olarak nesnellik özelliği ön plana çıkmaktadır. Bilhassa doğa bilimleri söz konusu olduğunda bilimsel yöntemin (...)
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  4. The Sociologist of Knowledge in the Positivism Dispute.Iaan Reynolds - 2021 - Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory 2021.
    This paper studies the conflict between critical rationalism and critical theory in Karl Popper and Theodor Adorno’s 1961 debate by analyzing their shared rejection of Karl Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge. Despite the divergences in their respective projects of critical social research, Popper and Adorno agree that Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge is uncritical. By investigating their respective assessments of this research program I reveal a deeper similarity between critical rationalism and critical theory. Though both agree on the importance of critique, they (...)
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  5. Popper's ‘Rationality Principle’ and ‘Epistemic’ Rationality: An Attempt at Reconciliation.Alfonso Palacio-Vera - 2021 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 33 (4):195-209.
    ‘Situational Analysis’ constitutes Popper's methodological proposal for the social sciences. There is an apparent inconsistency in the fact that, on the one hand, Popper maintains that we lear...
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  6. Popper’s Paradox of Tolerance: An Examination of Segregated Muslim Neighbourhoods in Modern Britain.Rumy Hasan - 2021 - Perichoresis 19 (3):89-112.
    The twenty first century has witnessed a heightened interest in Muslim settlers in western democracies. In Britain, following the suicide bombings of 9/11 and particularly in the aftermath of the 7th July 2005 bombings in London, much of this focus has been on the threat of terror attacks emanating from radicalised Muslims. It is clearly the case that the same focus also applies to other west European countries which have witnessed similar attacks. The question arises as to the kind of (...)
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  7. Improve Popper and Procure a Perfect Simulacrum of Verification Indistinguishable From the Real Thing.Nicholas Maxwell - 2021 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science.
    According to Karl Popper, science cannot verify its theories empirically, but it can falsify them, and that suffices to account for scientific progress. For Popper, a law or theory remains a pure conjecture, probability equal to zero, however massively corroborated empirically it may be. But it does just seem to be the case that science does verify empirically laws and theories. We trust our lives to such verifications when we fly in aeroplanes, cross bridges and take modern medicines. We can (...)
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  8. Discussion Article: Comments on Joao Pinheiro da Silva's Paper: 'Popperian Hayek or Hayekian Popper?'.Mark Amadeus Notturno - 2021 - Economic Thought 10 (1):61.
  9. Popperian Hayek or Hayekian Popper?Joao Pinheiro da Silva - 2021 - Economic Thought 10 (1):46.
    Friedrich Hayek was a fervent advocate of the methodological specificity of the social sciences. However, given his contact with Karl Popper, several historians and philosophers have characterised his final position as Popperian, that is, a position that would have accepted the unity of the scientific method. A closer look at Hayek's philosophy and Popper's own intellectual course shows that such a thesis is based on some misconceptions that can be overcome by taking the Hayekian concept of 'spontaneous order' as the (...)
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  10. Karl Popper's Science and Philosophy.Parusniková Zuzana & Merritt David (eds.) - 2021 - Springer.
    Of all philosophers of the 20th century, few built more bridges between academic disciplines than Karl Popper. He contributed to a wide variety of fields in addition to the epistemology and the theory of scientific method for which he is best known. This book illustrates and evaluates the impact, both substantive and methodological, that Popper has had in the natural and mathematical sciences. The topics selected include quantum mechanics, evolutionary biology, cosmology, mathematical logic, statistics, and cognitive science. The approach is (...)
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  11. Identificarea pseudoştiinţei.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Un domeniu, practică, sau set de cunoştinţe, ar putea în mod rezonabil să fie numit pseudoştiinţă atunci când este prezentat ca fiind în conformitate cu normele de cercetare ştiinţifică, dar din punctul de vedere al demonstraţiei nu respectă aceste norme. Karl Popper a declarat că nu este suficient să se facă distincţia între ştiinţă şi pseudoştiinţă, sau metafizică, prin criteriul de aderare riguroasă la metoda empirică, care este în esenţă inductivă, bazată pe observare sau experimentare. El a propus o metodă (...)
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  12. Philosophy of Science, Network Theory, and Conceptual Change: Paradigm Shifts as Information Cascades.Patrick Grim, Joshua Kavner, Lloyd Shatkin & Manjari Trivedi - forthcoming - In Euel Elliot & L. Douglas Kiel (eds.), Complex Systems in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Theory, Method, and Application. University of Michigan Press.
    Philosophers have long tried to understand scientific change in terms of a dynamics of revision within ‘theoretical frameworks,’ ‘disciplinary matrices,’ ‘scientific paradigms’ or ‘conceptual schemes.’ No-one, however, has made clear precisely how one might model such a conceptual scheme, nor what form change dynamics within such a structure could be expected to take. In this paper we take some first steps in applying network theory to the issue, modeling conceptual schemes as simple networks and the dynamics of change as cascades (...)
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  13. Review of Schubert (1995): Platon: «Der Staat». Ein einfuhrender Kommentar & Döring (1996): Karl R. Popper: «Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde». Ein einfuhrender Kommentar. [REVIEW]Orrin F. Summerell - 1998 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 3 (1):230-233.
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  14. Citation Concept Analysis (CCA): A New Form of Citation Analysis Revealing the Usefulness of Concepts for Other Researchers Illustrated by Exemplary Case Studies Including Classic Books by Thomas S. Kuhn and Karl R. Popper.Lutz Bornmann, K. Brad Wray & Robin Haunschild - 2020 - Scientometrics 122 (2):1051-1074.
    In recent years, the full text of papers are increasingly available electronically which opens up the possibility of quantitatively investigating citation contexts in more detail. In this study, we introduce a new form of citation analysis, which we call citation concept analysis (CCA). CCA is intended to reveal the cognitive impact certain concepts—published in a highly-cited landmark publication—have on the citing authors. It counts the number of times the concepts are mentioned (cited) in the citation context of citing publications. We (...)
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  15. Philosophy of Science Viewed Through the Lense of “Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy” (RPYS).K. Brad Wray & Lutz Bornmann - 2015 - Scientometrics 102 (3):1987-1996.
    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important role in philosophy of science (...)
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  16. Karl Popper's Critique of Idealism.İsmail Kurun - 2018 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 8 (1):273-301.
    Karl Popper’s critique of idealism manifests itself with the application of his method, falsificationism, to metaphysics, epistemology, and social and political philosophy. According to Popper, who identifies himself as a philosophical realist, idealism has emerged as a result of the idea that reality cannot be known by reason and of the search for certainty which is erroneous, and it has begotten two mistaken and detrimental views. These views are historicism, the notion that history has an irresistible course, and holism, the (...)
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  17. Bemerkung zur Popper-Diskussion.H. Merkens - 1980 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (1):162-163.
    Poppers doppelter Falsifikationismus führt dazu, daß der Kritische Rationalismus nicht als die Metatheorie der empirischen Sozialwissenschaften angesehen werden kann. Außerdem ist in diesem Ansatz die logische Asymmetrie von Verifikation und Falsifikation nicht realisiert.
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  18. Karl Popper as a Point of Departure for a Philosophy of Theology.David E. Schrader - 1983 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (4):193.
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  19. Jacques G. Ruelland, De l’épistémologie à la politique. La philosophie de l’histoire de K. R. Popper, Paris, P.U.F. , 1991, 248 pages. [REVIEW]François Tournier - 1994 - Philosophiques 21 (2):636-640.
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  20. Exploring Schumacher and Popper: A Quest for the Philosophical Foundations of Project Cycle Management.Katri Targama & Patrick Rang - 2011 - Philosophy of Management 10 (2):41-52.
    In this article we interlink the philosophical ideas of Ernst Schumacher and Karl Popper within the framework of planning and management, describe project management cases implemented using the principles of project cycle management and study whether the success or failure can be attributed to following these concepts.We consider two basic concepts for perceiving the world surrounding us: the concept of organisation and that of self-organisation. The former emphasises the predictability of the future, where the results of each activity are predetermined (...)
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  21. Contrastando a Popper. [REVIEW]Ramón Queraltó - 2010 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 25 (1):108-111.
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  22. Karl Popper: Kłopoty Z Racjonalizmem, Kłopoty Z Filozofią.Ryszard Kleszcz - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
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  23. Popper Jako Antyindukcjonista.Krystyna Misiuna - 2014 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 92.
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  24. The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge.Troels Eggers Hansen (ed.) - 2008 - Routledge.
    In a letter of 1932, Karl Popper described _Die beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie – The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge_ – as ‘…a child of crises, above all of …the crisis of physics.’ Finally available in English, it is a major contribution to the philosophy of science, epistemology and twentieth century philosophy generally. The two fundamental problems of knowledge that lie at the centre of the book are the problem of induction, that although we are able to (...)
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  25. Karl Popper I Rossiia.V. N. Sadovskii & Institut Sistemnogo Analiza Nauk) - 2002
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  26. Physics as Metaphor an Inaugural Lecture Given in the University of Fort Hare on the 9th May, 1974.R. H. Hobart - 1974
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  27. Popper by Frederic Raphael. [REVIEW]I. Grattan-Guinness - 2000 - Isis 91:840-840.
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  28. The Philosophy of Karl Popper by Robert John Ackermann. [REVIEW]R. Dolby - 1977 - Isis 68:456-457.
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  29. Karl Popper by Anthony O'Hear. [REVIEW]Toby Huff - 1983 - Isis 74:261-262.
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  30. Popper, Karl.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  31. Karl Raimund Popper.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  32. Karl Popper 1902-1994.Stefano Gattei - unknown
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  33. Recent Popper Literature.J. W. Grove - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (3):376-383.
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  34. Karl R. Popper o El Signo de la Ambivalencia.Juan García-Morán Escobedo - 1994 - Isegoría: Revista de Filosofía Moral y Política 9:207-212.
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  35. Karl Popper-the Thinker and the Man.Ernest Gellner - 1996 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 49:75-86.
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  36. From Epistemology to Rational Science Policy: Popper Versus Kuhn.G. G. Pinter & Vera Pinter - 1998 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 (2):291-298.
    Scholars Karl R. Popper and Thomas S. Kuhn developed new frameworks that helped shape practical science policies and contributed to a greater understanding of the power and limitations of science. Popper did not accept induction as a method of arriving at scientific conclusions and rejected the justification of scientific theories and hypotheses. On the other hand, Kuhn advocated the progress of science and accepted some principles of scientific practices, including law, theory, instrumentation and application. -/- .
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  37. Rocco Pezzimenti, Dynamic Order. The Problem of Method in Evolving Nature. With Letters From N. Rescher, L. Pauling, J. Accles and KR Popper. [REVIEW]Olivier Perru - 2000 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 98 (2):412-419.
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  38. A Pluralist Challenge to 'Integrative Medicine': Feyerabend and Popper on the Cognitive Value of Alternative Medicine.Ian Kidd - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):392–400.
    This paper is a critique of ‘integrative medicine’ as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of ‘integrative medicine’ defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus’ account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova’s recent criticism of ‘integrative medicine’ and (...)
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  39. William Berkson and John Wettersten, Learning From Error: Karl Popper's Psychology of Learning Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Sheldon Richmond - 1987 - Philosophy in Review 7 (1):1-3.
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  40. Popper, Karl.Jonathan Lieberson - 1982 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 49 (1):68-115.
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  41. Some Scientism, Some Historicism, Some Critics: Hayek's and Popper's Critiques Revisited.'.Thomas Uebel - 2000 - In M. W. F. Stone & Jonathan Wolff (eds.), The Proper Ambition of Science. Routledge. pp. 151--73.
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  42. Karl Raimund Popper.Anthony Quinton - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan. pp. 6--398.
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  43. Popper on Learning From Experience'.Joseph Agassi - 1969 - In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Published by Basil Blackwell with the Cooperation of the University of Pittsburg. pp. 162--71.
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  44. Karl R. Popper's View of History Translated by Martin J. Jandl.Helmut Reinalter - 2005 - In Friedrich Wallner, Martin J. Jandl & Kurt Greiner (eds.), Science, Medicine, and Culture: Festschrift for Fritz G. Wallner. Peter Lang. pp. 72.
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  45. Popper and Sen on Rationality and Economics: Two (Independent) Wrong Turns Can Be Remedied with the Same Program.John Wettersten - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 369--378.
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  46. Popper and Communitarianism: Justification and Criticism of Moral Standards.Harald Stelzer - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 273--285.
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  47. Why, and to What Extent, May a False Hypothesis Yield the Truth?Stefano Gattei - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 47--61.
    Some of Kepler's works seem very different in character. His youthful Mysterium cosmographicum (1596) argues for heliocentrism on the basis of metaphysical, astronomical, astrological, numerological and architectonic principles. By contrast, Astronomia nova (1609) is far more tightly argued on the basis of only a few dynamical principles. In the eyes of many, such a contrast embodies a transition from Renaissance to early modern science. I suggest that Karl Popper's fallibilist and piecemeal approach, and especially his theory of errors, might prove (...)
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  48. Popper's Continuing Relevance.Ian Jarvie - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 217--235.
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  49. A Neo-Popperian Advance on Popper?John Watkins - 1992 - In W. Newton-Smith, Tʻien-chi Chiang & E. James (eds.), Popper in China. Routledge. pp. 138--157.
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  50. Karl Raimund Popper.Volker Schürmann - 2004 - In Gisela Riescher (ed.), Politische Theorie der Gegenwart in Einzeldarstellungen. Von Adorno Bis Young. Alfred Kröner Verlag. pp. 343--389.
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