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  1. Kant et la matière de l'espace.Henny Blomme - forthcoming - Georg Olms Verlag.
  2. Kant's Panentheism: The Possibility Proof of 1763 and Its Fate in the Critical Period.Andrew Chignell - forthcoming - In Ina Goy (ed.), Kant's Religious Arguments. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    This chapter discusses Kant's 1763 "possibility proof" for the existence of God. I first provide a reconstruction of the proof in its two stages, and then revisit my earlier argument according to which the being the proof delivers threatens to be a Spinozistic-panentheistic God—a being whose properties include the entire spatio-temporal universe—rather than the traditional, ontologically distinct God of biblical monotheism. I go on to evaluate some recent alternative readings that have sought to avoid this result by arguing that the (...)
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  3. Kant on the Givenness of Space and Time.Rosalind Chaplin - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):877-898.
    Famously, Kant describes space and time as infinite “given” magnitudes. An influential interpretative tradition reads this as a claim about phenomenological presence to the mind: in claiming that space and time are given, this reading holds, Kant means to claim that we have phenomenological access to space and time in our original intuitions of them. In this paper, I argue that we should instead understand givenness as a metaphysical notion. For Kant, space and time are ‘given’ in virtue of three (...)
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  4. The Labyrinth of the Continuum: Leibniz, the Wolffians, and Kant on Matter and Monads.Anja Jauernig - 2022 - In Karl Schafer (ed.), The Sensible and Intelligible Worlds: New Essays on Kant's Metaphysics and Epistemology. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 185-216.
    The problem at the center of this essay is how one can reconcile the continuity of space with a monadological theory of matter, according to which matter is ultimately composed of simple elements, a problem that greatly exercised Leibniz, the Wolffians, and Kant. The underlying purpose of this essay is to illustrate my reading of Kant’s philosophical development, and of his relation to the Wolffians and Leibniz, according to which, (a), this development was fueled by ‘home-grown’ problems that arose within (...)
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  5. The World According to Kant - Appearances and Things in Themselves in Critical Idealism.Anja Jauernig - 2021 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    The World According to Kant offers an interpretation of Immanuel Kant’s critical idealism, as developed in the Critique of Pure Reason and associated texts. Critical idealism is understood as an ontological position, which comprises transcendental idealism, empirical realism, and a number of other basic ontological theses. According to Kant, the world, understood as the sum total of everything that has reality, comprises several levels of reality, most importantly, the transcendental level and the empirical level. The transcendental level is a mind-independent (...)
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  6. A Priori Intuition and Transcendental Necessity in Kant's Idealism.Markus Kohl - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):827-845.
  7. Co-Seeing and Seeing Through: Reimagining Kant’s Subtraction Argument with Stumpf and Husserl.Clare Mac Cumhaill - 2020 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 28 (6):1217-1239.
    I draw on Carl Stumpf’s essay “Psychologie und Erkenntnistheorie”, and his precocious On the Psychological Origin of the Idea of Space, to set out a charge he raises against Kant’s fo...
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  8. Dimensionality, Symmetry, and the Inverse Square Law.Dimitria Gatzia & Rex Ramsier - 2020 - Notes and Records: Royal Society Journal of the History of Science 75 (3):333-348.
    Kant suggested that Newton’s Inverse Square Law (ISL) determines the dimensions of space to be three. Much has been written in the philosophical literature about Kant’s suggestion, including specific arguments attempting to link the ISL to three-dimensionality. In this paper, we explore one such argument and demonstrate that it fails to support the link Kant purports to make between the ISL and the three-dimensionality of space. At best, the link that can be made is between the ISL and symmetry.
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  9. Kant’s Better-Than-Terrible Argument in the Anticipations of Perception.David Landy - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (1):77-101.
    Scholars working on Kant’s Anticipations of Perception generally attribute to him an argument that invalidly infers that objects have degrees of intensive magnitude from the premise that sensations do. I argue that this rests on an incorrect disambiguation of Kant’s use of Empfindung as referring to the mental states that are our sensings, rather than the objects that are thereby sensed. Kant’s real argument runs as follows. The difference between a representation of an empty region of space and/or time and (...)
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  10. Space, Time, and the Origins of Transcendental Idealism: Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy From 1747 to 1770.Matthew Rukgaber - 2020 - Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book provides an account of the unity of Immanuel Kant’s early metaphysics, including the moment he invents transcendental idealism. Matthew Rukgaber argues that a division between “two worlds”—the world of matter, force, and space on the one hand, and the world of metaphysical substances with inner states and principles preserved by God on the other—is what guides Kant’s thought. Until 1770 Kant consistently held a conception of space as a force-based material product of monads that are only virtually present (...)
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  11. Tetens as a Reader of Kant's Inaugural Dissertation.Corey W. Dyck - 2019 - In Violetta L. Waibel & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlin: pp. 857-66.
    In this paper I consider Tetens' reaction to Kant's Inaugural Dissertation in his two most important philosophical works, the essay “Über die allgemeine speculativische Philosophie” of 1775 and the two-volume Philosophische Versuche of 1777. In particular, I focus on Tetens’ critical discussion of Kant's account of the acquisition of concepts of space and time.
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  12. A Mereological Argument for the Non‐Spatiotemporality of Things in Themselves.Dai Heide - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy (1):1-29.
    Kant’s published arguments for the non-spatiotemporality of things in themselves have not been well received. I argue that Kant has available to himself an argument for the non-spatiotemporality of things in themselves that is premised upon a disparity between the compositional structure of the intelligible world and the structure of space and time. I argue that Kant was unwaveringly committed to the premises of this argument throughout his career and that he was aware of their idealistic implications. I also argue (...)
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  13. Kant and the Impossibility of Non‐Euclidean Space.Tufan Kıymaz - 2019 - Philosophical Forum 50 (4):485-491.
    In this paper, I discuss the problem raised by the non-Euclidean geometries for the Kantian claim that the axioms of Euclidean geometry are synthetic a priori, and hence necessarily true. Although the Kantian view of geometry faces a serious challenge from non-Euclidean geometries, there are some aspects of Kant’s view about geometry that can still be plausible. I argue that Euclidean geometry, as a science, cannot be synthetic a priori, but the empirical world can still be necessarily Euclidean.
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  14. Conceptualizing Kant’s Mereology.Benjamin Marschall - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    In the Resolution of the Second Antinomy of the first Critique and the Dynamics chapter of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Sciences, Kant presents his critical views on mereology, the study of parts and wholes. He endorses an unusual position: Matter is said to be infinitely divisible without being infinitely divided. It would be mistaken to think that matter consists of infinitely many parts—rather, parts “exist only in the representation of them, hence in the dividing”. This view, according to which (...)
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  15. Zur Begreifbarkeit der Ausdehnung von Zeit Und Raum.Gerold Prauss - 2019 - Kant Studien 110 (3):397-412.
    This article concerns the unsolved riddle of the continuum of the extension of time and space. It becomes solvable if one takes the two different relationships that can exist between extension and point as a basis: the primary relationship in the synthetic continuum and the secondary relationship in the analytical continuum. Time and space can then be deduced from the primary relationship between extension and point as each special extension. And this deduction corresponds exactly to the synthesis of time and (...)
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  16. Thomas C. Vinci: Space, Geometry, and Kant’s Transcendental Deduction of the Categories. New York 2015. 264 Seiten. ISBN 978-0-19-938116-6.Space, Geometry, and Kant’s Transcendental Deduction of the Categories. [REVIEW]P. D. Arno Schubbach - 2019 - Kant Studien 110 (1):166-171.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 110 Heft: 1 Seiten: 166-171.
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  17. Kant’s Neglected Alternative and the Unavoidable Need for the Transcendental Deduction.Justin B. Shaddock - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (1):127-152.
    The problem of Kant’s Neglected Alternative is that while his Aesthetic provides an argument that space and time are empirically real – in applying to all appearances – its argument seems to fall short of the conclusion that space and time are transcendentally ideal, in not applying to any things in themselves. By considering an overlooked passage in which Kant explains why his Transcendental Deduction is ‘unavoidably necessary’, I argue that it is not solely in his Aesthetic but more so (...)
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  18. L'immanenza del cogito. Per una genealogia del trascendentale deleuziano.Fabio Vergine - 2019 - In Enrico Giannetto (ed.), Di stelle, atomi e poemi. Verso la physis. Volume 2. Roma RM, Italia: pp. 125-142.
    Il principale obiettivo teoretico di questo lavoro consiste nel tentativo di verificare, attraverso un’indagine storico-genealogica e concettuale, come nella filosofia di Gilles Deleuze si assista ad un radicale mutamento del paradigma relativo alla nozione di trascendentale. Si tratta, in altre parole, di ripercorrere alcune delle tappe fondamentali che conducono il filosofo parigino a “purificare” il trascendentale da ogni riferimento ad una coscienza soggettiva egologica che si fondi in quanto principio genetico del mondo. Si riterrà utile procedere analizzando, in primo luogo, (...)
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  19. A Finitude Humana na Crítica da Razão Pura de Immanuel Kant e em Kant e o problema da Metafísica de Martin Heidegger.Sandro Rinaldi Feliciano - 2018 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do ABC
    Como escreveu Thomas Huxley “O que é conhecido é finito, o que é desconhecido infinito...”1. Aqui temos que ter em nossa imaginação que esse desconhecimento não significa não saber nada a respeito. Podemos dizer até que existe uma finitude no conhecimento do infinito.Isso não é conhecer a existência dos infinitos, e utilizar parte deles, como números, por exemplo. E para poder utiliza-los, recortamos parte da infinitude e agrupamos aquela parte que nos interessa. Também é preciso a compreensão de que não (...)
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  20. Looking for Laws in All the Wrong Spaces: Kant on Laws, the Understanding, and Space.James Anthony Messina - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):589-613.
    Prolegomena §38 is intended to elucidate the claim that the understanding legislates a priori laws to nature. Kant cites various laws of geometry as examples and discusses a derivation of the inverse-square law from such laws. I address 4 key interpretive questions about this cryptic text that have not yet received satisfying answers: How exactly are Kant's examples of laws supposed to elucidate the Legislation Thesis? What is Kant's view of the epistemic status of the inverse-square law and, relatedly, of (...)
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  21. Kant’s Transcendental Deduction and the Unity of Space and Time.Andrew F. Roche - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (1):41-64.
    On one reading of Kant’s account of our original representations of space and time, they are, in part, products of the understanding or imagination. On another, they are brute, sensible givens, entirely independent of the understanding. In this article, while I agree with the latter interpretation, I argue for a version of it that does more justice to the insights of the former than others currently available. I claim that Kant’s Transcendental Deduction turns on the representations of space and time (...)
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  22. Kant's Conceptualism: A New Reading of the Transcendental Deduction.Justin B. Shaddock - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 99 (3):464-488.
    I defend a novel interpretation of Kant's conceptualism regarding the contents of our perceptual experiences. Conceptualist interpreters agree that Kant's Deduction aims to prove that intuitions require the categories for their spatiality and temporality. But conceptualists disagree as to which features of space and time make intuitions require the categories. Interpreters have cited the singularity, unity, infinity, and homogeneity of space and time. But this is incompatible with Kant's Aesthetic, which aims to prove that these same features qualify space and (...)
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  23. Kant, Metaphysical Space, and the Unity of the Subject.Jessica J. Williams - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Proceedings of the 12th International Kant Congress: Nature and Freedom. Berlin, Germany: pp. 1141-1147.
  24. Kant's Neglected Alternative: Neither Neglected nor an Alternative.Necip Fikri Alican - 2017 - Philosophical Forum 48 (1):69–90.
    This is a defense of Kant against the allegedly neglected alternative in his formulation of transcendental idealism. What sets it apart from the contributions of others who have spoken for Kant in this regard is the construction of a general interpretive framework — a reconstruction of the one Kant provides for transcendental idealism — as opposed to the development of an ad hoc defensive strategy for refuting the charges. Hence, comprehensive clarification instead of pointed rebuttal. The difference is between focusing (...)
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  25. Self-Affection and Pure Intuition in Kant.Jonas Jervell Indregard - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (4):627-643.
    Are the pure intuitions of space and time, for Kant, dependent upon the understanding's activity? This paper defends the recently popular Self-Affection Thesis : namely, that the pure intuitions require an activity of self-affection—an influence of the understanding on the inner sense. Two systematic objections to this thesis have been raised: The Independence objection claims that SAT undermines the independence of sensibility; the Compatibility objection claims that certain features of space and time are incompatible with being the products of the (...)
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  26. On the Epistemic Status of Absolute Space: Kant’s Directions in Space Read From the Standpoint of His Critical Period.Patricia Kauark-Leite - 2017 - Kant Studien 108 (2):175-194.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 108 Heft: 2 Seiten: 175-194.
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  27. The Relationship Between Space and Mutual Interaction: Kant Contra Newton and Leibniz.James Messina - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (1):43-65.
    Kant claims that we cannot cognize the mutual interaction of substances without their being in space; he also claims that we cannot cognize a ‘spatial community’ among substances without their being in mutual interaction. I situate these theses in their historical context and consider Kant’s reasons for accepting them. I argue that they rest on commitments regarding the metaphysical grounding of, first, the possibility of mutual interaction among substances-as-appearances and, second, the actuality of specific distance-relations among such substances. By illuminating (...)
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  28. The Asymmetry of Space: Kant’s Theory of Absolute Space in 1768.Matthew S. Rukgaber - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (3):415-435.
    I propose that we interpret Kant’s argument from incongruent counterparts in the 1768 article ‘Concerning the Ultimate Ground of the Differentiation of Directions in Space’ in light of a theory of dynamic absolute space that he accepted throughout the 1750s and 1760s. This force-based or material conception of space was not an unusual interpretation of the Newtonian notion of absolute space. Nevertheless, commentators have continually argued that Kant’s argument is an utter failure that shifts from the metaphysics of space to (...)
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  29. Introduction.Dennis Schulting - 2016 - In Kantian Nonconceptualism. London: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This is the introduction to the volume Kantian Nonconceptualism (Palgrave 2016).
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  30. Kantian Nonconceptualism.Dennis Schulting (ed.) - 2016 - London, England: Palgrave.
    This book offers an array of important perspectives on Kant and nonconceptualism from some of the leading scholars in current Kant studies. As well as discussing the various arguments surrounding Kantian nonconceptualism, the book provides broad insight into the theory of perception, philosophy of mind, philosophy of mathematics, epistemology, and aesthetics. His idealism aside, Kantian nonconceptualism is the most topical contemporary issue in Kant’s theoretical philosophy. In this collection of specially commissioned essays, major players in the current debate, including Robert (...)
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  31. Leibniz, the Young Kant, and Boscovich on the Relationality of Space.Idan Shimony - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Für Unser Glück Oder Das Glück Anderer, X. Internationaler Leibniz-Kongress. Hildesheim: Georg Olms. pp. Vol. 2, pp. 73-85.
    Leibniz’s main thesis regarding the nature of space is that space is relational. This means that space is not an independent object or existent in itself, but rather a set of relations between objects existing at the same time. The reality of space, therefore, is derived from objects and their relations. For Leibniz and his successors, this view of space was intimately connected with the understanding of the composite nature of material objects. The nature of the relation between space and (...)
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  32. Situating Kant’s Pre-Critical Monadology: Leibnizian Ubeity, Monadic Activity, and Idealist Unity.Edward Slowik - 2016 - Early Science and Medicine 21 (4):332-349.
    This essay examines the relationship between monads and space in Kant’s early pre-critical work, with special attention devoted to the question of ubeity, a Scholastic doctrine that Leibniz describes as “ways of being somewhere”. By focusing attention on this concept, evidence will be put forward that supports the claim, held by various scholars, that the monad-space relationship in Kant is closer to Leibniz’ original conception than the hypotheses typically offered by the later Leibniz-Wolff school. In addition, Kant’s monadology, in conjunction (...)
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  33. Absolute Space and the Riddle of Rotation: Kant’s Response to Newton.Marius Stan - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 7:257-308.
    Newton had a fivefold argument that true motion must be motion in absolute space, not relative to matter. Like Newton, Kant holds that bodies have true motions. Unlike him, though, Kant takes all motion to be relative to matter, not to space itself. Thus, he must respond to Newton’s argument above. I reconstruct here Kant’s answer in detail. I prove that Kant addresses just one part of Newton’s case, namely, his “argument from the effects” of rotation. And, to show that (...)
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  34. The Difference Between Original, Metaphysical, and Geometrical Representations of Space.Clinton Tolley - 2016 - In Dennis Schulting (ed.), Kantian Nonconceptualism. Palgrave. pp. 257-285.
  35. Kant and Husserl on the Contents of Perception.Corijn van Mazijk - 2016 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (2):267-287.
  36. On Kant's First Insight Into the Problem of Space Dimensionality and its Physical Foundations.F. Caruso & R. Moreira Xavier - 2015 - Kant Studien 106 (4):547–560.
    In this article it is shown that a careful analysis of Kant 's Gedanken von der wahren Schätzung der lebendigen Kräfte und Beurtheilung der Beweise leads to a conclusion that does not match the usually accepted interpretation of Kant 's reasoning in 1747, according to which the young Kant supposedly establishes a relationship between the tridimensionality of space and Newton's law of gravitation. Indeed, it is argued that this text does not yield a satisfactory explanation of space dimensionality, and actually (...)
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  37. On Kant’s First Insight Into the Problem of Space Dimensionality and its Physical Foundations.Francisco Caruso & Roberto Moreira Xavier - 2015 - Kant Studien 106 (4):547-560.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 106 Heft: 4 Seiten: 547-560.
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  38. Two Kinds of Unity in the Critique of Pure Reason.Colin McLear - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (1):79-110.
    I argue that Kant’s distinction between the cognitive roles of sensibility and understanding raises a question concerning the conditions necessary for objective representation. I distinguish two opposing interpretive positions—viz. Intellectualism and Sensibilism. According to Intellectualism all objective representation depends, at least in part, on the unifying synthetic activity of the mind. In contrast, Sensibilism argues that at least some forms of objective representation, specifically intuitions, do not require synthesis. I argue that there are deep reasons for thinking that Intellectualism is (...)
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  39. Conceptual Analysis and the Essence of Space: Kant’s Metaphysical Exposition Revisited.James Messina - 2015 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 97 (4):416-457.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie Jahrgang: 97 Heft: 4 Seiten: 416-457.
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  40. Space as Form of Intuition and as Formal Intuition: On the Note to B160 in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.Christian Onof & Dennis Schulting - 2015 - Philosophical Review 124 (1):1-58.
    In his argument for the possibility of knowledge of spatial objects, in the Transcendental Deduction of the B-version of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant makes a crucial distinction between space as “form of intuition” and space as “formal intuition.” The traditional interpretation regards the distinction between the two notions as reflecting a distinction between indeterminate space and determinations of space by the understanding, respectively. By contrast, a recent influential reading has argued that the two notions can be fused into (...)
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  41. Contemporary Kantian Metaphysics: New Essays on Space and Time. [REVIEW]John J. Callanan - 2014 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 22 (1):144-148.
    A short review of Contemporary Kantian Metaphysics.
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  42. Active Perception and the Representation of Space.Mohan Matthen - 2014 - In Dustin Stokes, Mohan Matthen & Stephen Biggs (eds.), Perception and Its Modalities. Oxford University Press. pp. 44-72.
    Kant argued that the perceptual representations of space and time were templates for the perceived spatiotemporal ordering of objects, and common to all modalities. His idea is that these perceptual representations were specific to no modality, but prior to all—they are pre-modal, so to speak. In this paper, it is argued that active perception—purposeful interactive exploration of the environment by the senses—demands premodal representations of time and space.
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  43. Kant on the Unity of Space and the Synthetic Unity of Apperception.James Messina - 2014 - Kant Studien 105 (1):5-40.
    In the Transcendental Aesthetic, Kant famously characterizes space as a unity, understood as an essentially singular whole. He further develops his account of the unity of space in the B-Deduction, where he relates the unity of space to the original synthetic unity of apperception, and draws an infamous distinction between form of intuition and formal intuition. Kant ’s cryptic remarks in this part of the Critique have given rise to two widespread and diametrically opposed readings, which I call the Synthesis (...)
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  44. Kantian Space, Supersubstantivalism, and the Spirit of Spinoza.James Messina - 2014 - Kant Yearbook 6 (1).
    In the first edition of Concerning the Doctrine of Spinoza in Letters to Mendelssohn, Jacobi claims that Kant’s account of space is “wholly in the spirit of Spinoza”. In the first part of the paper, I argue that Jacobi is correct: Spinoza and Kant have surprisingly similar views regarding the unity of space and the metaphysics of spatial properties and laws. Perhaps even more surprisingly, they both are committed to a form of parallelism. In the second part of the paper, (...)
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  45. Kant, Kästner and the Distinction Between Metaphysical and Geometric Space.Christian Onof & Dennis Schulting - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (2):285-304.
  46. Kant - On Kästner's Treatises.Dennis Schulting & Christian Onof - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (2):305–313.
    An integral translation of Kant's 'Über Kästners Abhandlungen' (AA XX: 410-23). This translation is accompanied by an introductory essay on the importance of the Kästner treatise for an understanding of Kant's theory of space as infinite. See Onof & Schulting, "Kant, Kästner and the Distinction between Metaphysical and Geometrical Space".
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  47. Reply to Edward Kanterian.Graham Bird - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (2):289-300.
    The reply to Kanterian offers a rebuttal of his central criticisms. It reaffirms the difference between Kant's arguments in the Aesthetic and at B 148-9; it rejects the alleged error of logic in Fischer's (and my) arguments; and it rejects Kanterian's reading of passages in the Preface (A xx-xxii) and of the Amphiboly. Beyond these specific points Kanterian assumes that Kant's project in the first Critique cannot be understood as a and so begs the question at issue.
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  48. Können wir den ursprünglichen Raum erkennen?Henny Blomme - 2013 - In Dieter Hüning, Stefan Klingner & Carsten Olk (eds.), Das Leben der Vernunft. Beiträge zur Philosophie Kants. De Gruyter. pp. 30-39.
    Mit dem Terminus 'ursprünglicher Raum' wird der Raum bezeichnet, der Kant innerhalb der transzendentalen Ästhetik als reine subjektive Form der Anschauung des äußeren Sinnes bestimmt. Man könnte ihn auch den 'ästhetischen Raum' nennen. Auf jeden Fall muss er vom (proto-)geometrischen Raum unterschieden werden, da letzterer eine Einheit voraussetzt die auf einer Synthesis beruht, und dadurch – weil bei Kant alle Synthesis unter den Kategorien steht – weniger ursprünglich zum Anschauungsvermögen gehört. Es ist diese Unterscheidung zwischen dem ursprünglichen Raum, der „Form (...)
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  49. Kants Raumbegriff in der Diskussion.Henny Blomme - 2013 - Philosophische Rundschau 60 (3):225-239.
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  50. The Ideality of Space and Time: Trendelenburg Versus Kant, Fischer and Bird.Edward Kanterian - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (2):263-288.
    Trendelenburg argued that Kant's arguments in support of transcendental idealism ignored the possibility that space and time are both ideal and real. Recently, Graham Bird has claimed that Trendelenburg (unlike his contemporary Kuno Fischer) misrepresented Kant, confusing two senses of . I defend Trendelenburg's : the ideas of space and time, as a priori and necessary, are ideal, but this does not exclude their validity in the noumenal realm. This undermines transcendental idealism. Bird's attempt to show that the Analytic considers, (...)
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