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Summary Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy constitutes a philosophical system, a theory about the conditions for objective knowledge. Kant's approach to theoretical philosophy, in his pre-Critical and Critical works, is influenced heavily by his engagement with science, with mathematics, and with logic. Kant's views on these subjects have been widely influential, though they have been criticized widely as well. Appreciation of Kant's work in science, mathematics, and logic is philosophically productive at least two ways: (1) A contextual history of Kant's own work, emphasizing his responses to his predecessors and contemporaries, and (2) A systematic understanding of how the Kantian approach has been employed in these fields.
Key works One locus classicus for Kant's epistemological positions on reason, mathematics,  judgment, and objectivity is The Critique of Pure Reason. A recent translation and edition of Kant's work on science, including the Universal Natural History, can be found in Natural Science. Among the most significant of Kant's texts for his philosophy of science specifically are The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science and Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. This category also encompasses elements of Kant's theory of judgment, key texts for which include The Critique of Judgment and Lectures on Logic.
Introductions A general introduction to Kant's philosophy of science, with references to other texts, is found at Watkins & Stan 2023. A similar article for Kant's theory of judgment is Hanna 2008.
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  1. Kant's Copernican Revolution.Sanjay Kumar Shukla - 1999 - Allahabad: Snigdha Publication.
    The present work is a beautific monograph over Kant’s philosophy. It begins with the proper analysis of nature and significance of content copernican revolution. The author has systematically formulated the epistemic and non-epistemic implications of Kant’s Philosophy the epistemic implications cover the philosophical issues and seminal significance: the notion of space and time, the nature and function of categories, distinction of phenomena and noumena, refutation of idealism and Kantain transcendental idealism, transcendental unity of pure apperception, nature function and limitations of (...)
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  2. Kant's regulative essentialism and the unknowability of real essences.Hoffer Noam - 2023 - European Journal of Philosophy 31 (4):887-901.
    In his lectures on Logic and Metaphysics, Kant distinguishes between logical and real essences. While the former is related to concepts and is knowable, the latter is related to things and is unknowable. In this paper, I argue that the unknowability is explained by the modal characteristic of real essences as a necessitating ground on which a priori knowledge is impossible. I also show how this claim is related to the unknowable necessity of particular laws of nature. Since laws of (...)
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  3. Induction and Certainty in the Physics of Wolff and Crusius.Hein van den Berg & Boris Demarest - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-22.
    In this paper, we analyse conceptions of induction and certainty in Wolff and Crusius, highlighting their competing conceptions of physics. We discuss (i) the perspective of Wolff, who assigned induction an important role in physics, but argued that physics should be an axiomatic science containing certain statements, and (ii) the perspective of Crusius, who adopted parts of the ideal of axiomatic physics but criticized the scope of Wolff’s ideal of certain science. Against interpretations that take Wolff’s proofs in physics to (...)
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  4. Does Logic Have a History at All?Jens Lemanski - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-23.
    To believe that logic has no history might at first seem peculiar today. But since the early 20th century, this position has been repeatedly conflated with logical monism of Kantian provenance. This logical monism asserts that only one logic is authoritative, thereby rendering all other research in the field marginal and negating the possibility of acknowledging a history of logic. In this paper, I will show how this and many related issues have developed, and that they are founded on only (...)
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  5. Beyond Newton, Leibniz and Kant: Insufficient Foundations, 1687–1786 (2nd edition).Marius Stan - 2023 - In Wolfgang Lefèvre (ed.), Between Leibniz, Newton, and Kant: Philosophy and Science in the Eighteenth Century. Springer. pp. 295-310.
    Early modern foundations for mechanics came in two kinds, nomic and material. I examine here the dynamical laws and pictures of matter given respectively by Newton, Leibniz, and Kant. I argue that they fall short of their foundational task, viz. to represent enough kinematic behavior; or at least to explain it. In effect, for the true foundations of classical mechanics we must look beyond Newton, Leibniz, and Kant.
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  6. Organism in Kant.Jennifer Mensch - 2021 - In The Cambridge Kant Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 320-322.
    Kant was well versed in many of the debates taking place in the life sciences during his day. One of the more central areas of contention concerned the proper means for discriminating between material bodies composed of organised parts (like clocks or automatons) and living material bodies composed of organised parts (like plants and animals). For many theorists, it seemed clear that the physically organised structure of a body was distinct from any vital forces responsible for the life processes or (...)
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  7. Generation in Kant.Jennifer Mensch - 2021 - In The Cambridge Kant Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 197-199.
    There is a collection of words being used by Kant when it comes to his discussion of the various processes associated with the English word “generation.” The closest German word, Erzeugung, can be used either generically—to form an idea, to create an effect or event—or as part of a scientific theory. Kant used Erzeugung in both senses repeatedly across his corpus and referred from his earliest works to scientific theories regarding cosmological formation, the generation of earthquakes and volcanoes, and the (...)
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  8. Epigenesis in Kant.Jennifer Mensch - 2021 - In The Cambridge Kant Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 173-174.
    Kant’s use of epigenesis differed according to the context within his remarks were made and can be seen to be falling within three main types of consideration. The first of these considered epigenesis as a theory of biological generation. A second group of related uses of the term epigenesis consider whether the biological account impacts discussions of the transference of soul from parent to child. The third type of consideration stems from Kant’s efforts, primarily in the 1770s, to use epigenesis (...)
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  9. Existence and Modality in Kant: Lessons from Barcan.Andrew Stephenson - 2023 - Philosophical Review 132 (1):1-41.
    This essay considers Kant’s theory of modality in light of a debate in contemporary modal metaphysics and modal logic concerning the Barcan formulas. The comparison provides a new and fruitful perspective on Kant’s complex and sometimes confusing claims about possibility and necessity. Two central Kantian principles provide the starting point for the comparison: that the possible must be grounded in the actual and that existence is not a real predicate. Both are shown to be intimately connected to the Barcan formulas, (...)
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  10. Kenneth R. Westphal, Kant's Transcendental Deduction of the Categories: Critical Re-Examination, Elucidation and Corroboration. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 2021. [REVIEW]Andrew Stephenson - 2022 - Hegel Bulletin 43 (3):491-496.
  11. Kant’s Transcendental Deduction of the Categories: Critical Re-Examination, Elucidation and Corroboration, by Kenneth R. Westphal. [REVIEW]Andrew Stephenson - 2022 - Hegel Bulletin 43 (3):491-496.
  12. The Analytic of Concepts.Andrew Stephenson & Anil Gomes - 2024 - In Mark Timmons & Sorin Baiasu (eds.), The Kantian Mind. London and New York: Routledge.
    The aim of the Analytic of Concepts is to derive and deduce a set of pure concepts of the understanding, the categories, which play a central role in Kant’s explanation of the possibility of synthetic a priori cognition and judgment. This chapter is structured around two questions. First, what is a pure concept of the understanding? Second, what is involved in a deduction of a pure concept of the understanding? In answering the first, we focus on how the categories differ (...)
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  13. Special Section Introduction.Silvia De Bianchi & Federico Viglione - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (1):122-128.
    SPECIAL SECTION: BUILDING UNIVERSES: THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND MATHEMATICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF COSMOLOGY (EIGHTEENTH–TWENTIETH CENTURIES) .
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  14. Kant, I think, and the question of self-identification.Luca Forgione - 2021 - Studi Filosofici 44.
    The of aim of this paper is to enquire about some theoretical aspects of Kant’s philosophy that are connected to the representation ‘I’ and the question of self-identification in self-consciousness. The subjective capacity to represent itself through the representation ‘I’ will be articulated on the basis of the structure the so-called de se or I-thoughts developed by Perry and Recanati. In this regard, a contrast between Longuenesse’s view and my approach on self-identification and the different uses of I as subject (...)
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  15. Kant's Theory of Scientific Hypotheses in its Historical Context.Boris Demarest & Hein van den Berg - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 92:12-19.
    This paper analyzes the historical context and systematic importance of Kant's hypothetical use of reason. It does so by investigating the role of hypotheses in Kant's philosophy of science. We first situate Kant’s account of hypotheses in the context of eighteenth-century German philosophy of science, focusing on the works of Wolff, Meier, and Crusius. We contrast different conceptions of hypotheses of these authors and elucidate the different theories of probability informing them. We then adopt a more systematic perspective to discuss (...)
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  16. Kant’s True Ambition in the Court of Reason.Bianca Ancillotti - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. De Gruyter. pp. 269-278.
  17. Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science: A Critical Guide.Michael Bennett McNulty (ed.) - 2022 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    In his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Kant accounts for the possibility of an acting-at-a-distance gravitational force, demonstrates the infinite divisibility of matter, and derives analogues to Newtonian laws of motion. The work is his major statement in philosophy of science, and was especially influential in German-speaking countries in the nineteenth century. However, this complex text has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. The chapters of this Critical Guide clarify the accounts of matter, motion, the mathematization of nature, space, (...)
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  18. Westphal, Kenneth, Kant’s Critical Epistemology: Why Epistemology Must Consider Judgment First. [REVIEW]Ekin Erkan - 2021 - Argumenta 12:366-373.
  19. Finitism in the Metaphysical Foundations.Lydia Patton - 2022 - In Michael Bennett McNulty (ed.), Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 119-137.
    In this paper, building on recent and longstanding work (Warren 2001, Friedman 2013, Glezer 2018), I investigate how the account of the essences or natures of material substances in the Metaphysical Foundations is related to Kant’s demand for the completeness of the system of nature. We must ascribe causal powers to material substances for the properties of those substances to be observable and knowable. But defining those causal powers requires admitting laws of nature, taken as axioms or principles of natural (...)
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  20. Kant-Lexikon: Studienausgabe.Stefano Bacin, Georg Mohr, Marcus Willaschek & Jürgen Stolzenberg - 2017 - Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.
    The Kant-Lexikon is a guide to the philosophical work of Immanuel Kant and incorporates the latest scholarship. This textbook edition presents the most important entries contained in the comprehensive, three-volume lexicon released in 2015.
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  21. Kant and the Human Sciences: Biology, Anthropology and History. [REVIEW]Rafael Ziegler - 2009 - Isis 103:586-587.
  22. Epistemological aspects of modern painting.L. Kvasz - 2000 - Filozofia 55 (8):601-619.
    The aim of the paper is to analyse the geometrical aspects of a series of modern paintings and to show the parallel between them and the development of modern geometry. It starts with El Greco, offering a geometrical explanation of his painting the figures in a prolonged manner. Further the analogy between the impressionist way of creating space and the geometrical idea of Cayley to use projective space as a basis for non-Euclidean geometry is reconstructed. Next the paper describes the (...)
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  23. Bird on Kant's Mathematical Antinomies.A. W. Moore - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (2):235-243.
    This essay is concerned with Graham Bird’s treatment, in The Revolutionary Kant, of Kant’s mathematical antinomies. On Bird’s interpretation, our error in these antinomies is to think that we can settle certain issues about the limits of physical reality by pure reason whereas in fact we cannot settle them at all. On the rival interpretation advocated in this essay, it is not true that we cannot settle these issues. Our error is to presuppose that the concept of the unconditioned has (...)
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  24. Kant-Lexikon.Marcus Willaschek, Jürgen Stolzenberg, Georg Mohr & Stefano Bacin (eds.) - 2015 - Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Kant’s revolutionary new approach to philosophy was accompanied by the introduction of a largely novel terminology. With the Kant-Lexikon, a lexical reference gives the modern reader access to his work on the basis of present-day editions and takes into account 20th century and contemporary research and advances in lexicology. The Kant-Lexikon includes 2395 entries authored by 221 scholars.
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Kant: Philosophy of Science
  1. Explanation, teleology, and analogy in natural history and comparative anatomy around 1800: Kant and Cuvier.Hein van den Berg - 2024 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 105 (C):109-119.
    This paper investigates conceptions of explanation, teleology, and analogy in the works of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). Richards (2000, 2002) and Zammito (2006, 2012, 2018) have argued that Kant’s philosophy provided an obstacle for the project of establishing biology as a proper science around 1800. By contrast, Russell (1916), Outram (1986), and Huneman (2006, 2008) have argued, similar to suggestions from Lenoir (1989), that Kant’s philosophy influenced the influential naturalist Georges Cuvier. In this article, I wish to (...)
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  2. .Katherine Brading & Marius Stan - 2023 - New York: Oxford University Press USA.
  3. The Idea of Nature – Kant and Hegel on Nature, Freedom, and Philosophical Method.Mathis Koschel - 2023 - Dissertation, The University of Chicago
    The topic of this dissertation is the concept of nature and how Kant and Hegel each conceive of it. Both agree that ‘nature’ cannot be an empirical concept but is rather presupposed in all experience and object-related thinking. Yet, Kant holds that we can only conceive of nature as a unified whole when we conceive of it as a mechanical system. Whereas, according to Hegel, the unity of all the different kinds of natural phenomena can only be accounted for by (...)
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  4. Schopenhauer's Theory of Science.Timothy Stoll - 2023 - In David Bather Woods & Timothy Stoll (eds.), The Schopenhauerian mind. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 53–67.
  5. Kant, Race, and Racism: Views from Somewhere.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2023 - New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    Kant scholars have paid relatively little attention to his raciology. They assume that his racism, as personal prejudice, can be disentangled from his core philosophy. They also assume that racism contradicts his moral theory. In this book, philosopher Huaping Lu-Adler challenges both assumptions. She shows how Kant's raciology--divided into racialism and racism--is integral to his philosophical system. She also rejects the individualistic approach to Kant and racism. Instead, she uses the notion of racism as ideological formation to demonstrate how Kant, (...)
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  6. The Science of Spiritual Biology: Replies to Critics – Part 2.Bhakti Madhava Puri, Bhakti Niskama Shanta & Bhakti Vijnana Muni - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    We received several critical comments regarding the "The Science of Spiritual Biology." We reply to those criticisms in order to further clarify some of the important points that were made. It is only to be expected that a strong emotional response may be evoked by the revolution in scientific thinking that the modern paradigm of cognitive biology presents. We have to be prepared to accept that, and maintain the integrity of the scientific approach.
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  7. Spiritual Biology: Reply to Critics - Part One.Bhakti Madhava Puri, Bhakti Niskama Shanta & Bhakti Vijnana Muni - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    We received several critical comments regarding the "The Science of Spiritual Biology." We reply to those criticisms in order to further clarify some of the important points that were made. It is only to be expected that a strong emotional response may be evoked by the revolution in scientific thinking that the modern paradigm of cognitive biology presents. We have to be prepared to accept that, and maintain the integrity of the scientific approach.
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  8. The Science of Spiritual Biology.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    "Living systems are cognitive systems, and living as a process is a process of cognition." -H.R. Maturana, The Biology of Cognition (1970/1980) Just as the cell has gradually come to be understood as a highly regulated and unctionally integrated whole, so too is the biosphere now recognized as a finely balanced ecological whole in which local disturbances can create world-wide climatic catastrophe. The oversimplified ideas of biology that characterized the field in its immature beginning led to the theories of a (...)
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  9. François Duchesneau, Organisme et corps organique de Leibniz à Kant, Paris, Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2018, 522 pages. [REVIEW]Emmanuel Chaput - 2021 - Philosophiques 48 (2):426-429.
  10. Scienza, filosofia e politica. Kant e le neuroscienze del giudizio morale.Daniela Tafani - 2022 - Scienza and Politica. Per Una Storia Delle Dottrine 33 (65):167-182.
    This article discusses the opposition of neurosciences of moral judgement to moral philosophy, shedding light on the political meaning of the thesis according to which a science of morality is possible, or already real, and would demonstrate that rights’ recognition equates to a cognitive error. It furthermore presents some theoretical contributions offered by Kant’s moral doctrine – on condition that one avoids providing an unfounded and caricatural account in order to make it the paradigm of armchair philosophy – about the (...)
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  11. Kant’s Third Analogy of Experience, Space-time, and Mutual Interaction.Lara Spencer - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. De Gruyter. pp. 913-920.
    Kant’s Third Analogy of Experience seeks to establish the mutual interaction of all objects of experience as a transcendental condition on the possibility of our experience of coexistence, and by extension of any cohesive or unified experience. Of Kant’s three Analogies, the Third has received both the least attention and the most criticism. I present an analysis of the Third Analogy focussing on the spatial aspect of Kant’s argument. I examine the interrelated nature of the forms of inner and outer (...)
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  12. Kant's Use of Travel Reports in Theorizing about Race -A Case Study of How Testimony Features in Natural Philosophy.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 91 (C):10-19.
    A testimony is somebody else’s reported experience of what has happened. It is an indispensable source of knowledge. It only gives us historical cognition, however, which stands in a complex relation to rational or philosophical cognition: while the latter presupposes historical cognition as its matter, one needs the architectonic “eye of a philosopher” to select, interpret, and organize historical cognition. Kant develops this rationalist theory of testimony. He also practices it in his own work, especially while theorizing about race as (...)
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  13. The Science of the Soul and the Unyielding Architectonic: Kant Versus Wolff on the Foundations of Psychology.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2021 - In Saulo de Freitas Araujo, Thiago Constâncio Ribeiro Pereira & Thomas Sturm (eds.), The Force of an Idea: New Essays on Christian Wolff's Psychology. pp. 251–69.
    Thorough comparison of Immanuel Kant’s and Christian Wolff’s divergent appraisals of the science of psychology reveals various ways in which Kant fundamentally altered the Wolffian philosophical apparatus that he inherited. Wolff conceived of a thoroughgoing interplay between empirical and rational psychology, of combining different sorts of cognition in psychology, and of a mathematical science of the soul, or psychometrics. Kant however rejected each of these particular theses and deemed psychology to be no natural science, “properly so-called.” This chapter details these (...)
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  14. Kant’s Ideal of Systematicity in Historical Context.Hein van den Berg - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (2):261-286.
    This article explains Kant’s claim that sciences must take, at least as their ideal, the form of a ‘system’. I argue that Kant’s notion of systematicity can be understood against the background of de Jong & Betti’s Classical Model of Science (2010) and the writings of Georg Friedrich Meier and Johann Heinrich Lambert. According to my interpretation, Meier, Lambert, and Kant accepted an axiomatic idea of science, articulated by the Classical Model, which elucidates their conceptions of systematicity. I show that (...)
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  15. Kant, Schelling and the Organization of Matter.Dalia Nassar - 2021 - In Gerad Gentry (ed.), Kantian Legacies in German Idealism. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Over the last two decades there has been a significant increase of interest in Schelling’s philosophy, and in particular his philosophy of nature. However, even the most generous of Schelling’s interpreters are confused by one of Schelling’s key theses: his view that nature as a whole (including non-living nature) is “organized,” and his related rejection of the hard-and-fast distinction between living and non-living. My aim is to offer an explanation of these two related points. Given that Schelling regards all of (...)
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  16. Synthetic a priori judgments and Kant’s response to Hume on induction.Hsueh Qu - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):7131-7157.
    This paper will make the case that we can find in Kant’s Second Analogy a substantive response to Hume’s argument on induction. This response is substantive insofar as it does not merely consist in independently arguing for the opposite conclusion, but rather, it identifies and exploits a gap in this argument. More specifically, Hume misses the possibility of justifying the uniformity of nature as a synthetic a priori proposition, which Kant looks to establish in the Second Analogy. Note that the (...)
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  17. Kant, causation and laws of nature.James Hutton - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 86 (C):93-102.
    In the Second Analogy, Kant argues that every event has a cause. It remains disputed what this conclusion amounts to. Does Kant argue only for the Weak Causal Principle that every event has some cause, or for the Strong Causal Principle that every event is produced according to a universal causal law? Existing interpretations have assumed that, by Kant’s lights, there is a substantive difference between the two. I argue that this is false. Kant holds that the concept of cause (...)
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  18. The Priority of Natural Laws in Kant’s Early Philosophy.Aaron Wells - 2021 - Res Philosophica 98 (3):469-497.
    It is widely held that, in his pre-Critical works, Kant endorsed a necessitation account of laws of nature, where laws are grounded in essences or causal powers. Against this, I argue that the early Kant endorsed the priority of laws in explaining and unifying the natural world, as well as their irreducible role in in grounding natural necessity. Laws are a key constituent of Kant’s explanatory naturalism, rather than undermining it. By laying out neglected distinctions Kant draws among types of (...)
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  19. Kant, Linnaeus, and the economy of nature.Aaron Wells - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 83:101294.
    Ecology arguably has roots in eighteenth-century natural histories, such as Linnaeus's economy of nature, which pressed a case for holistic and final-causal explanations of organisms in terms of what we'd now call their environment. After sketching Kant's arguments for the indispensability of final-causal explanation merely in the case of individual organisms, and considering the Linnaean alternative, this paper examines Kant's critical response to Linnaean ideas. I argue that Kant does not explicitly reject Linnaeus's holism. But he maintains that the indispensability (...)
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  20. The Universe of Science. The Architectonic Ideas of Science, Sciences and Their Parts in Kant.Michael Lewin - 2020 - Kantian Journal 39 (2):26-45.
    I argue that Kant has developed a broad systematic account of the architectonic functionality of pure reason that can be used and advanced in contemporary contexts. Reason, in the narrow sense, is responsible for the picture of a well-ordered universe of science consisting of architectonic ideas of science, sciences and parts of sciences. In the first section (I), I show what Kant means by the architectonic ideas by explaining and interrelating the concepts of (a) the faculty of reason, (b) ideas (...)
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  21. Kant and the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2021 - Review of Metaphysics 74 (3):301–30.
    Leibniz, and many following him, saw the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) as pivotal to a scientific (demonstrated) metaphysics. Against this backdrop, Kant is expected to pay close attention to PSR in his reflections on the possibility of metaphysics, which is his chief concern in the Critique of Pure Reason. It is far from clear, however, what has become of PSR in the Critique. On one reading, Kant has simply turned it into the causal principle of the Second Analogy. On (...)
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  22. The Philosophy of Nature of Kant, Schelling and Hegel.Dieter Wandschneider - 2010 - In Dean Moyar (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy: London, New York. London, New York: Routledge. pp. 64—‘l03.
    The present investigation brings into view the philosophy of nature of German Idealism, a philosophical movement which emerged around the beginning of the nineteenth century. German Idealism appro- priated certain motivations of the Kantian philosophy and developed them further in a "speculative" manner (Engelhardt 1972, 1976, 2002). This powerful philosophical movement, associated above all with the names of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel - and moreover having nothing whatsoever to do with the "subjective idealism" of George Berkeley - was replaced by (...)
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  23. Kant's Response to Hume in the Second Analogy.Saniye Vatansever - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Illinois, Chicago
    This dissertation project aims to solve −what I call− Kant’s “problem of empirical laws,” a problem concerning the coherence of Kant's claims that empirical laws as laws express a kind of necessity, and as empirical judgments they are contingent. In the literature, this issue is framed in the context of Kant’s relation to Hume, and formulated as a question of whether Kant agrees with Hume that empirical laws are mere contingent generalizations. The disagreement on Kant’s conception of empirical laws partly (...)
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  24. Kant’s Original Attractive Force.Samuel Kahn - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit. Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 1495-1502.
  25. Kant's Parasite: Sublime Biodeconstruction.Jonathan Basile - 2019 - CR: The New Centennial Review 19 (3):173-200.
    In Kant's Critique of Judgment, his exploration of how something like life (organized matter) can appear to the faculties of a finite consciousness makes life as possible as it is impossible. A passing reference Kant makes to the idea that every organ of an organism can be seen as a parasite is taken as a lever to deconstruct his notion of organized beings as forming an ultimately coherent nature (an ethicoteleological whole). This reading is placed alongside Paul de Man's deconstruction (...)
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  26. Analogical Reflection as a Source for the Science of Life: Kant and the Possibility of the Biological Sciences.Dalia Nassar - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 2016 (58):57-66.
    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of (...)
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