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  1. Mendelssohn and Kant on Human Progress: a Neo-Stoic Debate.Melissa Merritt - forthcoming - In Kant on Freedom and Nature: Essays in Honor of Paul Guyer. Routledge.
    The chapter replies to Paul Guyer’s (2020) account of the debate between Mendelssohn and Kant about whether humankind makes continual moral progress. Mendelssohn maintained that progress can only be the remit of individuals, and that humankind only “continually fluctuates within fixed limits”. Kant dubs Mendelssohn’s position “abderitism” and explicitly rejects it. But Guyer contends that Kant’s own theory of freedom commits him, malgré lui, to abderitism. Guyer’s risky interpretive position is not supported by examination of the relevant texts in their (...)
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  2. Kant on Evil.Melissa McBay Merritt - forthcoming - In Andrew Stephenson & Anil Gomes (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Kant. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    The chapter examines Kant’s thesis about the ‘radical evil in human nature’ developed in his Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. According to this thesis, the human moral condition is corrupt by default and yet by own deed; and this corruption is the origin (root, radix) of human badness in all its variety, banality, and ubiquity. While Kant clearly takes radical evil to be endemic in human nature, controversy reigns about how to understand this. Some assume this can only (...)
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  3. What Happens to Kant's Race Theory in the 1790s? A New Anthropological Interpretation of Radical Evil.Daniel J. Smith - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    This paper addresses the much-debated question about the fate of Kant's race theory in the 1790s by examining his use of the concepts of “germs” [Keime] and “predispositions” [Anlagen] in the Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason of 1793. Following the well-received “anthropological interpretation” of the essay on radical evil that draws productive analogies with his philosophy of history, it proposes a “new anthropological interpretation” that focuses on concepts borrowed from his philosophy of race. Against those who have argued (...)
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  4. Laura Papish, Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform. [REVIEW]Samuel Kahn - 2021 - Ethics 132 (1):266-269.
    Laura Papish’s Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform is an ambitious attempt to breath new life into old debates and a welcome contribution to a recent renaissance of interest in Kant’s theory of evil. ​The book has eight chapters, and these chapters fall into three main divisions. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the psychology of nonmoral and immoral action. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 focus on self-deception, evil, and dissimulation. And chapters 6, 7, and 8 focus on self-cognition, (...)
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  5. Nature, corruption, and freedom: Stoic ethics in Kant's Religion.Melissa Merritt - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):3-24.
    Kant’s account of “the radical evil in human nature” in the 1793 Religion within the Bounds of Reason Alone is typically interpreted as a reworking of the Augustinian doctrine of original sin. But Kant doesn’t talk about Augustine explicitly there, and if he is rehabilitating the doctrine of original sin, the result is not obviously Augustinian. Instead Kant talks about Stoic ethics in a pair of passages on either end of his account of radical evil, and leaves other clues that (...)
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  6. Kant's Justification of Ethics.Owen Ware - 2021 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Kant’s arguments for the reality of human freedom and the normativity of the moral law continue to inspire work in contemporary moral philosophy. Many prominent ethicists invoke Kant, directly or indirectly, in their efforts to derive the authority of moral requirements from a more basic conception of action, agency, or rationality. But many commentators have detected a deep rift between the _Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals_ and the _Critique of Practical Reason_, leaving Kant’s project of justification exposed to conflicting (...)
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  7. Kant’s Doctrine of the Highest Good: A Theologico-Political Interpretation.Étienne Brown - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (2):193 - 217.
    Kant’s discussion of the highest good is subject to continuous disagreement between the proponents of two interpretations of this concept. According to the secular interpretation, Kant conceived of the highest good as a political ideal which can be realized through human agency alone, albeit only from the Critique of the Power of Judgement onwards. By way of contrast, proponents of the theological interpretation find Kant’s treatment of the highest good in his later works to be wholly coherent with the discussions (...)
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  8. Evil's Inscrutability in Arendt and Levinas.Imge Oranli - 2018 - Science Et Esprit 70 (3):341-362.
    Since 2001, Continental philosophical studies of evil suggest that we are forced to rethink the category of evil as we face acts of terrorism on a global scale. In light of this suggestion, this article traces the idea of the “inscrutability of evil” as a common lens through which we associate the category of evil with the phenomena we identify as evil. This idea finds its first modern formulation in Kant’s theory of radical evil. I argue that Hannah Arendt and (...)
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  9. Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform.Laura Papish - 2018 - [New York]: Oxford University Press.
    Throughout his writings, and particularly in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, Kant alludes to the idea that evil is connected to self-deceit, and while numerous commentators regard this as a highly attractive thesis, none have seriously explored it. Kant on Evil, Self-Deception, and Moral Reform addresses this crucial element of Kant's ethical theory. -/- Working with both Kant's core texts on ethics and materials less often cited within scholarship on Kant's practical philosophy (such as Kant's logic lectures), Papish (...)
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  10. Kant’s Critique of Religion: Epistemic Sources of Secularism.Sorin Baiasu - 2017 - Diametros 54:7-29.
    The secular interpretation of Kant is widespread and Kant is viewed as the most prestigious founding father of liberal secularism. At the same time, however, commentators note that Kant’s position on secularism is in fact much more complex, and some go as far as to talk about an ambiguous secularism in his work. This paper defends a refined version of the secular interpretation. According to this refined version, Kant can offer a limited, political secularism on the basis of a simple (...)
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  11. Public Religion & Secular State: A Kantian Approach.Mehmet Ruhi Demiray - 2017 - Diametros 54:30-55.
    This paper argues that Kant’s distinction between “civil union” and “ethical community” can be of great value in dealing with a problem that causes considerable trouble in contemporary political and social philosophy, namely the question of the normative significance and role of religion in political and social life. The first part dwells upon the third part of Kant`s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason with the intention of exposing the general features of ethical community. It highlights the fact that (...)
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  12. Can Kant’s Theory of Radical Evil Be Saved?Zachary J. Goldberg - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (3):395-419.
    In this article, I assess three contemporary criticisms levelled at Kant’s theory of evil in order to evaluate whether his theory can be saved. Critics argue that Kant does not adequately distinguish between evil and mundane wrongdoing, making his use of the term ‘evil’ emotional hyperbole; by defining evil as the subordination of the moral law to self-love his analysis is seemingly overly simplistic and empirically false; and by focusing solely on the moral character of the perpetrator of evil, Kant’s (...)
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  13. Das Leben der Form: Praktische Vernunft nach Kant und Hegel.Thomas Khurana - 2017 - In Maria Muhle & Christiane Voss (eds.), Black Box Leben. Berlin: August. pp. 107–137.
    The paper investigates the Kantian idea that a rational life is a life of “mere form”—a life in which a “mere form” is the force or spring of action. I start by developing Kant’s practical notion of life—the capacity to be the cause of what one represents. In a second step, I investigate the way in which Kant characterizes a rational life—the capacity to act in accordance with the representation of laws and to determine ourselves by the mere form of (...)
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  14. Kant’s Model for Building the True Church: Transcending “Might Makes Right” and “Should Makes Good” through the Idea of a Non-Coercive Theocracy.Stephen Palmquist - 2017 - Diametros 54:76-94.
    Kant’s Religion postulates the idea of an ethical community as a necessary requirement for humanity to become good. Few interpreters acknowledge Kant’s claims that realizing this idea requires building a “church” characterized by unity, integrity, freedom, and unchangeability, and that this new form of community is a non-coercive version of theocracy. Traditional theocracy replaces the political state of nature with an ethical state of nature ; non-coercive theocracy transcends this distinction, uniting humanity in a common vision of a divine legislator (...)
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  15. Lawrence Pasternack, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Kant on Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason London: Routledge, 2014 Pp. xv+272 ISBN 9780415507844 £75.00. [REVIEW]Robert Gressis - 2015 - Kantian Review 20 (2):341-345.
    Book Reviews Robert Gressis, Kantian Review, FirstView Article.
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  16. Freedom, Morality, and the Propensity to Evil.Samuel Kahn - 2014 - Kantian Studies Online (1):65-90.
    In Book I of the Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason Kant offers an explanation of freedom and moral good and evil that is different from that offered in the Groundwork for a Metaphysics of Morals. My primary goal in this paper is to analyze and elucidate this new theory. My secondary goal is to contrast this new theory with the older one that it is replacing. I argue that the new theory, which centers on the idea that evil (...)
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  17. Review: Michalson (ed.), Kant’s Religious Constructivism.Pablo Muchnik (ed.) - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    This paper suggests a general interpretative strategy for reading Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason namely, as an attempt to find a middle ground between what Kant considers two forms of excess: the appeal to a transcendent conception of God and the denial of any claim that presupposes God’s existence. To make my case, I use the example of two contemporary thinkers (Wolterstorff and Rorty) and trace their dispute to the antinomic character of “religious reason.” Putting things this way (...)
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  18. Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: an Interpretation and Defense.Lawrence Pasternack - 2014 - New York: Routledge.
    This book offers a complete and internally cohesive interpretation of Religion. In contrast to the interpretations that characterize Religion as a litany of “wobbles”, fumbling between traditional Christianity and Enlightenment values, or a text that reduces religion into morality, the interpretation here offered defends the rich philosophical theology contained in each of Religion’s four parts and shows how the doctrines of the “Pure Rational System of Religion” are eminently compatible with the essential principles of Transcendental Idealism.
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  19. Reconsidering RGV, AA 06: 26n and the Meaning of ‘Humanity’.Samuel Kahn - 2013 - In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Boston: de Gruyter. pp. 307-316.
    At 6:26n Kant famously (or infamously) claims that humanity and personality are not necessarily coextensional. This claim has been characterized in the secondary literature as Kant's worst mistake and as an unnecessary repudiation of his earlier (and more plausible) ethical thought. I argue that this characterization of 6:26n rests on a misinterpretation of the term `humanity'. I try to show that Kant's claim at 6:26n not only is not problematic; it constitutes a powerful reminder of the kind of epistemic modesty (...)
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  20. James J. DiCenso, Kant’s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: A Commentary: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2012, 269 pp., US$99.00.Pablo Muchnik - 2013 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 73 (2):151-155.
    Immanuel Kant’s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793) is a formidably difficult book, which since its very inception was ripe for controversy. Part of the difficulty in understanding Kant’s text is thematic: in the idea of God and the questions surrounding faith in God’s existence, all interests of reason seem to converge –metaphysics, epistemology, morality, politics, the purposiveness of nature, and the destiny of the human species all unite in Kant’s view of religion and give it a distinctive (...)
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  21. The Implied Standpoint of Kant's Religion: An Assessment of Kant's Reply to an Early Book Review of Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason.Stephen R. Palmquist & Steven Otterman - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (1):73-97.
    In the second edition Preface of Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason Kant responds to an anonymous review of the first edition. We present the first English translation of this obscure book review. Following our translation, we summarize the reviewer's main points and evaluate the adequacy of Kant's replies to five criticisms, including two replies that Kant provides in footnotes added in the second edition. A key issue is the reviewer's claim that Religion adopts an implied standpoint, described using (...)
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  22. Moral Feeling and Moral Conversion in Kant's "Religion".Laura Papish - 2013 - Idealistic Studies 43 (1-2):11 - 26.
    Kant’s account of moral feeling is continually disputed in the secondary literature. My goal is to focus on the Religion and make sense of moral feeling as it appears in this context. I argue that we can best understand moral feeling if we note its place in Kant’s concerns about the possibility of moral conversion. As Kant notes, if the new, morally upright man is of a different character than the man he used to be, then it remains unclear how (...)
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  23. Review: DiCenso, Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: A Commentary. [REVIEW]Lawrence Pasternack - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (3):479-483.
  24. Kant's transcendental religious argument: the possibility of religion.Dennis Schulting - 2013 - In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Boston: de Gruyter. pp. 949-962.
  25. An Unfamiliar and Positive Law: On Kant and Schiller.Reed Winegar - 2013 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 95 (3):275-297.
    A familiar post-Kantian criticism contends that Kant enslaves sensibility under the yoke of practical reason. Friedrich Schiller advanced a version of this criticism to which Kant publicly responded. Recent commentators have emphasized the role that Kant’s reply assigns to the pleasure that accompanies successful moral action. In contrast, I argue that Kant’s reply relies primarily on the sublime feeling that arises when we merely contemplate the moral law. In fact, the pleasures emphasized by other recent commentators depend on this sublime (...)
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  26. The Continuum Companion to Kant.Gary Banham, Dennis Schulting & Nigel Hems (eds.) - 2012 - Continuum.
    The first genuine and comprehensive English-language handbook to the study of Kant's philosophy, containing sections on Kant's key works, the philosophical and historical contexts of his philosophy, essays on the reception and influence of the Kantian philosophy, a lexical A-Z list of lemmata addressing central themes and concepts of Kant's thought and an extensive English-language bibliography of secondary literature.
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  27. Kant: Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: A Commentary.James J. DiCenso - 2012 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is one of the great modern examinations of religion's meaning, function and impact on human affairs. In this volume, the first complete English-language commentary on the work, James J. DiCenso explains the historical context in which the book appeared, including the importance of Kant's conflict with state censorship. He shows how the Religion addresses crucial Kantian themes such as the relationship between freedom and morality, the human propensity to evil, the status of (...)
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  28. A Reply to Critics of In Defense of Kant’s Religion.Chris L. Firestone - 2012 - Faith and Philosophy 29 (2):210-228.
    In this essay, I reply to the above four critics of In Defense of Kant’s Religion (IDKR). In reply to George di Giovanni, I highlight the interpretive differencesthat divide the authors of IDKR and di Giovanni, and argue that di Giovanni’s atheist reading of Kant does not follow, even granting his premises. In reply to Pamela Sue Anderson, I show that if her reading of Kant is accurate, Kant’s own talk of God becomes empty and contemptible by his own lights, (...)
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  29. Cross-Examination of In Defense of Kant’s Religion.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2012 - Faith and Philosophy 29 (2):170-180.
    This article extends the metaphorical trial posed by the authors of In Defense of Kant’s Religion by cross-examining them with two challenges. The firstchallenge is for the authors to clarify their claim that they are the first interpreters to present “a holistic and linear interpretation” of Kant’s Religion that portrays it as containing a “transcendental analysis” of religious concepts, given that several of the past interpreters whose works they survey in Part 1 conduct a similar type of analysis. The second (...)
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  30. The Devil, The Virgin, and the Envoy: Symbols of Moral Struggle in Religion II.2.Andrew Chignell - 2011 - In Otfried Höffe (ed.), Klassiker Auslegen: Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen. Akademie Verlag. pp. 111-129.
    Part of a group commentary on Kant's Religion book. This chapter focuses on Part 2, section 2 on "The Evil Principle's Rightful Claim to Dominion over the Human Being, and the Struggle of the Two Principles with One Another" -/- .
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  31. Kant, Religion, and Politics.James DiCenso - 2011 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This book offers a systematic examination of the place of religion within Kant's major writings. Kant is often thought to be highly reductionistic with regard to religion - as though religion simply provides the unsophisticated with colourful representations of moral lessons that reason alone could grasp. James DiCenso's rich and innovative discussion shows how Kant's theory of religion in fact emerges directly from his epistemology, ethics and political theory, and how it serves his larger political and ethical projects of restructuring (...)
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  32. “There is none righteous”: Kant on the hang zum bösen and the universal evil of humanity.Samuel Duncan - 2011 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (2):137-163.
    This paper offers a new interpretation of the propensity to evil and its relation to Kant's claim that the human race is universally evil. Unlike most of its competitors, the interpretation presented here neither trivializes Kant's claims about the universal evil of humanity nor attributes a position to him that is incompatible with his repeated insistence that we are blameworthy for actions only when we could have acted differently. This interpretation also accounts for a number of otherwise bewildering claims in (...)
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  33. Kant's aesthetic theology: Revelation as symbolisation in the critical philosophy.Alex Englander - 2011 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 53 (3):303-317.
    This essay seeks to ascertain the philosophical status of revelation in Kant's critical philosophy so as to come to a better understanding of the use of Scripture in his religious writings, especially Religion within the Boundaries of Reason Alone . In doing so it remains faithful to Kant's hermeneutic strictures according to which the bible must be expounded according to morality, in the sense of the categorical imperative, and its attendant pure practical postulates. Taking as clues Kant's repeated insistence in (...)
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  34. Review: Anderson-Gold & Muchnik (eds), Kant's Anatomy of Evil. [REVIEW]Paul Formosa - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (2):150-56.
  35. The concept of the highest good in Kierkegaard and Kant.Roe Fremstedal - 2011 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 69 (3):155-171.
    This article tries to make sense of the concept of the highest good (eternal bliss) in Søren Kierkegaard by comparing it to the analysis of the highest good found in Immanuel Kant. The comparison with Kant’s more systematic analysis helps us clarify the meaning and importance of the concept in Kierkegaard as well as to shed new light on the conceptual relation between Kant and Kierkegaard. The article argues that the concept of the highest good is of systematic importance in (...)
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  36. Kant, The Passions, and The Structure of Moral Motivation.John Hare - 2011 - Faith and Philosophy 28 (1):54-70.
    This paper is an account of Kant’s view of the passions, and their place in the structure of moral motivation. The paper lays out the relations Kant sees be­tween feelings, inclinations, affects and passions, by looking at texts in Metaphysics of Morals, Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, Anthropology, and Lectures on Education. Then it discusses a famous passage in Groundwork about sympathetic inclination, and ends by proposing two ways in which Kant thinks feelings and inclinations enter into moral (...)
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  37. Ethics and Religion: Two Kantian Arguments.John E. Hare - 2011 - Philosophical Investigations 34 (2):151-168.
    This paper describes and defends two arguments connecting ethics and religion that Kant makes in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. The first argument is that the moral demand is too high for us in our natural capacities, and God's assistance is required to bridge the resulting moral gap. The second argument is that because humans desire to be happy as well as to be morally good, morality will be rationally unstable without belief in a God who can bring (...)
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  38. Review: Fichte, Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation. [REVIEW]David James - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (2):315-317.
  39. The Contingency of Evil: Rethinking the Problem of Universal Evil in Kant's 'Religion'.Ryan Kemp - 2011 - In Oliver Thorndike (ed.), Rethinking Kant: Volume 3. Cambridge Scholars Press.
    In this paper I explore how three seemingly incompatible Kantian theses–a libertarian notion of freedom, the inscrutability of one’s fundamental moral maxim, and the ubiquity of evil–can each be maintained without contradiction. I do this by arguing against the popular notion that in his 'Religion within the Bounds of Mere Reason,' Kant attributes 'radical evil' to all human beings.
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  40. Chris Firestone, Kant and Theology at the Boundaries of Reason, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2009, Pp. 194 + x, hbk, ISBN: 978-0-7546-6130-6; £65. [REVIEW]Lawrence Pasternack - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (3):495-498.
  41. Review: Pluhar (tr.), Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason. [REVIEW]Anthony N. Perovich - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (1).
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  42. Kant's Political Religion: The Transparency of Perpetual Peace and the Highest Good.Robert S. Taylor - 2010 - Review of Politics 72 (1):1-24.
    Scholars have long debated the relationship between Kant’s doctrine of right and his doctrine of virtue (including his moral religion or ethico-theology), which are the two branches of his moral philosophy. This article will examine the intimate connection in his practical philosophy between perpetual peace and the highest good, between political and ethico-religious communities, and between the types of transparency peculiar to each. It will show how domestic and international right provides a framework for the development of ethical communities, including (...)
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  43. Kant and Theology at the Boundaries of Reason.Chris L. Firestone - 2009 - Ashgate.
    This book examines the transcendental dimension of Kant's philosophy as a positive resource for theology.
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  44. Chris L. Firestone, Nathan Jacobs, In Defense of Kant’s Religion : Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2008, xvi and 280 pp, $24.95. [REVIEW]Robert Gressis - 2009 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 66 (3):167-171.
  45. Kant's Theory of Evil: An Essay on the Dangers of Self-Love and the Aprioricity of History.Pablo Muchnik - 2009 - Lexington Books.
    An Essay on Kant’s Theory of Evil shows the centrality of the doctrine of radical evil within Kant's critical philosophy. Combining textual accuracy with systematic ethical theory, it fills the gaps Kant left open in his own doctrine, and provides a non-mystifying account of human immorality, which shows the pertinence of the Kantian view to our moral concerns.
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  46. Kant’s Religious Argument for the Existence of God.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (1):3-22.
    After reviewing Kant’s well-known criticisms of the traditional proofs of God’s existence and his preferred moral argument, this paper presents a detailedanalysis of a densely-packed theistic argument in Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Humanity’s ultimate moral destiny can be fulfilled only through organized religion, for only by participating in a religious community (or “church”) can we overcome the evil in human nature. Yet we cannot conceive how such a community can even be founded without presupposing God’s existence. Viewing (...)
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  47. ‘Introduction to Immanuel Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason’.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2009 - Indianapolis: Hackett, March.
    This introduction to Kant's ground-breaking book on religion summarizes the conflicts Kant himself experienced with religion, explains how the book is related to Kant's other writings, and comments on the extensive influence the book has had on theology and religion over the past 200 years. By far the longest section is an exhaustive summary of the text itself: with only a few (noted) exceptions, the main point of every paragraph in the entire book is summarized with one (or occasionally two) (...)
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  48. Kant's Quasi‐Transcendental Argument for a Necessary and Universal Evil Propensity in Human Nature.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2008 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (2):261-297.
    In Part One of Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason, Kant repeatedly refers to a “proof” that human nature has a necessary and universal “evil propensity,” but he provides only obscure hints at its location. Interpreters have failed to identify such an argument in Part One. After examining relevant passages, summarizing recent attempts to reconstruct the argument, and explaining why these do not meet Kant's stated needs, I argue that the elusive proof must have a transcendental form (called quasi‐transcendental (...)
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  49. Review of Kant and the New Philosophy of Religion[REVIEW]Peter Byrne - 2007 - Religious Studies 43 (3):364-367.
  50. Kant on the radical evil of human nature.Paul Formosa - 2007 - Philosophical Forum 38 (3):221–245.
    In ‘Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason’ Kant presents his thesis that human nature is ‘radically evil’. To be radically evil is to have a propensity toward moral frailty, impurity and even perversity. Kant claims that all humans are ‘by nature’ radically evil. By presenting counter-examples of moral saints, I argue that not all humans are morally corrupt, even if most are. Even so, the possibility of moral failure is central to what makes us human.
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