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  1. Kant on the Highest Good and Moral Arguments.Alexander T. Englert & Andrew Chignell - forthcoming - In Andrew Stephenson & Anil Gomes (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Kant. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Kant’s accounts of the Highest Good and the moral argument for God and immortality are central features of his philosophy. But both involve lingering puzzles. In this entry, we first explore what the Highest Good is for Kant and the role it plays in a complete account of ethical life. We then focus on whether the Highest Good involves individuals only, or whether it also connects with Kant’s doctrines about the moral progress of the species. In conclusion, we look into (...)
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  2. Examining a Late Development in Kant’s Conception of Our Moral Life: On the Interactions among Perfectionism, Eschatology, and Contentment in Ethics.Jaeha Woo - 2024 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 8 (1):30-51.
    In the first half, I suggest that Kant’s conception of our moral life goes through a significant shift after 1793, with reverberations in his eschatology. The earlier account, based on the postulate of immortality, describes our moral life as an endless pursuit of the highest good, but all this changes in the later account, and I point out three possible reasons for this change of heart. In the second half, I explore how the considerations Kant brings up to argue for (...)
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  3. Demoralization and Hope: A Psychological Reading of Kant’s Moral Argument.Andrew Chignell - 2023 - The Monist 106 (1):46-60.
    Kant’s “primacy of the practical” doctrine says that we can form morally justified commitments regarding what exists, even in the absence of sufficient epistemic grounds. In this paper I critically examine three different varieties of Kant’s “moral proof” that can be found in the critical works. My claim is that the third variety—the “moral-psychological argument” based in the need to sustain moral hope and avoid demoralization—has some intriguing advantages over the other two. It starts with a premise that more clearly (...)
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  4. On the Need for Distinctive Christian Moral Psychologies: How Kant Can Figure into Christian Ethics Today.Jaeha Woo - 2023 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 28 (1):149-179.
    I show how those with Kantian habits of mind—those committed to maintaining certain kinds of universality in ethics—can still get involved in the project of securing the distinctiveness of Christian ethics by highlighting parts of his moral philosophy that are amenable to this project. I first describe the interaction among James Gustafson, Stanley Hauerwas, and Samuel Wells surrounding the issue of the distinctiveness of Christian ethics, to explain why Kant is generally understood as the opponent of this project in this (...)
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  5. Why Kant’s Hope Took a Historical Turn in Practical Philosophy.Jaeha Woo - 2023 - Con-Textos Kantianos 17:43-55.
    In the beginning of his critical period, Kant treated the perfect attainment of the highest good—the unconditioned totality of ends which would uphold the perfect proportionality between moral virtue and happiness—as both the ground of hope for deserved happiness and the final end of our moral life. But I argue that Kant moved in the direction of de-emphasizing the latter aspect of the highest good, not because it is inappropriate or impossible for us to promote this ideal, but because the (...)
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  6. Kant, Wood and Moral Arguments.Andrew Chignell - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (1):61-70.
    In this article I discuss the moral-coherence reading of Kant’s moral argument offered by Allen Wood in his recent book _Kant and Religion_, display some of the challenges that it faces and suggest that a moral-psychological formulation is preferable.
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  7. Faith without hope is dead: moral arguments and the theological virtues.Rory Lawrence Phillips - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (1):96-112.
    It is well-known that Kant defends a conception of God and the final end of our moral striving, called the highest good. In this article, I outline Kant's argument for why we ought to have faith in God and hope for the highest good, and argue that the Kantian argument can be extended in such a way as to show the unity of the theological virtues. This feature of the Kantian account can then have ramifications in further questions regarding the (...)
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  8. Hope and Despair at the Kantian Chicken Factory: Moral Arguments about Making a Difference.Andrew Chignell - 2020 - In John J. Callanan & Lucy Allais (eds.), Kant and Animals. New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press. pp. 213-238.
  9. Kant, the Practical Postulates, and Clifford’s Principle.Samuel Kahn - 2020 - Contemporary Pragmatism 17 (1):21-47.
    In this paper I argue that Kant would have endorsed Clifford’s principle. The paper is divided into four sections. In the first, I review Kant’s argument for the practical postulates. In the second, I discuss a traditional objection to the style of argument Kant employs. In the third, I explain how Kant would respond to this objection and how this renders the practical postulates consistent with Clifford’s principle. In the fourth, I introduce positive grounds for thinking that Kant would have (...)
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  10. Kantian Non-evidentialism and its German Antecedents: Crusius, Meier, and Basedow.Brian A. Chance - 2019 - Kantian Review 3 (24):359-384.
    This article aims to highlight the extent to which Kant’s account of belief draws on the views of his contemporaries. Situating the non-evidentialist features of Crusius’s account of belief within his broader account, I argue that they include antecedents to both Kant’s distinction between pragmatic and moral belief and his conception of a postulate of pure practical reason. While moving us closer to Kant’s arguments for the first postulate, however, both Crusius’s and Meier’s arguments for the immortality of the soul (...)
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  11. Chris L. Firestone, Nathan A. Jacobs and James H. Joiner , Kant and the Question of Theology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017 Pp. x + 260, hbk ISBN 9781107116818, $99.99. [REVIEW]Robert Gressis - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (2):311-316.
  12. Clipping our dogmatic wings: The role of religion’s Parerga in our moral education.Pablo Muchnik - 2019 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (13):1381-1391.
    In a note introduced into the second edition of Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1794), Kant assigns a systematic role to the General Remarks at the end of each Part of his book. He calls those Remarks, “as it were, parerga to religion within the boundaries of pure reason; they do not belong within it yet border on it” (RGV 6:52). As Kant sees them, the parerga are only a “secondary occupation” that consists in removing transcendent obstacles. This (...)
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  13. Kant's Critical Ethico-Theology in the Lectures.Dennis Schulting - 2019 - In Courtney D. Fugate (ed.), Kant's Lectures on Metaphysics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: First, I consider the place of Kant’s argument for moral theism both in the sections on moral theology that were part of his lectures on metaphysics (of those extant, only L1, K2, and Dohna contain small separate sections on moral theology) and in the more extensive separately held lectures on natural theology (Pölitz and Danziger), both of which were based on Part III of Baumgarten’s Metaphysica, in the development of the various incarnations of (...)
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  14. Kant’s post-1800 Disavowal of the Highest Good Argument for the Existence of God.Samuel Kahn - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):63-83.
    I have two main goals in this paper. The first is to argue for the thesis that Kant gave up on his highest good argument for the existence of God around 1800. The second is to revive a dialogue about this thesis that died out in the 1960s. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first, I reconstruct Kant’s highest good argument. In the second, I turn to the post-1800 convolutes of Kant’s Opus postumum to discuss his repeated (...)
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  15. Kant’s Debt to Baumgarten in His Religious (Un‐)Grounding of Ethics.Toshiro Osawa - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):105-123.
    Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s ethics had a significant influence on the formation of Kant’s ethics. The extent of this influence, however, has not been sufficiently investigated by existing Kant scholarship. Filling this gap, this paper aims to reveal Baumgarten’s substantial influence on the formation of Kant’s ethics, particularly the complex ways in which Kant’s ethics retains the concept of God as crucial for ensuring that his ethics persist under the scrutiny of reason. In a systematic comparison of the ethics of the (...)
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  16. Practical grounds for belief: Kant and James on religion.Neil W. Williams & Joe Saunders - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (4):1269-1282.
    Both Kant and James claim to limit the role of knowledge in order to make room for faith. In this paper, we argue that despite some similarities, their attempts to do this come apart. Our main claim is that, although both Kant and James justify our adopting religious beliefs on practical grounds, James believes that we can—and should—subsequently assess such beliefs on the basis of evidence. We offer our own account of this evidence and discuss what this difference means for (...)
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  17. Kant’s Critique of Religion: Epistemic Sources of Secularism.Sorin Baiasu - 2017 - Diametros 54:7-29.
    The secular interpretation of Kant is widespread and Kant is viewed as the most prestigious founding father of liberal secularism. At the same time, however, commentators note that Kant’s position on secularism is in fact much more complex, and some go as far as to talk about an ambiguous secularism in his work. This paper defends a refined version of the secular interpretation. According to this refined version, Kant can offer a limited, political secularism on the basis of a simple (...)
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  18. Dropping the Debt: A New Conundrum in Kant's Rational Religion.Stewart Clem - 2017 - Religious Studies:1-15.
    In this article, I argue that Immanuel Kant fails to provide a satisfactory account of ‘moral debt’ in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. More precisely, he fails to answer the question of why we should assume that a debt exists in the first place. In light of recent scholarship on this area of his thought, I sketch some possible readings of Kant on the nature of moral transformation that suggest how he might account for this debt. I then (...)
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  19. Radical Evil As A Regulative Idea.Markus Kohl - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (4):641-673.
    Kant's doctrine of the radical evil in human nature invites at least two serious worries: first, it is unclear how Kant could establish the claim that all human beings adopt an evil maxim; second, this claim seems to conflict with central features of Kant's doctrine of freedom. I argue, via criticisms of various charitable interpretations, that these problems are indeed insuperable if we read Kant as trying to establish that all human beings are evil as a matter of fact. I (...)
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  20. A Guide to Kant’s Treatment of Grace.Pablo Muchnik & Lawrence Pasternack - 2017 - Con-Textos Kantianos 6:256-271.
    This Guide is designed to restore the theological background that informs Kant’s treatment of grace in Religion to its rightful place. This background is essential not only to understand the nature of Kant’s overall project in this book, namely, to determine the “association” or “union” between Christianity (as a historical faith) and rational religion, but also to dispel the impression of “internal contradictions” and conundrums” that contemporary interpreters associate with Kant’s treatment of grace and moral regeneration. That impression, we argue, (...)
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  21. Kant’s Model for Building the True Church: Transcending “Might Makes Right” and “Should Makes Good” through the Idea of a Non-Coercive Theocracy.Stephen Palmquist - 2017 - Diametros 54:76-94.
    Kant’s Religion postulates the idea of an ethical community as a necessary requirement for humanity to become good. Few interpreters acknowledge Kant’s claims that realizing this idea requires building a “church” characterized by unity, integrity, freedom, and unchangeability, and that this new form of community is a non-coercive version of theocracy. Traditional theocracy replaces the political state of nature with an ethical state of nature ; non-coercive theocracy transcends this distinction, uniting humanity in a common vision of a divine legislator (...)
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  22. The ‘Two Experiments’ of Kant’s Religion: Dismantling the Conundrum.Lawrence Pasternack - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (1):107-131.
    The past decade has seen a sizable increase in scholarship on Kant’s Religion. Yet, unlike the centuries of debate that inform our study of his other major works, scholarship on the Religion is still just in its infancy. As such, it is in a particularly vulnerable state where errors made now could hinder scholarship for decades to come. It is the purpose of this paper to mitigate one such danger, a danger issuing from the widely assumed view that the Religion (...)
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  23. Kant and Crusius on the Role of Immortality in Morality.Paola Rumore - 2017 - In Corey Dyck & Falk Wunderlich (eds.), Kant and His German Contemporaries : Volume 1, Logic, Mind, Epistemology, Science and Ethics. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 213-231.
  24. Preparation for Natural Theology: With Kant’s Notes and the Danzig Rational Theology Transcript.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers, Johann August Eberhard & Immanuel Kant - 2016 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Designed as a textbook for use in courses on natural theology and used by Immanuel Kant as the basis for his Lectures on The Philosophical Doctrine of Religion, Johan August Eberhard's Preparation for Natural Theology (1781) is now available in English for the first time. -/- With a strong focus on the various intellectual debates and historically significant texts in late renaissance and early modern theology, Preparation for Natural Theology influenced the way Kant thought about practical cognition as well as (...)
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  25. Is the Final Chapter of the Metaphysics of Morals also the Final Chapter of the Practical Postulates?Samuel Kahn - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (2):309-332.
    In this paper I trace the arc of Kant’s critical stance on the belief in God, beginning with the Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and culminating in the final chapter of the Metaphysics of Morals (1797). I argue that toward the end of his life, Kant changed his views on two important topics. First, despite his stinging criticism of it in the Critique of Pure Reason, by the time of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant seems to endorse the physico-theological argument. (...)
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  26. The Highest Good and Kant's Proof(s) of God's Existence.Courtney Fugate - 2014 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 31 (2).
    This paper explains a way of understanding Kant's proof of God's existence in the Critique of Practical Reason that has hitherto gone unnoticed and argues that this interpretation possesses several advantages over its rivals. By first looking at examples where Kant indicates the role that faith plays in moral life and then reconstructing the proof of the second Critique with this in view, I argue that, for Kant, we must adopt a certain conception of the highest good, and so also (...)
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  27. Rational Hope, Moral Order, and the Revolution of the Will.Andrew Chignell - 2013 - In Eric Watkins (ed.), The Divine Order, the Human Order, and the Order of Nature: Historical Perspectives. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 197-218.
    This paper considers Kant's views on how it can be rational to hope for God's assistance in becoming morally good. If I am fully responsible for making myself good and can make myself good, then my moral condition depends entirely on me. However, if my moral condition depends entirely on me, then it cannot depend on God, and it is therefore impossible for God to provide me with any assistance. But if it is impossible for God to provide me with (...)
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  28. Kant’s Two Touchstones for Conviction.Joseph S. Trullinger - 2013 - Review of Metaphysics 67 (2):369-403.
    This paper uncovers a much-neglected ambiguity in Kant’s conception of rational religion, namely, a confusion regarding the public communicability of moral faith, which would in turn render faith and knowledge indistinguishable. The few scholars who have noticed this ambiguity pursue its epistemic dimensions, but this paper explores its ramifications for Kant’s claim that coherent moral agency requires religious faith, taking issue with Lawrence Pasternack’s recent interpretation. Once one notices Kant has two methods for distinguishing conviction from persuasion, one is better (...)
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  29. Shlomo Pines on Maimonides, Spinoza, and Kant.Warren Zev Harvey - 2012 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 20 (2):173-182.
    In his “Spinoza’s TTP , Maimonides, and Kant” (1968), Pines compared Spinoza’s dogmas of universal faith ( TTP , 14) with Kant’s postulates of practical reason ( Critique of Practical Reason , part 1). According to him, Spinoza’s dogmas, like Maimonides’ “necessary beliefs” ( Guide 3:28), are postulates necessary for political welfare, and do not fall under the jurisdiction of theoretical reason. They define the faith of the common person, not that of the philosopher. Kant, in his remarks about Spinoza (...)
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  30. Kant on the Debt of Sin.Lawrence Pasternack - 2012 - Faith and Philosophy 29 (1):30-52.
    Kant follows Christian tradition by asserting that humanity is sinful by nature, that our sinful nature burdens us with an infinite debt to God, and that it is possible for us to undergo a moral transformation that iberates us from sin and from its debt. Most of the secondary literature has focused on either Kant’s account of sin or our liberation from it. Far less attention has been paid to the debt in particular. The purpose of this paper is to (...)
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  31. Kant über das Defizit der Physikotheologie und die Notwendigkeit der Idee einer Ethikotheologie.Bernd Dörflinger - 2010 - In Norbert Fischer & Maximilian Forschner (eds.), Die Gottesfrage in der Philosophie Immanuel Kants. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder.
  32. Kant and Karma.Bradford Cokelet - 2006 - Journal of Buddhist Ethics 12.
    Adding to growing debate about the role of rebirth in Buddhist ethics, Dale S. Wright has recently advocated distinguishing and distancing the concept of karma from that of rebirth. In this paper, I evaluate Wright’s arguments in the light of Immanuel Kant’s views about supernatural beliefs. Although Kant is a paradigmatic Enlightenment critic of metaphysical speculation and traditional dogmas, he also offers thought-provoking practical arguments in favor of adopting supernatural (theistic) beliefs. In the light of Kant’s views, I argue we (...)
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  33. German essays on religion.Raymond Aaron Younis - 1998 - Journal of Religion 78 (1):141-143.
  34. Innate Corruption and the Space of Finite Freedom.Gene Fendt - 1994 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 68 (2):179-201.
    This paper explicates the relationship of innate corruption and natural goodness in Kant's Religion against a background of mistaken arguments and interpretations by Goethe, Allison, and Gordon Michalson, among others. It also argues that the only argument that can be given for the claim of innate moral corruption is a kind of ad hominem; it shows that Kant is giving such an argument, and argues that that argument is valid in its place. It concludes by saying that if this explication (...)
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  35. Kant’s Moral Argument.James L. Muyskens - 1974 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 12 (4):425-434.
    In this essay, Kant's so-called argument for god's existence is analyzed and interpreted in light of the claim that the problem of god's existence correctly falls under the question "what may I hope?" ("critique of pure reason", A805=b833 ff.). It is maintained that Kant has established that the rational thing for the moral person to do is to hope for god's existence.
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